Jethoo

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Jethoo (जेठू)[1] Jethu (जेठू) Jethwa (जेठवा) Jethva (जेठवा) Jethava (जेठव) is gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan. Jetwa clan found in Afghanistan.[2] Jethwas of Saurashtra are Rajputs. James Tod places it in the list of Thirty Six Royal Races.[3]

History

Bisudi claim descent from the brothers Satuk Kamar and Satuk Sokpa. Of these names, Satuk is a Turki title of respect, equivalent to our " Mister", and corresponds with the Persian Khwajah, which means "gentleman," " merchant," etc. Kamar is the name of a Skythian tribe, which is not uncommon in Afghanistan, and appears to have been early incorporated with the Rajput of Saurashtra, where it was afterwards changed to Jetwa, according to Tod. [4]


In Gujarat History: In remote times the capital of Jethwa people was Ghumli, whose ruins attest considerable power, and afford singular scope for analogy, in architectural device, with the style termed Saxon of Europe. Ghumli is in the Barda Hills, about 40 miles east of Porbandar [5].[6]

Ghumli was the capital of Saindhava dynasty which ruled western Saurashtra from middle of eighth century to middle of tenth century.[7]

It was later the capital of Jethwa dynasty of Gujarat.[8]

Ghumli was declared as second Capital by Jethwa dynasty, in 1220 by Rana Shiyaji, who took the title of Rana Of Ghumli and shifted capital from Shrinagar[9]

Ghumli remained their Capital till 1313, when Rana Bhanji Jethwa, was defeated at a war, he fled Ghumli & shifted to Ranpur. It is said that Ghumli was destroyed due to curse of a Sati named Son with whom Rana Bhanji Jethwa fell in love.[10]

Jadeja Jam Unaji came from Sindh and attacked Ghumli in 1309 but was defeated later in 1313 his son Barmaniyaji Jadeja attacked and defeated Rana Bhanji Jethwa. On the same night Goddess Ambaji came in his dream and told him that, as she has granted the wish ("Asha") of his father to conquer Ghumli, he should make a temple in her name. So Bamaniyaji built the Temple of Ambaji on the hill in the middle of Ghumli and named it as Ashapura Mata Temple. He completely destroyed Ghumli and turned it into ruins.[11][12]

In Chauhan history

We find mention of this clan in Chauhan history along with the clans who offered the gallant opposition to Allaudin when his forces destroyed the temple of Somanatha.

Dasharatha Sharma in "Early Chauhan Dynasties" [180-191] writes about Jalor Chauhan ruler - Samantasimha and Kanhadadeva.


Samantasimha - [Page-180] The inscriptions of Samantasimha range from V. 1339 to 1362 and show Samantasimha ruling over almost the same territories as his father,Chachigadeva. Of Samantasimha's 16 inscriptions, four come from Bhinmal, three from the state of Sirohi, and the rest from various parts of the Jodhpur division of Rajasthan. About V. 1353, he associated his son, Kanhadadeva , with himself in the government of Jalor; The Jalor inscription of Samantasimha, V. 1353, refers itself to the reign of Maharajakula Sri-Samvatasimha, while Kanhadadeva was subsisting on his lotus like feet and bearing the burden of administration (EI, XI, pp. 61f.). Similarly the Chohtan inscription V. 1356, speaks of Maharajakula Sri-Samvatasimhadeva and Rajan Kanhadadeva.

In V. 1353 (1296 AD) the ruler on the throne of Delhi was Firuz's nephew and assassinator, Ala-ud-din Khalji, perhaps the greatest of Sultans of Delhi, whose avowed ambition was to end all Hindu principalities and kingdoms, and who had been advised by his trusted counselors to treat the Hindus as no better than slaves. Samantasimha of Jalor does not appear to


[Page-181] have been a man gifted or capable enough to fight against such a redoubtable adversary. It was good that he realised the need of some assistance, and acting probably on the advice of his people put the real direction of the affairs of the state into the hands of Kanhadadeva, then perhaps a young man of twenty five years or so.

Kanhadadeva - Kanhadadeva had not to wait long for a chance to prove his mettle. In the third year of his joint reign, i.e., 1298 A.D., Alauddin decided to conquer Gujarat and destroy the temple of Somanatha. As the best route for his army lay through Marwar, he despatched a robe of honour to Kanhadadeva and desired that he should permit the Khalji forces to pass through his territory. Worldly wisdom should have dictated instant submission to the imperial orders. But to the brave Kanhadadeva svadharma mattered more than worldly pleasures, or a kingdom or even his life. He therefore sent back Alauddin's messenger with the blunt answer,

"Your army would, on its way, sack villages, take prisoners, molest women, oppress Brahmanas and slay cows. This being against our dharma, we cannot accede to your request."

