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Shalya (शल्य) was king of Madras called Madraraja, whose modern descendants are the Maderna Jats. Shalya was king of Bahik Jats of Punjab, who used to take one sixth of the income as tax. [1] He was the brother of Madri. Pandu got married to Madri and had from Madri two sons: Nakula and Sahadeva. Sakala was the city of the Madras (II.29.13).


Jat Gotras


In the epic Mahabharata, King Shalya was the brother of Madri (mother of Nakula and Sahadeva), as well as the ruler of the Madra kingdom. Shalya, a powerful Spear fighter and a formidable charioteer, was tricked by Duryodhana to fight the war on the side of the Kauravas.

Becoming Pandu's brother-in-law: On his way to Hastinapur, King Pandu encountered Shalya's army. At parlay, Shalya and his general met with Pandu; Pandu was very impressed by Shalya's slight general. Shalya proposed that they could either decide the victor by war, or, by marriage. He then revealed that his general was none other than his sister Madri. Looking at her beauty, Pandu accepted the lady willingly and took her to Hastinapur, and Shalya bent the knee to Hastinapur.

Jat History

Ram Swarup Joon[2] writes In the Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48, while describing various Kings who attended a ceremony in the Durbar (court) of Maharaja Yudhisthira, seventeen names are mentioned which are today found as Jat gotras. These are Malhia, Mylaw, Sindhar, Gandhar, Mahity, Mahe, Savi, Bath, Dharan, Virk, Dard, Shaly, Matash, Kukar (Khokar) Kak, Takshak, Sand, Bahik (Bathi) Bije (Bijenia), Andhra, Sorashtra (Rathi) Mann, Ar, Sohat, Kukat, Othiwal (Othval).

Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that they are frequently mentioned in the epics and the Puranas. Their king , Salya, fought in the war. Madri, mother of Nakula and Sahadeva was a Madra Princess . Sabha Parva Shows that “ Jatasura Madra Kanam” (i.e. Asra and Madra Jats) brought presents for the Pandavas, who were their relations. They are also called Mad or Madh (Madhan) as well as Maderna nowadays. In Kurukshetra alone, they have twelve village . [3] Many Madhan Jats are now Muslims also. They are recorded in the Bible as Madai. [4] In Prakrit, the name Madra, becomes Madda. Their deity at Sakala, is called Kharaposta, which is and Iranian form. They ate pork beef, drank rum with milk, (136-MBT,VII,44,28,36) Their strange dress, banners, arms and chariots are also noted. [5] They came from the Iranian side. [6]

In Mahabharata

Shalya (शल्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.61.6), (I.177.13), (II.29.13), (II.31.7),(V.19.16),(VI.47.17), (VI.52.5), (VIII.4.3), (VIII.23.2),

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 61 gives genealogy of the Danavas, Asuras, Kauravas, Pandavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Rakshasas. Shalya (शल्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.61.6).[7]....He who had been known as Samhlada, the younger brother of Prahlada, became among men the famous Shalya (I.61.6), that bull amongst Valhikas.....

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 177 mentions Kshatriyas who came on Swayamvara of Draupadi. Shalya (शल्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.177.13).[8]....the mighty car-warrior Shalya (I.177.13), the king of Madra, with his son, the heroic Rukmangada, Rukmaratha, Somadatta of the Kuru race with his three sons,....

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 29 mentions the Countries subjugated by Nakula in West. Shalya (शल्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.29.13).[9]....And the mighty hero, proceeding thence to Sakala, the city of the Madras, made his uncle Shalya accept from affection the sway of the Pandavas.

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 31 mentions the Kshatriyas who brought tributes on Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira. Shalya (शल्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.31.7). [10]..... and Achala, and Vrishaka, and Karna that foremost of all charioteers; and Shalya endued with great might and the strong Valhika;....

Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 19 mentions Kings and tribes Who joined Yudhishthira for war. Shalya (शल्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (V.19.16).[11].....And so the valiant Bhurisravas, and Shalya, O son of Kuru, came to Duryodhana, with an Akshauhini of troops each.....

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 47 describes immeasurable heroes assembled for battle. Shalya (शल्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.47.17). [12]....And Bhurisravas, and Shala, and Shalya, and Bhagadatta, O sire, and Vinda and Anuvinda of Avanti, protected the left flank.

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 52 describes the order of army in Mahabharata War. Shalya (शल्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.52.5).[13].... And Bhurisravas and Sala, and Shalya and Bhagadatta, O sire, and the Madrakas, the Sindhu-Sauviras, and they that were called the Panchanadas, together with Jayadratha, were placed on its neck. And on its back was king Duryodhana with all his followers.

Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 4 mentions the warriors who are dead amongst the Kurus and the Pandavas after ten days. Shalya (शल्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VIII.4.3). [14]

Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 30 mentions the tribes who are not followers of Brahmanism. Shalya (शल्य) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VIII.23.2). [15]

External links


  1. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, etc.,: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998 p. 268
  2. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter II,p. 32-33
  3. Fragments, XLVI, 7
  4. Genesis, X,2
  5. ibid, IV, 8 , 3-4
  6. Bhim Singh Dahiya : Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), 1980, Sterling Publishers New Delhi, p. 265-266
  7. संह्राद इति विख्यातः परह्रादस्यानुजस तु यः, स शल्य इति विख्यातॊ जज्ञे बाह्लील पुंगवः (I.61.6)
  8. मद्रराजस तथा शल्यः सहपुत्रॊ महारथः, रुक्माङ्गदेन वीरेण तथा रुक्मरथेन च (I.177.13)
  9. ततः शाकलम अभ्येत्य मद्राणां पुटभेथनम, मातुलं प्रीतिपूर्वेण शल्यं चक्रे वशे बली (II.29.13)
  10. अचलॊ वृषकश चैव कर्णश च रदिनां वरः, ऋतः शल्यॊ मद्रराजॊ बाह्लिकश च महारदः (II.31.7)
  11. तदा भूरिश्रवाः शूरः शल्यश च कुरुनन्थन, दुर्यॊधनम उपायाताव अक्षौहिण्या पृदक पृदक (V.19.16)
  12. भूरिश्रवाः शलः शल्यॊ भगदत्तश च मारिष, विन्थानुविन्थाव आवन्त्यौ वामं पार्श्वम अपालयन (VI.47.17)
  13. भूरिश्रवाः शलः शल्यॊ भगथत्तश च मारिष, मद्रकाः सिन्धुसौवीरास तदा पञ्च नदाश च ये (VI.52.5)
  14. कृतास्त्र परमाः शल्ये दुखपारं तितीर्षवः, कुरूणां सृञ्जयानां च के नु जीवन्ति के मृताः (VIII.4.3)
  15. यत तवं निथर्शनार्दं मां शल्य जल्पितवान असि, नाहं शक्यस तवया वाचा विभीषयितुम आहवे

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