Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII

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Kings of Kashmira

Being A Translation of the Sanskrit Work

Rajatarangini of Kalhana Pandita: Vol.2 (p.3-105 )

By Jogesh Chunder Dutt


London: Trubner & Co.

Vol. II Book VIII (p.3-105)
[Invocation as usual.]

King Uchchala

King Uchchala — His brother's advice to kill the Damaras:

[p.3]: For sometime the favors and frowns of the new king lay hid in him as the nectar and the poison lay hid in the sea before it was churned. His brother and the Damaras excited him, even as contrary winds excite the clouds. His brother in his pride of youth did whatever he liked, and his wicked acts were painful to the affectionate king. Constantly riding an elephant with drawn sword, he, like the sun, drank dry the juice of the fruitful earth. One day he advised the king to destroy by fire all the Damaras who had assembled together, but the kind king did not listen to him.

King's brother made governor of Lohara: This time the king was in a great dilemma. His ministers and petty chieftains acted like highwaymen, his brother wished a civil war in the kingdom, and his treasury was empty. He honored his brother by bestowing on him the government of Lohara, and sent him to that province. His brother took with him elephants, arms, infantry, cavalry, treasures and ministers, and the king,

[p.4]: fear fled to the north of the bathing place, and Bhimadeva with his arms ran after him in order to kill him. But the accountant of the house saw the affair from behind a pillar and cut Janakachandra by the sword into two in the middle. On his death, his two younger brothers, Gagga and Saḍḍ, ran to the spot and they too were wounded by the sword by the same man who still remained unseen. A fierce man, who kills a great enemy, like the thunderbolt that smites a tree, does not remain long. Thus on the 2nd of Bhadra of the same year and neither more nor less than three fortnights after the death of Harsha, Janakachandra was killed. He too wasted away in brooding over his sin of murdering his master who did him good. The king, though inwardly pleased, feigned anger and grief, and hence Bhimadeva fled. Gagga, however, trusted the king and was sent by him to Lohara to have his wounds healed, but the Damaras took flight, left their country and fled.

Thus order was slowly restored in the country which Uchchala had got by artifice and had cleared of oppressors. The king who thus obtained peace, felt a desire for conquest, and within a few days drove out the Damaras and their cavalry from Kramarajya. The king then went to Madva and having captured Kaliya and other Damaras who were against him, impaled them. The king with a strong army attacked within the city, the powerful Ilaraja who had gradually possessed himself of a part of the kingdom, and destroyed him.

[p.5]: The king loved Gagga as his own son, probably because the king knew the heart of this man or probably it was owing to friendship which existed between them in their former birth. He was never angry with Gagga even when Gagga did wrong. The king loved his subjects but could not brook oven the name of an enemy. He remembered the two good advices which wise Bhimadeva had given him when he commenced to reign. Following the first advice, he used to set out in the morning and would wander through the streets to learn the views of the people.

King's character

According to the other, ho would march even at midnight when he heard of an enemy and put down a revolt. He was patient and wise, and his character was not polluted by bad deeds. The sin of describing the acts of bad kings will be cleansed in describing the good deeds of this king which were like the waters of the Ganges. As the rising sun dispels the darkness which prevents seeing with perfect clearness, so he, yet immature, suppressed those who gave evil advice. Through his judges he caused a search to be made for men who committed religious suicide by starvation. When he heard the cry of the helpless and the oppressed, he never failed to punish the oppressor, even though that oppressor appened to be his own self. When a cry arose on account of the delinquency of an officer, it was,soon assuaged by the cries of the delinquent's friends. The king was eager to favor the weak, and while he lived, the powerful dwelt but under the sway of the weak.

[p.6]: The king, as he wandered alone on horseback, heard the people talk of his faults in his hearing but not knowing who he was ; whatever these faults were he soon corrected them. No one who came to him to ask went away totally disappointed. Even in his private council he could not desert his servants. He did good to his subjects, his words were sweet, and he was obliging to and beloved of his people. His servants who served him diligently could see him three or four times in the night. He was charitable and rewarded men after short service. When he heard the voice of sorrow of his neighbours, he would leave all other work to assuage their grief, even as a father does to his son. Just at the commencement of a famine, when his Servants drawing small pay were beginning to sell their Store of gold, he checked the famine. The kind-hearted king prevented thefts in the kingdom and raised the people addicted to stealing, to the post of treasurer and gave them a decent calling. He knew the circumstances of all his subjects through his spies, and his mind was ever busy in trying to find out who deserved riches, and who required protection. He had no desire for wealth and had many other qualities besides those mentioned before. For the maintenance of peace, he punished those who were worthy of punishment, but through fear of sin, he did not confiscate their wealth but caused it to be spent on good works. When he gave alms he would Hardly stop without giving a thousand fold of what he had at first intended ; and as the beggars were then heard to say,

[p.7]: "give me, give me," so he was also hoard to say, "give him, give him." He always spent a part of his time in giving large gifts, nor were his servants seen to share half of the gifts. In mournful ceremonies or in festivities, he would not make gifts like a painted branch of a tree that yields no fruit. But at festivals like the Shivaratri &c, he used to shower riches on his people, oven as Indra does the rain at the conjunction of the planets. Even king Harsha did not do as much as this king did, in bestowing betels1 in great festivities. He inherited the kingdom with nothing but bricks in the treasury2 but his gifts were so large, that the god of gold could not emulate him. He spent his wealth in building and pulling down houses, in buying horses, and though he was a Kashmirian, his treasures were- neither robbed by the thieves nor did he bury them underground. As the soul knows all events by yoga and by the means of the five of strength, knew the work of men. To the Brahmanas were assigned meals befitting kings, to the sick, medicines, and to those who had no subsistence to live upon, pay was allowed by the king. On the occasions for the performance of rites for his dead ancestors, at the time of eclipses, and at the ascendancy of evil stars, the king gave thousands of cows and horses and gold &c. to the Brahmanas.