Though the refusal must naturally have angered Alauddin,he took no immediate steps against Jalor. The Khalji army, commanded by Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan, marched instead through Mewar. Like a storm of extreme fury, it laid low every state, every chiefship, every principality that lay across its path, conquered very soon the whole of Gujarat and Kathiawar, and destroyed the temple of Somanatha, in spite of the gallant opposition offered by the Jethava (जेठव), Vala (वला), Baja (बाजा) and Chudasama (चुडासामा). And then on its way back to Delhi, Ulugh Khan, either on his own initiative or acting on


[Page-182] instructions beforehand by Alauddin, decided to punish Kanhadadeva for the affront to Khalji authority. Victorious every where he marched through the Jalor. When the Khalji army reached Sakrana (tah-Ahore), a village 18 miles from Jalor, Kanhadadeva’s chief minister, Jaita Devada, conveyed his master’s message to Ulugh.


[Page-183] In a well planned raid led by Jaita Devada, Nusrat Khan’s brother, Malik Aizudin and a nephew of Alaudin were slain. Ulugh Khan barely escaped his life. They liberated thousands of Hindu prisnors and the rescue of an idol of Somanatha which was being carried to Delhi.


[Page-184] Kanhadadeva had its five fragments installed respectively at Prabhasa, Bagada, Abu, Jalor and his own garden. This rescue of Somanatha forms in the popular mind Kanhadadeva's best and greatest title to greatness.

Porbandar was formerly the seat of the eponymous princely state in British India. The ruling family of the state belonged to the Jethwa clan and had been established in the area since at least the mid 16th century.

Jethwas of Saurashtra

Jethwas of Saurashtra are classed as Rajput and claim descent from Makardhwaja, son of Hanuman. As per folk tales of their clan, Makardhwaja had a son named Mod-dhwaja and he had a son named Jethi-dhwaja. Jethwas claim descant and name from Jethi-dhwaja and worship Hanuman as their Iṣṭa-devatā. It is said that Muslim governors of Sindh in 8th century repeatedly sent naval armed ships to conquer the western and southern coast of Gujarat, which were again and again repulsed by the "Saindhavas" who called themselves "masters of the Western sea" (apara-samudr-ddhipati) . It has been suggested that the Saindhava ruling family is now represented by the Jethwa Rajputs.[13][14]

Captain Wilberforce Bell opines that their ancestors were probably Scythians from the north. However, Gaurishankar Ojha opines Jethwas were probably a branch of Pratihars of Kannauj.[15]

Again one opinion says that Jethwas are of Agnikula origin and belong to Odak[16] branch of Kshatriyas.[17]

Again one story goes that one of the prince from Kashmir after having lost his kingdom came to Gujarat near Porbandar and here with the blessings of Harsidhhi Mata, whose temple is located around 35 km from Porbandar at Miani, established his kingdom in Saurashtra. His descendents later came to be known as Jethwa, the erstwhile rulers of State of Porbandar.[18]

One source says that the family took the name from one Jethaji[19] but that is highly unlikely because the title Jethwa is of ancient origin and usually a Kshatriya or Rajput family or clan changes its name only to be named after an illustrious fore-father or after a major migration or event or a victory in a war.[20] It is more likely that the Jethwa name is taken from name of Jethi-dhwaja, the son of Mod-dhwaja, the grandson of Makardhwaja and the great-grandson of Hanuman, the hero of Ramayana, to whom they claim their descant.[21]

James Tod on Jethwas

James Tod is a pioneer historian on Jats who thoroughly scrutinized the bardic records of Rajasthan and Gujarat and also brought to light over a dozen inscriptions on the Jats. We reproduce the Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races from Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Publisher: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press 1920, p. 136-137:


Jethwa, Jaithwa, Kamari.

[p.136]: This is an ancient tribe, and by all authorities styled Rajput ; though, like the Jhala, little known out of Saurashtra, to one of the divisions of which it has given its name, Jethwar. Its present possessions are on the western coast of the peninsula : the residence of its prince, who is styled Rana, is Porbandar.

