Jateshwara

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

Jateshwara (जटेश्वर) (also Jateshvara, Jateswara, Jatesvara) has been mentioned in various records. Literally it means the Jat God. Historically Jateśvara alias Madhukāmārnava, was the son and successor of Anantavarman- Chôdaganga, who ruled over the kingdom of Kalinga.

Jateshwara Mahadeva temples

There is diety named Jateshwara in the cave temple of Kalpeshwar. Kalpeshwar is the place where Shiva's jata appeared. At this small stone temple, approached through a cave passage, the matted tress (jata) of Lord Shiva is worshipped. Hence, Lord Shiva is also called as Jatadhar or Jateshwar. The Kalpeshwar temple is located in the Urgam valley of the Himalayan mountain range near Urgam village (2 km) short of the temple). On the bridle path from Helang to Kalpeshwar, the enchanting confluence of the Alaknanda and Kalpganga rivers is seen. Kalp Ganga river flows through the Urgam valley. The Urgam valley is a dense forest area. The valley has apple orchards and terraced fields where potato is grown extensively.[1]

There is a temple of Jateshwara Mahadeva (जटेश्वर महादेव) in Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh.

Tej Ram Sharma [2] writes that the Nepala valley originally contained a lake called Naga Basa or Kalihrada, in which lived Naga Karkotaka. It was fourteen miles in length and four miles in breadth [3]

The former name of Nepala was Slesmatakavana. [4] The famous temple of Pasupatinatha on the western bank of the Bagmati river, is situated about three miles north west of Kathmandu in the town of Devipatan said to have been founded by Asoka's daughter Carumati. [5] The Saktisangama Tantra describes the country of Nepala as placed between Jaṭesvara and Yogini. [6] Sircar equates Yoginipura with Delhi and Jatesvara with Jalpesvara, the famous Siva of the Jalpaiguri district in North Bengal. [7]

Jateshwara: The Nagavanshi Jat King

Bilaigarh Plates of Prithvideva II : Kalachuri year 896 (1144 AD)

Reference - Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 551-554

This inscription is of Prithvideva II from Kalachuris of Ratanpur mentions about a Naga Ruler named Jateshwara in Chakrakota.

It gives the interesting information that Prithvïdëva II filled the contemporary Ganga king with anxiety when he devastated Chakrakota, as the Ganga king realised that the only way to save his life was to cross the ocean. Chakrakota bas been identified with the central portion of the former Bastar State. The name probably survives in the present Chitrakuta, about 30 miles north by west of Jagdalpur, the capital of the former Bastar State.[8] The Ganga adversary of Prithvïdëva II is not named, but as the devastation of Chakrakôta had taken place some time before 1144-45 AC, when the present grant was made, it must have occurred during the reign of Anantavarman-Chôdaganga. This mighty Ganga Emperor had invaded the Kalachuri kingdom towards the close of the reign of Ratnadëva II, but he suffered an ignominious defeat. Soon after his accession Prithvidëva II seems to have attacked and devastated Chakrakôta. The Rajim stone inscription, dated in the same year as the present grant, viz , K 896, states that Jagapāla conquered Kākayara, modem Kānker, which borders the former Bastar State on the north, during the reign of Prithvïdëva II. The Kalachuri kings were often at war with the Naga rulers of Chakrakôta. Prithvïdëva II's grandfather Jâjalladëva I had taken the Nâga king Sômêsvara prisoner and released him only at the intercession of his mother. The history of the Nâga kingdom of Chakrakôta is still enveloped in obscurity. Sômësvara was succeeded by Kanharadëva who was reigning 1111 AC. His successor, whose name is still unknown, must have been the adversary of Prithvïdëva II.