1 Sign of favor. 2 Empty treasury.

Uchchala re-built Nandikshetra

[p.8]: He re-built Nandikshetra which had been burnt by a destructive fire, and made it more beautiful than it was before. The king who was bent on repairing the dilapidated buildings repaired Shrichakradhara, Yogesha and Svayambhu. He set up anew at Parihasapura, the god Shriparihasakeshava which king Harsha had taken away. He was devoid of cupidity and adorned Tribhuvanasvami with the Shukavali, described before, which had also been taken out by king Harsha. He also renewed the most beautiful throne in his kingdom, the same that was brought by Jayapira but had been burnt by fire during the revolution which led to Harsha's dethronement.

Queen Jayamati: Jayamati, though of humble condition before, was now raised by the love of her husband to the high post of queen, a place which she did not abuse. Though of low birth, she became lady-like by her virtues of kindness, sweetness, charity and love for the good. Even the -most lovely women, if they obtain the king's affection, behave like demons towards the subjects. King Uchchala how-ever who loved his subjects and was devoid of avarice had for his wealth this one virtue, which stood above his other virtues, that he protected his people from the royal underlings who were murderous, sinful and who robbed others.

King's persecution of the Kayasthas

Following the wise teaching of history, the king discarded the Kayasthas. He used to say, that besides spasmodic cholera, cholic, and the disease which ends in sudden death, the Kayastha officers are the sources of

[p.9]: speedy destruction of the subjects. "Crabs kill their fathers, small bees their mothers, but the ungrateful Kayasthas, when they become rich, kill all. The Kayasthas like evil spirits, kill the good man who give them instruction. As the land on which a poisonous tree grows is rendered unapproachable, even so the person under whom a Kayastha lives and prospers is rendered unapproachable to others." The wicked Kayasthas were put down by the king at every step by insults, dismissals and imprisonments; the wise king removed even Sahela from his post several times, and clothed him in torn thread cloth in prison. Sometimes as a diversion he clothed them with good dresses or made them ran through the files of his servants like Dombha warriors. Who did not laugh at one of them, tall in person, his beard dressed, a turban on his head, a spear in his hand, and his thighs and knees bare. Or at another bound naked to a cart, his head half shaved, and his braid of hairs marked with Chinese cake (red lead). Spoiled of their honor, they were known by such names as "Shaved head," &c. Some of them were seen wandering, removed from their posts, weak for want of proper food, insufficiently dressed and begging for every thing. Some old men among them began to receive instruction like boys, in the houses of learned Brahmanas, vainly thinking that learning could be easily obtained. Others again begged for food, chanted panegyrics and their children chanted after them, which made the people laugh. Some conciliated others by lending

[p.10]: them their mothers, sisters, daughters and thereby got some work. Some had recourse to astrologers to know their future, and the astrologers were grieved at their prospects. Some were seen emaciated, their faces as dried up as those of ghosts, their hair and beards not oiled and bound in chains which clanged at their feet. It was when they were thus reduced and their pride humbled by the king that he came to know the real state of the kingdom. They took to chanting the Mahabharata, or hymns to the sun &c. and with tears in their eyes recited songs to Durga. Thus in his reign the ever wicked Kayasthas were seen to be sinking in great distress at every step. They were unable to win the favor of this king, as they had done of other sovereigns, by presents of large wealth and articles of food. By these wise means the king made powerless these oppressors of the people who had prospered before. One learned man named Shivaratha recited the following line on a Shivaratri night. " As the place of Mahadeva which was burnt was restored to its former grandeur at your command, so let Panchanani after having placed Uchchaladeva in the beatitude of emancipation, guard, his royal town, and the Kayasthas and the ministers with their dependants and relations." This man was at once made Chief Superintendent General. Though this man knew not the duties of his post, yet by the purity and nobility of his heart, he conducted the affairs as well, as in Satya-yuga. The king visited the Kayasthas with speedy punishments,

[p.11]: and wise men approved these acts. The administration code did not forbid the punishment even of those Kayasthas who were possessed of small wealth. For a long time the Kayasthas suffered and submitted even to capital punishment. But the just king never oppressed the sons or wives or kindreds or friends of those people; he punished only those who deserved punishment.

Punishment of Loshtadhara and others of Karnejapa: He checked this wickedness of Loshtadhara and Others who inhabited Karnejapa by subjecting them to painful work. As a child, when it is born, forgets the desire it had when it was in the womb, so one, when he becomes king, forgets the plans etc., he had before he came to the throne. Before he came to the throne, Uchchala remembered what existed and what did not, but he remembered them during his reign as much as he remembers the events of a former birth. Those whom he had pursued before as guilty were considered by him not guilty, and he shewed his address in doing what was due towards them. It is not likely that the paramour of a bad woman will remember how badly she treated her former husband or that the employer of a bad servant will remember the servant's enmity towards his former master.

King's judgment

The wise king's administrative faculty became gradually developed, Once he thus settled a dispute between a merchant and the plaintiff, which the judges had foiled to fathom. A rich man, whose business went wrong, deposited

[p.12]: one lakh of Damara -with one of his friends,, merchant; and, out of this he spent something little by little. After twenty or thirty years had gone, he asked for the remainder of his deposit. But the wicked merchant, intending , to appropriate the deposited money, gained time under various pretences. The water of the sea agitated by currents is obtained from the clouds, but a thing deposited with a merchant is never got back again. The trader, who is ready to quarrel in order to appropriate money deposited with him, differs from the tiger only in having a face smoothed with oil, in his power of speech and his humble mien. The cunning of a merchant which is displayed little by little never abandons him till his death. He smiles the smile of friendship even in dispute. Prostitutes, Kayasthas and big merchants are naturally deceitful, as if they imbibe poison from the instruction of their teachers. The merchant is but a savage , only marked with lines of santlel paste, wearing white cloth and perfumed with incense, and he who trusts him is not free from danger. A merchant who daubs his forehead, eyes, body, the two ears and chest with sandel paste is like a six spotted scorpion that kills one in an instant. A merchant painted white and dark, like fire and smoke, is like gourd fruit which sucks away flesh and blood having the mouth, like a needle but a large * stomach. The merchant's false pleas were exhausted, he became

* This alludes to the process of cupping which used to be performed by a needle and a dried rind of gourd fruit.