In remote times their capital was Ghumli, whose ruins attest considerable power, and afford singular scope for analogy, in architectural device, with the style termed Saxon of Europe. Ghumli in the Barda Hills, about 40 miles east of Porbandar [22]. The bards of the Jethwas run through a long list of one hundred and thirty crowned heads, and in the eighth century have chronicled the marriage of their prince with the Tuar refounder of Delhi. At this period the Jethwa bore the name of Kamar ; and Sahi Kamar is reported to be the prince who was driven from Ghumli, in the twelfth century, by invaders from the north. With this change the name of Kamar was sunk, and that of Jethwa assumed,


[p. 137]: which has induced the author to style them Kamari ;1 and as they, with the other inhabitants of this peninsula, have all the appearance of Scythic descent, urging no pretensions to connexion with the ancient races of India, they may be a branch of that celebrated race, the Cimmerii of higher Asia, and the Cimbri of Europe.

Their legends are as fabulous as fanciful. They trace their descent from the monkey-god Hanuman, and confirm it by alleging the elongation of the spine of their princes, who bear the epithet of Puncharia, or the 'long-tailed,' Ranas of Saurashtra. But the manners and traditions of this race will appear more fully in the narrative of the author's travels amongst them.

Villages founded by Jethoo clan

Distribution in Rajasthan

Villages in Sikar district

Sihot Chhoti, Jethoo Ka Bas, Pardoli Badi, Jethwan Ka Bas (100), Dantru,

Villages in Nagaur district

Bhadana, Dhankoli, Jhoojhanda,

Notable persons from this gotra

  • Shrawan Ram Choudhary (Jethoo) - Asstt. Commandant CRPF,VPO- Dhankoli, Distt. - Nagaur, Present Address : M-184,Sect.6, Kendriya Vihar, Vidyadhar Nagar, Jaipur. Resident Phone Number : 0141-2232856 .
  • Ajay Singh Jethoo - Date of Birth :1964, Lecturer MNIT Jaiur, VILL.- Bhadana, DISTT.-NAGOUR, Present Address : D-51, STAFF COLONY, MNIT, JAIPUR, Resident Phone Number : 9414293956, Mobile Number : 9414548036, Email Address : jethoo@rediffmail.com

External links

Reference

  1. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.301
  2. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.47
  3. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races, pp.136-137
  4. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.47
  5. Wilberiorce-Bell, Hist, of Kathiawad, 49 f. ; BG, viii. 440
  6. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,pp.136
  7. Vyas, Surendra (31 December 2001). "10. Bhutaamblika". A study of ancient towns of Gujarat (PhD). Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. pp. 123–134. hdl:10603/72127.
  8. Harold Wilberforce-Bell (1916) The history of Kathiawad from the earliest times, Ajay Book Service. On Scythian coins the word "Kumar " frequently appears, and from bardic legends we find that after the founding of Ghumli in the seventh century by Shil Kumar Jethwa, the rulers of Ghumli were recognized as being Kumarants
  9. Jethwa dynasty. royalark.net
  10. Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Volume 8, 1884
  11. Ancient Temple Trail. jamnagar.org
  12. Mataji Pilgrimages. jaidurga.webs.com
  13. Shree Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj : A brief history & glory of our Fore-fathers: Section: History of Rajput Surnames, their origin and myths : sub-section : History of Jethwas : by Raja Pawan Jethwa (2007). pp 81–82.
  14. Ancient India by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar 1964
  15. The Rajputs of Saurashtra By Virbhadra Singhji
  16. The community of warriors and rulers
  17. MUDIRAJ RELATED KINGDOMS
  18. Shree Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj : A brief history & glory of our Fore-fathers: Section: History of Rajput Surnames, their origin and myths : sub-section : History of Jethwas : by Raja Pawan Jethwa (2007). pp 81–82.
  19. Porbandar Genealogy
  20. Shree Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj : A brief history & glory of our Fore-fathers: Section: History of Rajput Surnames, their origin and myths : sub-section : History of Jethwas : by Raja Pawan Jethwa (2007). pp 81–82.
  21. Shree Kutch Gurjar Kshatriya Samaj : A brief history & glory of our Fore-fathers: Section: History of Rajput Surnames, their origin and myths : sub-section : History of Jethwas : by Raja Pawan Jethwa (2007). pp 81–82.
  22. Wilberiorce-Bell, Hist, of Kathiawad, 49 f. ; BG, viii. 440

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