Prithvïdëva II's devastation of Chakrakôta is said to have struck terror in the heart of Anantavarman-Chôdaganga, who ruled over the neighbouring kingdom of Kalinga. The Kalachuri king does not seem to have attacked the Ganga kingdom on this occasion. Jagapâla's inscnption also does not mention any victory over the Ganga king though it mentions the conquest of Bhramaravadradësa which was probably identical with the Bhramarakôtyamandala in the Nâga kingdom. Prithvïdëva invaded the Ganga territory later on during the reign of Jateśvara alias Madhukāmārnava, the son and successor of Anantavarman.


Wiki editor notes -

  • Chakrakota bas been identified with the central portion of the former Bastar State. The name probably survives in the present Chitrakot, about 30 miles north by west of Jagdalpur, the capital of the former Bastar State.
  • Kākayara - The Rajim stone inscription, dated in K 896, states that Jagapāla conquered Kākayara, modem Kānker. Kak is a Jat Gotra.
  • Somesvara - Somesvara has been mentioned in Narayanpal Stone inscription of Queen Gunda-mahadevi, the mother of Somesvaradeva (Nagavanshi) 1111 AD.

Ratanpur stone inscription of of Prithvideva II : Kalachuri year 915 (1163 AD)

Reference - Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 501

This inscription was brought to notice as early as 1825 by Sir Richard Jenkins who published a short account of it in the Asatic Researches, Vol XV, pp 504-5.

The inscription is one of Brahmadêva, a feudatory prince of Prithvïdëva II, of the Kalachuri Dynasty of Ratanpur. The object of it is to record the religious and charitable works of Brahmadêva at several places. It is dated in the year 915 (expressed in decimal figures only) of an unspecified era. This date must, of course, be referred to the Kalachuri era. The year, if expired, would correspond to 1163-64 A.C. This is the last known date^ for Prithvïdëva, for the next certain Kalachuri date 919 belongs to the reign of his successor Jâjalladëva II.


The inscription opens with the customary obeisance to Siva, which is followed by three verses invoking the blessings of the deity. The next verse describes Sesha, the lord of serpents Verses 5-8 eulogise the Talahari-mandala which is called an ornament of the earth.

The only point of historical interest mentioned in the extant portion is that he obtained a victory over Jatesvara who is evidently identical with the homonyms son of Anantavarman Chôdaganga. We are next told that Prithvïdêva, the lord of Kôsala, called him from the Talahâri-mandala, and entrusting the government of his country to him, obtained peace of mind. This Prithvïdëva is evidently the second prince of that name in the Kalachuri dynasty of Ratanpur. The next eighteen verses (22-39) describe the benefactions of Brahmadëva. He constructed a temple of Dhûrjati (Siva) at Mallâla and excavated a tank, evidently at the same place. The religions merit of the former he assigned to his lord, Prithvïdëva. Besides these, he built ten shrines of Tryambaka (Siva) and dug two lotus-ponds at some place, the name of which is lost. At Varëlâpura he constructed a grand temple of Srîkantha and at Ratnapur he built nine shrines of Parvati. At the latter place he excavated also a large step-well and two tanks, one on the north and the other on the south of the City. Several other religious and charitable works of Brahmadëva are next mentioned, viz, a tank at the village Gôṭhâlî, a temple of Dhûrjati at Nârâyanapura, tanks at Bamhanï, Charauya and Tëjallapura, a temple of Siva at Kumatâkôta and a mango-grove as well as a charitable feeding house evidently at the same place. Verse 39 records that he donated the village Lôṇâkara to the god Sômanâtha who is probably identical with the deity installed in the temple at Kumarâkôta.

The next two verses (40-41) are devoted to the description of Anantapâla of the Gauda limeage, who was a keeper of records, and his son Tribhuvanapâla who composed the present prasasti. Then are mentioned the scribe Kumârapâla and the engravers Dhanapati and Isvara (V 43-44).