[p.13]: angry and his brows became rugged, and he shewed the accounts to the relentless plaintiff. "When you wrote," said he, " 'Be it for my good,' * it turned to your evil.' " Here, you ! wise, took six pieces to cross the river, when the bridge on it was broken. When your shoes were , torn, you gave one hundred pieces to a cobbler to repair it. When you had a boil in your leg, your female servant took fifty pieces worth of ghee. When the vessel broke and the potter's wife wept, you out of pity gave her Dinnaras several times ; see this entry of three hundred pieces. You bought fish and juice to the value of one hundred pieces and out of affection, gave them to children for feeding a cat. With seven pieces you bought ghee and powdered sali rice for application to your feet, and you bought ghee for seven hundred pieces at the time of Shraddhapaksha bath. The ginger and honey which your boy took cost one hundred pieces, but the boy cannot testify to it as he had not then learnt to speak. A perfidious and strong man appeared before you and begged as a mendicant ; to refuse was to fight with him, you therefore gave him three hundred pieces. When the great men came, beside other expenses, three hundred pieces were spent in perfumed light, shandamula and onions." The merchant left out the other expenses, and added up these unreasonable items and calculated the interest on them. He counted the years, months &c. on his fingers but did'not come to an end. Adding up

* The usual form to commence a document.

[p.14]: the capital and interest, he opened, his lips and closed his eyes and mildly said. — " Let the amount of deposit and interest be now calculated ; and the sum due which was given in confidence will be restored without fraud." The creditor, taking the words of the merchant to be correct, was for a short time satisfied, but he afterwards repented and found that the merchant's words were like a razor steeped in honey. But in lawsuits he could not overcome the merchant whose wickedness made him base ; nor could the judges who judged convict him. The judges could not settle the matter and the case was brought before the king. The king judged the case and thus said to the merchant : — " If there be any sum left of the deposited Dinnaras, bring it to me and I will then decide as will appear just." When the Dinnaras were brought, he saw them and thus said to the ministers : — " Do kings coin money in tho name of the kings to be ? How is it that the Dinnaras deposited in the reign of king Kalasha came to bear my name? The one lakh pieces deposited with the merchant have been gradually spent by him in buying merchandize. Give back to the plaintiff the gains derived from the merchandize which was bought with his money from the time from which it was used. Let the merchant pay the whole interest on one lakh pieces from the day after the date on which the money was deposited." Thus the king acted with strict justice, and sometimes, like king Yashaskara, dispensed justice with

[p.15]: severity. In a suit if there be any doubt, it is wise to forgive, but men Who do wrong should be punished. In lawsuit which it was difficult to master, and presented many points for discussion, the king acted with much deliberation. Thus the king's impartial administration became famous. The king was like Manu and was attentive to his subjects.

His oppression of the people: Friendship does not exist without a cause, nor supremacy without pride, nor chastity in a woman without some censure of neighbours, nor learning without wealth, nor youth without impulsiveness nor maladministration without a speedy close of the reign. Even such a king as Uchchala began to harass his subjects. Being proud of his nobleness, heroism, intellect and patience, ho robbed innumerable men of their honor and life. He too was insulted in return by those honorable men to whom he used harsh words.

Men's energy, like that of sleeping serpents, is not known till they are angry. There is none among the many living beings whose body or lineage or character is not open to some blame. Even Brahma is not faultless, as he is born of lotus which rises out of mud, his color is brown, his head was once cut off and his fame is polluted by impure acts. Where then can a perfectly faultless person be found? Without paying consideration to this, the king began to publish personal or family faults of his servants. He found out faults in innumerable warriors and had thorn killed by making them fight with one another. For half a month, during the festivity in honor of Indra, he induced

[p.16]: the assembled warriors to fight by bestowing riches on them, and caused their death in mutual strife. There was no festivity in that time in which the yard of the palace was not drenched with blood, and the voice of lamentation did not arise. The warriors on these festive occasions set out from their houses dancing, but they were brought back by their friends with their bodies cut up.

Bhogasena made governor of Rajasthana

The king was glad and not sorry to see the well-dressed warriors with their black and oily hair and beautiful beards lying dead. The ladies would count those days happy in which their husbands would return from the palace, but remained distrustful till their return. No one could oppose the king. He made some persons accept the post of ministers, and proudly declared that whatever he ordered must be obeyed. The wicked king dispossessed learned men of their estates and several times insulted them. Damshaka, lord of Kampana, incurred the king's anger because he was enjoying prosperity ; he fled to Vishalaya and was killed by the Khashas. The king had raised Rakkaka, lord of Dvara, to prosperity ; but on seeing the great riches he enjoyed, he deposed him again. Manikya, a leader in the king's army, quelled a tumult at Dvara and was allowed by the king a subsistence at Vijayakshetra. The excellent Tilaka and others who were employed at Kampana incurred the king's anger and were not therefore created ministers. The king was pleased with the services of Bhogasena and though he was without follower or a house, the king made him the governor of the Rajasthana

[p.17]: (palace). He had seen Bhogasena's valor in the battle on the day of Indradvadashi when Gaggachandra, though he had a large army under him, fled from the engagement. The king raised Saḍḍa, Chchhaḍḍa and Byaḍḍasa, sons of Sadda, a common soldier, to the post of ministers. Tilaka and Janaka sons of Vijayasimha, who had been reduced to misery for deserting the king's service were now enrolled as ministers. And who can count how many Yama, Ela, Abhaya, Vana &c, were made lords of Dvara and other places, and whose prosperity lasted but for short periods. Prashastakalasha and two or three other old men then appeared like worn trees by the side of new saplings. Kandarpa, although he was invited by the king's messengers and was offered a post, refused to accept it, as he saw the intolerant character of the king. The etiquette of the court of Kashmira assumed a new aspect in the reign of this new king. The possession of wealth and subjection to fascinating women of ill fame cause even sensible men to walk in evil ways.

