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Vallapura (वल्लपुर ) was an ancient Kingdon in Kashmir. It has been identified with Bilaur in Jammu.

Variants of name


To the west of Chamba and south of Bhadravah lay the old chieftainship of Vallapura, the modern Bilaur.

Jat clans


Alexander Cunningham[1] writes that Of the eight remaining chiefships of this division I am not able to give much information, as many of them became extinct during the early period of Sikh rule, and all of them are now absorbed by the Jammu

[p.135]: family in the great kingdom of Kashmir. Jasrota, in the outer range of hills, was once of some importance, and its chiefs intermarried with the other Rajput families of the Alpine Panjab; but I can find no mention of it in any of the histories. Ballawar and Badwal were certainly at one time under a single chief, as Kalasa, the son of Tukka, who is twice mentioned in the ' Raja Tarangini '1 as lord of Vallapura between 1028 and 1801, is found in the genealogical lists of both families. It is true that Vaddivasa is noticed in the same chronicle2 as a separate district at an earlier date, but as there is no mention of any chief, it may be inferred that it formed part of the small kingdom of Vallapura. As the names in the two genealogical lists differ from Kalasa downwards, it seems probable that the state may have been dismembered after his death. It is certain that he was mixed up with Kashmirian politics ; and as the contemporary Raja of the neighbouring state of Chamba was put to death by Ananta of Kashmir, I conclude that Ballawar must have been subjected at the same time.

1. ' Raja Tarangini,' vii. 220, 589, 2. Ibid., vi. 318, Nandigupta.

The Archaeological Reports of Professor T. S. Maxwell

Ref - The Archaeological Reports of Professor T. S. Maxwell

A report on a tour of inspection made by Ram Chandra Kak from Basohli to Jammu published in 1933 ("Antiquities of Basohli and Ramnagar (Jammu and Kashmir State)", Indian Art and Letters NS. VII.2, 1933: 65-91; p.75).

In his report Kak refers to Bilavar as Ballaur and to its ancient name as Ballapura. Aurel Stein (RT.2 Chapter IV Section 1, Political Topography, Frontiers of Ancient Kashmir: 432) names it more accurately as Vallapura, the modern version of which he transcribes as Ballavar, which accords fairly well with the local pronunciation of the present day (March 1994), Stein (loc. cit.) reports on the region as follows:

"To the west of Chamba and south of Bhadravakasa lay the old chieftainship of Vallapura, the modern Ballavar. It rulers are repeatedly referred to in Kalhana's narrative. They retained their independence as petty hill-chiefs till the rise of the Jammu family early in this century, Ballavar was known also to Alberuni. Of the political organization of the hill territories between Vallapura in the south-east and Rajapuri in the north-west we have no distinct information. The Hindu inhabitants of this tract including Ballavar call themselves now Dogras and their country Dugar. This name is traditionally derived from Skr. *Dvigarta. But this term is nowhere found in our historical texts and probably has been concocted in analogy of the ancient name Trigarta. The original form of the name seems to be Durgara. It is very probably that the region of the lower and middle hills between the limits indicated was already in old times divided into a number of small chiefships. Of these some eleven seem to have existed up to the extension of the Sikh power into the Panjab Kohistan. They were all absorbed in the growing state of Jammu which was originally one of them. / ...these small hill-chiefs of limited territory but ancient descent [Thakkuras] ..."

In Kalhana's text, the Hill-Rajas or Thakurs of Vallapura, and of the other hill-territories in the region, are presented as playing a significant role in Kashmiri politics from the 11th century onward. They commanded the difficult terrain which lay between the major powers of the north Indian plain and of kashmir; Alberuni mentions Vallapura as situated on the route leading specifically from Kannauj to kashmir (India I: 205). They were thus in the position to levy charges ("blackmail": Stein, loc. cit.) on travellers from India to Kashmir; moreover, those located on the frontiers of Kashmir appear habitually to have profited from payments made by both sides. Stein (RT 2:432) refers specifically in this connexion to the Khasa rulers of the Visalata region on the south side of the Banihal Pass in the Pir Panjal range; "temporarily the chiefs of the hills immediately south of the Pir Pantsal Range may have acknowledged the suzerainty of strong Kashmir rulers. But during the greater part of the period which is known to us from historical sources, they appear to have held their own and rather to have levied subsidies, i.e. blackmail, from the Kashmir rulers" (loc.cit., and see ibid., RT.VIII.2283 n.). Vallapura, farther to the south than Visalata, therefore lay well beyond the historical southern frontier of Kashmir.