As for the localities mentioned in the present inscription, Mallâla is evidently modern Mallâr, 16 miles south-east of Bilaspur. Varëlâpura or Barëlapura is Barëlâ, 10 miles south of Ratanpur. Nârâyanapura and Bamhanï still retain their names, the former is situated on the Mahànadï in the Raipur District, while the latter is 4 miles north by east of Akaltarâ. Rai Bahadur Hiralal identified Kumarâkôta with Kotgadh, but from some other records the old name of the latter appears to have been Vikarnapura. Gôṭhâlî, Chatauya and Tëjallapura cannot now be traced, but the last of these may have been situated not very far from Shëormârâyan, for it seems to hâve been founded by Tëjalladëva, a Kalachuri prince of a collateral branch, who is mentioned in an inscription at Shëormârâyan.* Finally, Talahâri mandala is probably identical with the ancient Taraḍamsaka bhukti mentioned in the Mallâr plates of Mahâ-Siva-gupta. It is highly glorified in the present inscription probably because Mallâr and other places, where Brahmadëva constructed his religious and charitable works, were included in it. It seems thus to have comprised the southern portions of the Bilaspur and Janjgir tahsils and the northern portion of the Raipur District.


Wiki editor notes -

  • Mallāla - Mallāla is modern Malhar, 16 miles south-east of Bilaspur district, in Masturi tahsil.
  • Gôṭhâlî - ?
  • Chatauya - ?
  • Tejallapura - ?
  • Talahâri - Talahari mandala is probably identical with the ancient Taraḍamsaka bhukti mentioned in the Mallâr plates of Mahâ-Siva-gupta. Tarad is a Jat Clan.

Mallar stone inscription of Jajalladeva II (Kalachuri) year 919 (1167 AD)

Reference - Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 512

This inscription is on a black stone which is said to have been found at Mallār a village 16 miles south-west of Bilaspur in the tahsîl and district of Bilaspur (now in Masturi tahsil as Malhar) in Chhattisgarh.

The inscription refers itself to the reign of Jâjalladëva II of the Kalachuri Dynasty of Ratanpur. The object of it is to record the construction, at Mallâr, of a temple of Siva under the name of Kêdârabya Brâhmana named Sômarâja. It is dated in the year 919 (expressed in decimal figures only) of an unspecified era. The date must, of course be referred to the Kalachuri era. The year, expired would correspond to 1167-68 A.C.

After two mangal-slôkas invoking the blessings of Siva and Ganapati, the inscription describes Ratnadëva as a fierce cloud which extinguished the continuously raging flames of the spreading mighty fire of the valour of the king Chôdaganga.' This plainly refers to the victory of Ratnadëva II over Anantavarman - Chôdaganga, the mighty king of Kalinga. We are next told that Ratnadëva (II) had a son named Prithvïdêva (II), whose son Jâjalladëva (II) was ruling when the present record was put up

The inscription next gives the genealogy of Sômarâja. At the village Kumbhaṭî in Madhya-desa (Middle Country) watered by the celestial river (Gangâ), there lived a Brâhmana named Prïthvïdhara of Krishnâtrëya gotra with pravaras Atrëya, Ārchanânasa and Syavasva. His son Gangâdhara came, in course of time, to the country of Tummâna where he was honoured by Ratnadêva II with the gift of the village Kôsambï Gangâdhara's son, Sômarâja was proficient in both the Mîmâmsâs, the Nyâya and Varsësesika systems, and refuted the doctrines of the Charvakas, Bauddhas and Jainas. He constructed a temple of the god Këdara at Mallâla, at which the present inscription was evidently put up. The record was composed by Ratnasimha, the son of name, who belonged to the Vâstavya family and owed his rise to the llustnous Râghava. The latter is evidently identical with the homonymous astrologer who is mentioned as one of the donees in the Amôda plates of Jâjalladëva II. Both Mame and Ratnasimha are mentioned in the Ratanpur stone inscription of the reign of Prithvïdëva II, dated V 1207, which was composed by Ratnasimha's son Dëvagana. The present record was written on the stone by the Kshatriya Kumârapâla of the race of Sahasrâijuna, who, as already stated, is named as the scribe in several other records. It was incised by the sculptor Sâmpuia.