Sussala's plan of usurpation

Royalty is like Pratata, a thorny creeper ; it destroys family affection and becomes harmful to kinsmen. Sussala, though possessed of wealth of all kinds, planned the usurpation of the kingdom and meditated an attack on his brother. The king heard all of a sudden that his brother had crossed Varahavartta and had fallen on him with the speed of a hawk. The active king issued out for battle before his opponent could gain a firm footing, and fell on him with his large army and did him much harm.

[p.18]: The younger brother fled towards his quarters, leaving his baggage behind. The king returned with success but heard that his brother had returned on the following day, bent on mischief. By his orders Gaggachandra marched out with a large army to crush the force of Sussala. The battle raged for a long time and innumerable hardy soldiers of Sussala departed to heaven, and assuaged the fatigue of the women in the garden of that place. In this battle Sahadeva and Yudhishthira, two Rajputs, paid with their lives the debt of favor they owed to their master. Gagga captured the fleeing horsemen of the enemy who rode on beautiful horses which excited the curiosity even of the king who had many horses. The king marched with his army, quickly pursued his brother towards Kramarajya by the way of Selyapura road. Thus pursued by his elder brother, Sussala with his handful followers entered the country of Darad. The king killed Loshtaka, the Damara inhabitant of Selyapura, because he gave passage to Sussala, and entered the city Selyapura. When Sussala had gone far away, the king though polluted with sins, did not try to possess the hills of Lohara out of love for his brother. Sussala was married to the pure Meghamanjari, daughter of Vijayapala. She had lost her father and had been affectionately brought up by her mother's father Kahla, king of Kalindara, as his own child. Such was the power of Sussala that though it was then winter yet his enemies at Lohara could not oppose him. This patient prince after

[p.19]: issuing out of difficult roads and traversing mountains of difficult passages reached his own territory. It took him many months to go over thin way.

This danger over, king Uchchala had other minor difficulties which arose and passed away. Bhimadeva set up Bhoja, son of the late king Kalasha, and brought Jagaddala, king of Darad, to help them. Sahla, a son of Harsha and Sanjapala, brother of Darshanapala, were in the party. The king of Darad came out to attack Uchchala but the wise king induced him, by friendly words to return to his own country. Sahla privately followed the king of Darad. Bhoja retired to his country, but his servant having accepted a bribe betrayed his master, and Bhoja soon received from the king the punishment befitting a robber.

Even Pitthaka, son of Deveshvara, aspired to take possession of a part of the kingdom and revolted with the Damaras during the absence of the king. Vulgar mu become objects of laughter when like thoughtless brutes they are incited by others to run about, and act without any judgment of their own.

Then came one versed in intrigue ; his trade was that of an assistant cook, and he said that he was the son of Malla and his name was Rāmala, and that he had been travelling in foreign countries. Many foolish kings who loved revolt assisted him with wealth and rank as he passed through their countries. He entered Kashmira alone, perspiring with heat. The king's servants know

[p.20]: him and cut off his nose. And again men saw him following the profession of his caste, walking about as he sold food to the king's soldiers, and they smiled.

Bhikshachara ordered to be killed

Vain are the efforts of the statesmen to rise by their own power, for they cannot do otherwise than what the gods will. The strength of men is aided or repressed by the will of gods, as fire is sometimes inflamed and sometimes extinguished when it is flaming, by wind. Man cannot avoid his fate by flight, as the bird cannot escape the fire burning on his tail. Men who are fated to enjoy certain things cannot be killed either by wound or fire or poison or arms or arrow or by being thrown into a hole or by magic. Bhikshachara, on account of his amour towards Jayamati, was ordered to be killed. He was by the king's orders taken by the executioners at night to the place of execution. There he was dashed on stone and thrown into the Vitasta. But kind fate landed him on a bank where the trees were waved by the wind. A certain Brahmana who had some money revived him to life; and thinking that Asamati was a relative of Didda, the daughter of Sahi, he brought Bhikshachara to Didda, and wily Didda, took him and sent him to another country and there in the south he lived privately. When Naravarmma, king of Malava came to know who he was, he instructed him in learning and in arms as his own son. Some say that Jayamati saved Bhikshachara by destroying another boy like him, and of his age. When

[p.21]: the king learnt, through his spies that Bhikshachara had returned from foreign countries, his affection towards Jayamati began to abate. But the patient king without disclosing his designs concluded terms with the kings through whose territories Bhikshachara was to come to prevent his entrance into Kashmira. Foolish people who do not hide their jealousy for women or their fear of their enemies are imposed upon by others. Some again say, that after Bhikshachara had been killed, Didda brought a boy like him and caused him to be known by Bhikshachara's name. This report whether true or false was widely believed, and even gods did not suppress the belief. Such facts are more wonderful than what is dreamt in dreams or seen in magic or illusions. The king secretly planned to destroy this man.

Birth of Jayasimha (b.? - r. 1128 - 1155 AD)

In order to destroy a poison-tree another poison-tree grows up, and the star Agasta rises when the waters are muddled in the rainy season. The fur seeing Vidhata takes steps to undo any evil that threatens the universe. At that time was born a son of Sussala who could raise the world from the misery into which it was sinking ; and the child was named Jayasimha by the king on account of the victories which he gained from the time of the boy's birth. His acts fully sustained the import of his name as Buddha's name of Sarvarthasiddha was sustained by his acts. When the king saw that the foot of the child was marked with the impression of saffron, he forgot his anger towards his brother. That sign in the

[p.22]: child's foot prevented the enmity between, its father and uncle and established peace between the two countries.

The king in the name of his deceased father raised a matha in the place where his father used to worship ; and in the great festival he gave in charity cows, lands, gold, clothes, food, and spent a large amount of money and was like a kalpa tree to all who asked for charity. The other kings were astonished at the presents which he gave to them. The queen Jayamati, in order to spend on some good purpose the money she had received from her husband when he was well pleaded with her, built a matha with Vihara. The king being somewhat short in virtues in his previous birth the matha which he built in the name of the child came to be called by the name of " New matha." The matha which he erected in the name of his sister Svala in another of his father's places of worship did not attain the celebrity it deserved.