The Hill-Rajas allied their houses with the royal house of Kashmir through marriage: in the 12th century the Kashmiri king Sussala (c. AD 1112-1120, 1121-1128) had a wife named Jajjala from Vallapura (RT.1: 287 n.220; RT.VIII. 1444). The Raja of Vallapura is mentioned as one of the hill-chiefs who presented themselves at the court of King Kalaśa of Kashmir in the winter of AD 1087-1088 (RT.VII 588). Intervention in the politics of Kashmir is indicated at RT.VIII.539 and VIII.547 sqq., where the king and yuvaraja of Vallapura join a league of hill-chiefs to support the pretender to the throne of Kashmir, Bhikshachara (r. AD 1120-1121), against the Kashmiri king Sussala (c. AD 1112-1120, 1121-1128; RT.1:287 n.220); another prince of Vallapura, the Rajaputra Brahmajajjala, is said to have supported King Sussala (RT.1:287 n. 220). The kings of Kashmir played a correspondingly powerful role in the local politics of the Hill-Rajas, who were subdued by force: in the 11th century King Ananta of Kashmir (c. AD 1028-1063), "who won victories over various kings, uprooted at Champa [Chamba] King Sala, and placed a new ruler on the throne. The king, while rashly making wanton inroads into foreign territories, often ran into danger. When on an expedition against Kalaśa, the son of Tukka, his troops had become worn out, Haladhara [the prime minister of Kashmir] extricated him from Vallapua by cunning" (RT.VII.218-220). Again, in the following century, King Jayasimha (AD 1128-1149) "uprooting King Vikramaraja at Vallapura put in his place King Gulhana, and did thus with other rulers in other [territories]" (RT.1:287 n.220: RT.VIII.2452).

These references all concern the 11th and 12th centuries, but it is to be expected that despite the evident strength and independent spirit of the hill-chiefships a not dissimilar state of affairs had also obtained earlier, during the 9th and 10th centuries, under more powerful Kashmiri regimes. The goodwill or obedience of the Hill-Rajas must always have been a desideratum for the kings of Kashmir, in order to regulate contact between themselves and the powers of the north Indian plains.

The Bilakesvara temple: The temple at Vallapura is today (1994) called the Bilakesvara or Bilvakesvara and is dedicated to Śiva (a Śivaliṅga occupies the centre of the sanctum floor). At the time of Kak's visit in the 1930s, however, it was known as the temple of Harihara.

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[2] tells us that when Sussala became king of Kashmir second time in 1121 AD he had to face defeat but continued the renewal of war. .... Although the king Sussala's army was destroyed, yet with twenty or thirty men of the royal blood and of his own country, Sussala faced the enemies. Udayabrahma and Jajjala, lords of Champa and Vallapura, of the royal blood and of his own country, helped Sussala in facing the enemies in 1121 AD. (p.92)

Rajatarangini[3] tells Sahadeva's son who was severely wounded quickly killed Sanjapala's father's brother, the old Shila, who was found there. The respected Jajjala was weary and was entering his house preceded by an attendant ; the attendant was killed as also a soldier and a Chandala sentinel. Jajjala's little boy was seated in the court-yard, but was coming out when he saw his father's party, when Rilhana caused the house to be set on fire. From the darkness caused by the smoke, Jajjala was brought out by the principal soldiers, tied, and faint with wounds, and was killed at the gate of the house by some low persons. (p.193) (JajjalaJajja)

Rajatarangini[4] tells us that ....The king (Anantadeva) fell into difficulties several times by suddenly entering foreign kingdoms without previous advice or plan. Once at Vallapura where his army was reduced in an attack on Kalasha son of Tukka, he was rescued from danger by the device of Haladhara. (p.184)

Rajatarangini[5] tells us that ....In the year 63 of the Kashmirian era, eight kings came to the king of Kashmira and entered the capital, which include: Kalasha (1063-1089 AD) son of Tukka, king of Vallapura. (p.211)

Rajatarangini[6] tells us that At the time when preparations for war were being made, three hill chiefs Jāsaṭa of Champa, Vajradhara of Vallapura And Sahajapala of Vartula and two heir apparent Kahla of Trigarta and Anandaraja of Vallapura assembled together and arrived at Kurukshetra. They found Bhikshachara who was saved by Asamati with Naravarmma; and Naravarmma gave gold to the former for, expenses on the way. Jasata was related to Bhikshachara and treated him well, and the other chiefs also honored him. They then arrived at Vallapura. (p.46)

Rajatarangini[7] tells us that when Sussala became king of Kashmir second time in 1121 AD he had to face defeat but continued the renewal of war. .... Although the king Sussala's army was destroyed, yet with twenty or thirty men of the royal blood and of his own country, Sussala faced the enemies. Udayabrahma and Jajjala, lords of Champa and Vallapura, of the royal blood and of his own country, helped Sussala in facing the enemies in 1121 AD. (p.92)

Rajatarangini[8] tells....The king Jayasimha (1128 - 1155 AD) of Kashmir killed the rebellious Chhuḍḍa, the younger brother of the lord of Koundha by secret punishment. The king also destroyed Vikramaraja and other kings in Vallapura &c., and raised Guhlaṇa and others to sovereignty. This sun among sovereigns, enriched honorable men out of his affection for them by giving them possession of beautiful lands in Kanyakubja and other places. (p.219)

List of Kings of Vallapura

External links


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