Of the geographical names mentioned here, Madhya-dësa roughly corresponds to the present Uttar Pradesh. Kumbhatî can not be identified. Tunamâna has already been shown to be identical with Tumân, 16 miles north-east of Ratanpur. Mallâla is clearly Mallâr (Malhar) in Masturi tahsil of Bilaspur district, where the stone is said to have been found. There is no Village in the Bilaspur District exactly correspond mg to Kôsamvî or Kôsambï, but if Kôsamvi of the text is a mistake for Kosandhï, the village would be represented by Kôsamdih, 8 miles from Mallâr.


Wiki editor note -

  • Tumân - The ruins of capital of Kalacuris Tuman can be still seen in north-west of Laafaagadh Jamindari (Kota tahsil) in present Bilaspur district. [9] Lufa or Lapha town in in north of Pali town.

Kharod stone Inscription of Ratnadeva II : Chedi year 933 (1181 AD)

Reference - Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905, p. 533


The stone which bears this inscription is built into the wall on the left-hand side of the mandapa of the temple of Lakhanêśvara (Lakshmanësvara) at Kharôd, about 2 miles to the north of Shëorinàrâyan in the Janjgir tahsil of the Bilaspur District in Chhattisgarh.

The inscription refers itself to the reign of Ratnadëva III of the Kalachuri Dynasty of Ratanpur. The object of it is to record the benefactions of his minister Gangâdhara at Kharôd and other places. It is dated in the Chedi year 933, without any specification of the month, fortnight and tithi. It does not, therefore, admit of verification, but the year, if expired, would correspond to 1181-82 A C.

The record falls into two parts, the first comprising the first nineteen verses, and the second the remaining twenty-five. After the customary obeisance to Siva and two invocatory stanzas in praise of the same deity, we get a description of the moon, the mythical ancestor of the Kalachuris. The genealogy of the ruling king Ratnadëva III is then traced from Kôkalla. Down to Jâjalladëva II, it is the same as that noticed in his Amôdâ plates, but there are some minor differences and references to historical events which deserve special notice. Kalingarâja is here mentioned as a younger son of Kôkalla and not as a descendant, evidently remote, of that son as steted in all other records. We are again told that he became the lord of Tummâna by propitiating Vankëśvara. Jâjalladëva I is here said to have defeated Bhujabala, the lord of Suvarnapura. This achievement of Jâjalladëva is also conveyed by double entendre in verse 8 of the Shëorinârâyan plates of Ratnadëva II. Ratnadëva II's defeat of Chôdaganga, the lord of elephants and the ruler of the Kalinga country, is here recorded with the further detail that the conqueror captured his horses, elephants and treasure Prithvîdëva II's victory over Jatesvara, the son of Chôdaganga, is next mentioned in verse 18. Unfortunately this verse is partially effaced, but my reading of the preserved portion shows that Prithvîdëva II not only defeated Jateshvara, but even made him captive. This decisive victory of Prithvîdëva II is referred to in the Ratanpur inscription of K. 915 also, but there the details are lost owing to the flaking away of the surface of the stone.

The present inscription carries the royal genealogy two reigns further than the preceding Amôdâ plates of Jâjalladëva II. We learn from verse 12 that after the death of Jàjalladëva II, the kingdom was plunged into anarchy. Then his elder brother Jagaddëva hastened from the eastern country and became king. This description shows that Jâjalladëva II died suddenly while his brother was fighting in the east. The latter was, therefore, forced to return to his country to quell the disturbances consequent on the ruler's death. It seems plausible, as conjectured by Dr Chakravarti, that Jâjalladëva II who was a younger son of Prithvîdëva II, was carrying on the government in the absence of his elder brother who was for a long time engaged in fighting the Eastern Gangas. He does not seem to be a usurper , otherwise he would not have received the praise in verse 11 of the present record which belongs to his nephew's reign Ratnadëva III was the son of this Jagaddëva by his wife Sômalladëvî. That Ratnapura continued to be the royal capital is clear from verse 19.