Once when the king was at Kramarajya he went to the mountainous village of Varhanachakra in order to see the fire that lights of itself. When he was passing by the road of the village of Kamvaleshvara some armed Chandala robbers who lived there, surrounded him. Though they were intent on striking, and though the king's soldiers were few, yet being struck with panic they could not use their arms and so they did not strike. The king lost his way and wandered about with a few followers, and spent a night in a deep cavern. Soon on the morning this bad news reached the camp. From

[p.23]: camp the news slowly reached the capital. The Superintendent of the city was Chhudda of the family of the hero Kamadeva and brother of Radda. He quelled the disturbance in the city by arms, and then entered the palace with his brothers in order to determine what to do. When deliberations were going on as to who should be made king, Sadda a wicked Kayastha wishing to benefit his own caste people thus addressed him : — " You with your many friends, kinsmen and servants are unconquerable, rule this kingdom without opposition." When thus addressed the wicked man wished to enjoy the kingdom and soon tried to get on the throne. Whoever was conscious of his descent from the line of Shriyashaskara felt a desire to rule the kingdom. It appears that the wish that was inherent in them was inflamed by the words of an evil friend. They were not inclined to follow the right path, or why should they think of Sadda's evil counsel ? The low Sadda was born of the family of Lavata, the porter. Kshemadeva's son who held a small appointment behaved harshly like a very desperate and brave man. He stole a golden vase from the palace, and though ho was suspected yet, being a grave man, he was not discovered. He kept a small sword, was without a turban, laughed at all and prided himself, and like a prince despised the world. He always moved his fingers, and his notions of Government were cruel. By the words of this man and by their own evil desire, Chhudda and others aspired to the kingdom, but their de-

[p.24]: From that time the desire of being king was neither rooted out from their minds, nor was asleep, nor did it find an outlet. The king whose regard for them became unsettled gradually removed them from Government offices, and reduced them to an humble state. The king who was naturally rude in his speech now told them heart-piercing words. In the reign of king Harsha, they lived in the house of their young widow-mother after their father's death. Their neighbour an youthful friend and soldier named Madyasattaka was suspected with having formed an intrigue with their mother, and they killed him. But the king judged that they had not punished their unchaste mother and cut off her nose, and published this news behind their back ; and enquired after them as sons of the " Nose-cut." The king who was like death towards the Kayasthas had made Sadda the treasurer of the great treasury &c., and prevented him from doing mischief. But oppressed by Sadda's harshness his own accountant told the king that Sadda used to defalcate money from the treasury. The king in anger took away from him his post of Praveshabhagika and he again drove Radda and Chhudda to adopt their former plan.

Murder of the King Uchchala

Intent on killing the king, they sought for an opportunity and joined the wicked minded Hamsaratha, &c. They had stolen much wealth, they intended to kill the king, but found no opportunity for four or five years. With many men and in many ways and for a long time did they plan, but their counsels were not discovered

[p.25]: through the sins of men. They reported to one another that the king hart used hard words, and thus they worked themselves to enmity against the king. With the intention of killing the king they followed him with- out intermission ; secretly covering their breast, sides, back with, iron mail.

The king, who could not bear to be separated from Jayamati, and like a common man did every thing in his power to please her, had now for two years withdrawn his affection from her. Such change of character portends approaching death. Some say, that this was owing to the protection which the queen gave to Bhikshachara, others say, that love, like lightning, is fleeting. The king married Vichchala, daughter of the king of Vartula, and she became his favourite.

At this time king Sangramapala died and his son Somapala inherited his father's kingdom. The elder who should have got the throne was imprisoned by some conspirators who coronated this prince. This enraged the king of Kashmira against Rajapuri. Nevertheless he married his daughter who was like the picture of the meek goddess of fortune, to the great king of Rajapuri who was beloved of all his people and was tho chief of kings. This was the last festival given by this rich and subject-loving king [of Kashmira.] When his son- in-law had gone, he favored the Tantris but being on some account angry with them, he drove away those who had intended to rebel against him. At this time also he was angry with Bhogasena and dismissed him

[p.26]: from the post he held at Dvara and thus made him his enemy. Bhogasena was a very powerful man; he had subjugated all the Damaras. He now marched towards Lohara with a view to overcome Sussala. The king's enmity towards Bhogasena was tempered with love, he opposed his march and then blamed him for his conduct at which Bhogasena was angry.

The hero Bhogasena who was formerly the king's friend, when thus insulted, brought again Rudda, Kadda and others to on appointed place from which the king did not drive them back. Thus they who were insulted, dismissed from their posts and were evil-minded now met together. The wily Sadda disapproved the confidence which the rebels reposed on Bhogasena, because Bhogasena was a hero and a simple-hearted man. Sadda advised that the king should be killed that very day as otherwise the simple minded Bhogasena would betray them. Sadda was not wrong in what he said of Bhogasena, for the latter had intended to betray and would have told the king of the existence of a treason, but the king insulted him by proposing to bestow on him the Southern Dvara, and thus made him adhere to the party of the rebels, When a man's end approaches, he is displeased even with those who instruct him, just as one is displeased with those who awake him from his sleep in winter even when it is day.

The Tantris who were sentinels now retired to their posts, and the rebels joined their own soldiers in the capital. They gave signal to the Chandalas saying "kill

[p.27]: him whom we shall strike in the night" and led them into an open building. When they were there, the king had token his meal, and the rebels frightened away the king's servants telling them that the king was very angry. The king urged by love was going to the house of Vijjalā and his way was lighted by a lamp. When he, attended by a few followers, had reached a house in the midway, Sadda surrounded the house behind him, and there killed sonic men. Others stopped all the doors in the front and surrounded the king with a view to kill him. One of the party, through pride, advanced towards the king and pulled him by the hair. The king was a powerful man and pierced him with his weapon. Then the daggers fell on his golden chain as serpents fall on the peak of Sumeru. The king then cried out " treason," " treason," and by the help of his small weapon undid the hold which they had on his hair, and with his teeth unloosed the stick from their hands. Sujanakāra, the servant, who was bearing the king's dagger fled on being struck by the enemies. The king therefore snatched a light knife worthy of a boy and planted the little weapon between the knees of his opponent, and with its help came out with difficulty from his grasp. He retired to a little distance and bound his loosened hair. The king did not lose his spirit and showed much valor that his foes, Struck at vital parts, fell on the ground. The king pierced Radda who had struck him from behind, and yelling like a lion he turned round and pierced Vyaḍḍa. The king brought down another

[p.28]:soldier who was clad in armour, and he died within a short time and after suffering some agony. Availing him-self of this opportunity he ran towards the house in order to gain admission into it, but the gate-keeper did not know him as the king, and closed the door. He then made for another door when Chhuḍḍa opposed him saying , "where do you go" and struck him with his sword. The king then saw Bhogasena standing at the end of the door with his back turned and scratching the wall with a piece of wood. The king addressed him and said, " I have forgiven Bhogasena why are you then hero." He replied, abashed to the fleeing king something indistinctly. Rayyāvaṭṭa, the torch-bearer, who was without weapon, went into the fight with his iron lamp and fell wounded by the rebels. Somapala, a Rajpoot, son of Champa, was wounded and fell covered with the blows he received. His behaviour was not censurable Majjaka, a Rajpoot, son of Shurapala, fled hiding his weapon, like a dog hiding his tail. The king ran towards a wooden fence intending to scale it, but the Chandalas cut him in the knee and he fell on the ground. One Shringara, a Kayastha, who was not a rebel, threw himself over the king's body, was severely beaten and was prevented from , protecting the king.

The king intended to rise again, but all his enemies struck him with their weapons, and his garland of blue lotus was torn away by kālī.* The low Sadda cut

* A sort of weapon.

[p.29]: him in his neck suspecting that the king was yet alive though he seemed dead. " I am he whom you dismissed from his post," he said, as he cut the king's fingers and snatched the jewel rings. The long-armed king was seen sleeping on the ground, his shoo in one foot, his garland fallen from his head and his face covered. The king's cruelty towards men was atoned by his great valor in his last moments. Shuraja, a royal servant, came out and cried aloud " treason," but he was killed by the angry Bhogasena.

Thus the king perished by the kāli on his way to the appartments of his queen. Kings become restless with enjoyments in their kingdoms as black bees become restless with the pollen of flowers in gardens. Alas! They are then struck by fate, as bees are felled by the wind, and disappear from the sight. Ravana who conquered the three worlds was at last defeated by monkey's, and Duryyodhana who was superior to innumerable kings received a kick on his hcrid. Thus after enjoying great glory they were insulted like ordinary men. After musing on these things who can say that he is great?

The umbrella-bearers of the king brought tho naked body of their master, as of a helpless man, to be burnt. One took upon his shoulder, tho hands of the king, another took up in his hands, his legs,his neck broken, his hair hanging, his body besmeared with blood and wounded and uncovered like that of a helpless man.

[p.30]: They soon burnt him on an island in the great river Vitasta. No one saw him die, no one saw him burnt, as if he fled of wings and disappeared. At the time of his death he had completed the age of forty-one. It was in the year 87, in the month of Pausha, on the sixth day of the bright moon.

Radda steps in to the throne

Raḍḍa clad in armour and holding the sword and besmeared in blood stepped towards the throne as an evil spirit steps on the stones of the burning ground. When he ascended the throne, his powerful and warlike friends and servants prepared themselves for battle. His friends Baṭṭa, Paṭṭa the Tantris fought for a longtime and fell at the principal gate of the palace ; the warriors Katta Suryya &c, also fell there. The king Radda with sword and shield killed many of his enemies in fight within the palace. At times his opponents despaired of victory; but Radda fell in battle after a long struggle and after killing many of his foes. After the minder of his late master Uchchala, Gagga disclaimed wealth and punished Radda, though dead, as befitted a rebel.

Near Diddamatha Vyadda's face was submerged in a drain and he was killed by the citizens who threw stones and ashes on him. In several places the rebels were dragged by ropes tied to their ankles and the citizens spat on them as they deserved. Sadda, Hansaratha and others fled, to suffer an agony worse than death. The news of Radda's defeat and the death of his brothers came on Bhogasena like a deluge. He

[p.31]: returned intending to oppose, but seeing the soldiers flee, He was struck with fear and fled to sonic place, accompanied with a few kindred men. Thus Gargachandra by his own valor either killed or routed the principal men of the rebel party. No where in history have I heard of feats of courage like those of the valorous Garga. One prahara of night and one of day did the rebel Radda reign and he obtained the title of Shankharaja. He got the punishment due to the wicked. The rebels proved that they were born of the line of Yashaskara for they reigned for a short time like Varnatadeva. Hunters kill lions &c., by fire and trap ; they are themselves killed by the sudden fall of fragments of stone. All go the same way, the way to death, so it is useless to distinguish the murderers from the murdered. Those who hear with pleasure the voice of women proclaiming their happiness at their marriage, listen not long after to their lamentations and voices of wail. He who feels happy at having averted a danger finds other sources of unhappiness not long after. Ignorance is blinding. The rebels thought of violence in the evening, at night the thought was matured into action, and on the next day it brought on misery.

When the work was finished, Garga left the scene of action, his anger was appeased, and he came near the throne and wept long for his master. At this time the citizens had shaken off then- fear and found an opportunity to weep for their beloved king. The insincere-

[p.32]: Jayamati wishing to excite pity and in the hope of still living after her husband's death gave wealth to Garga and said, "0 brother tell me what I should do." Garga knew her intention and gave her assurance of safety. There is crookedness in the tresses of women, restlessness in their eyes, hardness in their heaving breasts, and no one can fothom their hearts. Women who live in vice, and who even kill their husbands easily enter the fire. No confidence can be placed in women. While she was riding in a conveyance, and loitering in the way, Vichchla came out first, by that time and entered the funeral fire. As she was going up the pile, the people robbed her of her ornaments and thereby hurt her person. The people wept to see the late king's umbrella and chamara burning and felt as if their eyes were being consumed.