The second part of the present inscription, which begins in verse 20, gives at the outset the pedigree of Gangâdhara, the chief minister of Ratandëva III. His grandfather was Dëvadhara, a Bràhmana of the Kasyapa gotra. The latter's son was Râjadëva who married Jïvâ. Their son was Gangâdhara. Verse 25 tells us that when the kingdom of Ratnadëva (III) was reduced to great straits, the treasury being empty, the elephant-force weakened and the country in the grip of a famine, it was Gangâdhara who by his policy restored the peace and prosperity of the country. Being pleased with his learning, character and diplomacy, Ratnadëva made him his chief minister, and overcoming all his foes by his policy, ruled his kingdom peacefully. We are next told that Gangâdhara had two wives Râlhâ and Padmâ, of whom the former gave birth to two sons Sùprada and Jijâka and the latter to Khadgasimha.

Verse 30 begins an enumeration of Gangâdhara's benefactions He reconstructed the mandapa of the temple of Siva, to which the stone bearing the present inscription is affixed. To the south of the temple he erected a matha with well-seasoned wood for the residence of ascetics. He also built, evidently at Kharôd, a spacious and beautiful mandapa of Sauri (Vishnu). At Ratnapura he erected the mandapa of Êkavïrâ, which resembled a Pushpaka, on the top of a hill in the west. He built another mandapa in honour of Purârâti (i. e, of Siva) and temples of Hara and Hëramba at Vaḍada in the forest-tract. He constructed a temple of Durgâ at Durga, another of the sun at the town Pahapaka and a lofty shrine of Sambhu at Pôratha. To the north of Ratnapura he built a mandapa for Tûntâ-Ganapati, and had tanks and lotus -ponds excavated at the villages Tipuruga, Giraliuli, Uluvâ and Sêṇâdu. Besides these, he established a charitable feeding house and raised a flower-garden at Nârâyanapura.

The prasasti was composed and written on the stone by Kumârapâla of the Haihaya lineage, who was proficient in poetry, metrics, literature and diplomacy, and bad a younger brother named Jalhana. It was engraved by Jâtû. The Srështhin Ralhaṇa, who was the officer in charge of teligious endowments, supervised the work.

Of the place-names occurring here, Tummâna and Ratnapura have already been identified Suvarnapura is modern Sonpur, formerly the capital of a feudatory state of the same name in the State of Orissa. Most of the remaining places can be identified in the vicinity of Kharôd. Vāna-Vaḍada or Vadada of the forest may be Baludâ in the Janjgir tahsil, 30 mile north by west of Kharôd. Durga may be identical with the chief town of the Drug District in Chhattisgarh. The town Pahapaka is likely to be Putpura, 16 miles to the north and Pôratha, Pertha 30 miles to the north-east of Kharôd, both in the Janjgir tahsil. Identify Tipuruga with Tiprung, 10 miles south of Kharôd, in the former Katgi Zammdarï, and Sënâdu with Sônada, 15 miles to the east of Kharôd in the Janjgir tahstl. Nârâyanapura, which lies 20 miles to the south-west of Kharôd, in the Baloda Bazar tahsil of the Raipur District, has a mediaeval temple of Vishnu. Girahulî may be identical with Girôlpâlî in the Janjgir tahsil and Uluvâ with Ulbâ in the Raipur District.


Wiki editor notes

References

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalpeshwar
  2. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions, p. 260
  3. Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval India by N. L. Dey, p. 140
  4. Historical Geography of Ancient India by B. C. Law, p. 113
  5. Historical Geography of Ancient India by B. C. Law, pp. 113-14
  6. Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India by D. C. Sircar, p. 77
  7. Book III, ch. VII. v. 36 : "जटेश्वरं समारभ्य योगिन्यन्तं महेश्वरि। नेपाल देशो देवेशि...।"
  8. Ep Ind , Vol IX, pp 178 f
  9. Dr Vinita Naik:Agharia Kshatriya, p. 68

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