Sahlana made king

Though all asked Garga to ascend the throne, he did not do so, and thus he held his duty sacred. He intended to set up the infant son of Uchchala to the throne, and enquired after the boy. The people now wondered at the work of those whom they at first had thought unfit even to beg. Mallaraja had by queen Shveta three sons, Sahlana, &c, of whom the second had died before. Shamkharaja (Radda) had sought to kill the surviving Sahlana and Lothana and they fled in fear to the Navamatha. Learning that the rebels were dead, the shameless Tantri , and cavalry officers consulted together and brought them back. Garga did not feee any one else fitted for the kingdom and he anointed Sahlana,

[p.33]: the elder of them. O! that within four praharas of day and night there were three kings. The wicked servants of the king who at evening served Uchchala, and Radda the next morning, came to Sahlana at noon.

Sussala was at the gate of Lohara when he heard of the death of his brother, a day and a half after the event, and became excessively grieved. The messenger sent by Garga threw himself on the ground weeping and dispelled all doubts as to the truth of the occurrence. From this messenger Sussala did not hear of the accession of Sahlana to the throne, but only learnt the news of his brother's death and received an invitation from Garga. Garga, when he left his house, did not think that he would be able to accomplish the difficult task of putting down the enemies so soon, and had sent a messenger to Sussala asking him to come. Sussala spent that night in weeping, and at dawn he set out towards Kashmira without collecting his army. Another messenger from Garga met him on the way, told him all that had happened and asked him not to come. "The rebellion was soon put down and you were not near so your younger brother Sahlana has been made king. What is the use of your proceeding ? " When he heard this message from Garga he was unable to bear it, and through anger he said with a smile to his servants. — "This is not our ancestral kingdom that our younger brother would possess it. I and my elder got it by the strength of our arms, when we got the kingdom, no one made a gift of it to us ; and has the means by which we first got it, now disappeared ?"

[p.34]: He said so and stopped and marched with his men and sent many messengers to Garga.

Sussala reached Kashtavata (काष्टवात), and Gargachandra on behalf of Sahlana came out and arrived at Hushkapura. When the night approached, men who came and went called Garga a rebel, though he spoke kind words to all.

Though the king Sussala was very busy with his work, yet he sent Hitahita, son of his nurse, to Garga. Bhogasena devoid of his senses came at this moment to the king accompanied with the Khāṣhakas inhabitants of Vilvavana. He sent Karnabhuti, a horseman, to the king and assured him that he would overcome Garga. Without waiting for an opportunity, he searched for a fitting place to kill the rebellious brother and was considered a bad man by the people. Garga rebuked the king through his messengers and asked how he can accept the help of him who rebelled against his brother. Bhogasena had retreated from the road and halted, it being dark. At the end of the night Garga attacked him and killed him and his followers. Karnabhuti fell a hero gracing the battle with his fall ; his step-brother Tejaḥsona did likewise. By the king's [Sahlana's] order the latter was set up on a pale, and the like was also done to Marichi, son of Ashvapati, inhabitant of Lavarajya. On account of the opposition, the king inflicted punishments &c, but his army became too uneasy to remain in order.

Sanjapala who had preceded king Sussala but, at evening, was left behind, collected many horsemen and joined

[p.35]: the king. On their arrival Sussala's army received some opposition. Garga's general Suvāshpa with a large number of troops arrived. On seeing them the enemy became eager for fight, and the king, clad in armour, was, by his own men, with difficulty, set up on a horse. The arrows from the enemies covered the sky like locusts and fell on all sides in continued showers. They attacked the whole body of the royal [Sussala's] army. The brave king whose men they killed and wounded got out alone from amidst the enemies and fled in haste. He fled riding his horse and crossed the roaring and headlong current of the Sindhu without going over the bridge, and got himself out of the range of the arrows. Sanjapala and one or two more were able to follow him and dispersed those who opposed them at several places. Sussala's enemies gave up the pursuit as he, with twenty or thirty followers, entered Viranaka, a town of the Khashas. Without raiment or food, attended with a few followers, he stopped there, and without fear attacked and chastised the Khashas. He fortunately returned to Lohara in time, passing through roads difficult to traverse on account of fall of snow. He faced death at every step but his period of life was not yet ended, and he lived and thought of the means of obtaining Kashmira. Garga became angry with poor Hitahita and threw him into the Vitasta after tying his hands and feet. But Hitahita's servant threw himself into the water just before him, and though he descended down [into the water] he ascended [high in heaven.]

King Salhana's character

[p.36]: Garga was particularly honored by king Sahlana on his return ; for it was he who gave Sahlana a kingdom and destroyed his enemies. The king was without a minister and without valor, and with an unsettled mind he looked on the kingdom as on a wheel turning round him on all sides. He had no policy, no valor, no wiles, no simplicity, no charity, no avarice, nothing predominated in him. During his reign even at noon the thieves would steal things from the people in the capital, what then must they have done to others living outside the town ! Even lame persons could violate the chastity of women, while the king, although a man, lost his senses through fear. The kingdom was shared in common by Sahlana and Lothana, one reigned on one day and the other the next day. The king understood not the nature of men and when he erred, he was laughed at by the men of state. He employed Ujahsurya, father-in-law of Lothana, in Dvara where much valor and sternness were required ; but Ujahsurya was fit to be among hermits. He said that if he repeated his mantra a hundred thousand times there would remain no more cause of fear from Sussala.

The wicked king, through the orders of Garga, tied a piece of stone to his enemy Vimba, a Nilashva Damara and threw him into the Vitasta. Garga had killed the enemies of the king and the king bestowed favors on him. He killed many Hālāha Damaras by means of poisoned food. The king was disregarded and the life

[p.37]: and death, of all, whether great or low, whether in the capital or without, were at the mercy of Garga.

Once when Garga returned to the king from Lohara, the citizens in the metropolis became anxious and frightened. There arose a rumour that the furious Garga had come to kill all the dependents of the king, on boats by fixing pales. Such a fearful rumour which can cause abortion in women kept all men in a fever of anxiety for two or three days. Tilakasimha and others, therefore, without waiting for the king's Orders, attacked Garga's house. The whole country became excited and the people armed themselves and ran to and fro ; and Gargachandra was alarmed. The shameless Dilhabhaṭṭara, Lakkaka and others were seen riding about in the road leading to Garga's house. The king did not prevent them but on the contrary sent Lothana to encourage them as they were weak. Lothana with his soldiers blocked the road but could not surround Garga's house nor could he burn it by fire. One Kaushava, a good archer and the head of a matha at Lotikamatha, greatly checked Lothana's soldiers by killing many of them with iron arrows. When the king's partisans had retired as they had come, Garga set out on horse-back at evening, with his followers and unopposed, he went to Lohara.

On his way he captured Ujahsurya, who was at Tripureshvara suffering from ill health. " But what is the use of arresting this hermit" he said, and he liberated him the next day. Sussala was overcome with anxiety but Garga did not dispossess him of Lohara.

[p.38]: From that place the citizens received at times, rumours of Garga's approach and used to bolt their houses. The weak king was anxious to come to terms with Garga and for that purpose the great Sahela went to Lohara as a messenger. With difficulty Garga was made to promise to bestow his daughter on the king. Peace was then established with Sussala, but the proposed alliance although asked for was never made.

When Garga went to Visharākuta in Mandala, the king caused Sadda, Hamsaratha and Nonaratha to be brought to him by messengers. The wicked king tortured them by sparks of fire and points of needle and left them all but dead. The king determined to dishonor Allā, the widow of Bhogasena, who was, after the death of her husband, leading a pure life and was living privately. He saw the weakness of all around and was only afraid of Dilhabhattara and poisoned him. This vicious sovereign was not born of the royal line nor was he powerful, since he removed persons into his secret manner. Dilhabhattara's sister Alla reproached the king for his effeminacy and proudly burnt herself. His reign though of short duration became intolerable owing to these fears, as a night becomes intolerable with bad lengthy dreams.

Sussala understood the signs of the times, and though as yet there was peace, he had misgivings about Garga. He was anxious to come to Kashmira but he first sent Sanjapala. The king had bestowed wealth and Dvara on Lakkaka who with difficulty reached Barahamula.

[p.39]: Garga remembered that it was Lakkaka who had attacked him in his house, he came up to him from behind, destroyed his army and plundered both the soldiers and the place Barahamula. Lakkaka fled. Among the dead that lay on the ground and graced it like garland of pearls were the leaders Ruppachuḍa and others. Their character was good and they were born in good families. On the approach of Sanjapala, Lakkaka's fear abated and, helpless as he was, he was brought to Sussala.

Sussala became king in 1112 AD

Marriage of Sussala and his son with the daughters : When Sanjapala who was approaching Kashmira to attack it was yet at a distance, the king was induced by the citizens and the Damaras to go and meet him. Sahelaka left Salhana promising to establish peace between him and Sussala. The citizens went over to the good king Sussala and eagerly watched his rising power, as the kokila watches the rising cloud. Chhuḍḍa, wife of Garga, came with her two daughters to Sussala to marry them. King Sussala married Rajalakshmi, the elder of the two, and married her younger sister Gunalekhā, to his son.

When Sanjapala came and surrounded Salhana who was with his younger brother, king Sussala came from his court and arrived at the Simha gate of the palace. One of the enemy's servants closed the door in Sussala's sight but failed to capture him as he had intended. The enemy with his soldiers was shut up within the palace, but the army of Sussala feared an attack from Garga. They had no confidence in Garga though he had married

[p.40]: his daughter to Sussala ; and they remained therefore in constant fear, being alarmed even at the motion of a grass. As the day expired, the army thus stood panic struck, but Sussala, out of pity for them, burnt down the strong position occupied by the enemy. Sanjapala entered the palace by moonlight through the straight gate facing the village, and opened the gate and fought with the soldiers who were in, the court-yard. Tilaka apprehended that Sanjapala's death was inevitable amidst the enemy's soldiers within the palace and therefore followed him. Keshava also who was brought from Darad by Sanjapala fought equally well with Sanjapala at the dreadful fight that took place at Kashtavata. Thus Tilaka and Keshava followed Sanjapala in the fight as Satyaki and Bhima followed Arjuna when the king of Sindhu was seeking for an encounter with him.

Though beaten, they with difficulty opened the gate of the court-yard, when king Sussala himself entered. The two forces mingled with each other in the fight and many perished in the court-yard. Ajjaka, the minister of king Salhana, perished in the fight. He was born in the village of Patamga.

Rudra, a Kayastha, who was made a treasurer, now fell in the battle and showed himself worthy of his master's favor.In the evening the birds settle on trees and make a noise, but when a stone is thrown at them they fly away and no more sound is heard ; even so the field of battle which was full of sounds before, now became silent as a picture. King Sussala shouted as he rode on his horse. When

[p.41]: he was in the court-yard and had not yet seated himself on the throne, the voice of "Victory to Sussala," and the sound of drums were heard. In the family of Mallaraja, the, honor that was lost by Salhana and Lothana was won back again. Sussala embraced Salhana and Lothana who were on their horses, and clad in mail and addressed them both calling them as "boy" and "youth" and cunningly caused them to be disarmed. He then secured them and ordered them to be removed to another house. Thus he got the kingdom and entered the court. Salhana was captured after a reign of four months! minus three days, on the third day of bright moon in the month of Vaishakha of the year 88.

Sussala's character

When Sussala ascended the throne, the people forgot their sorrows within a short time and became glad as at the rising of the sun. Harassed by constant rebellion, Sussala kept his sword always unsheathed from the scabbard, as the lion keeps his mouth open to wards his hunter. He extirpated the families of those who had rebelled against his brother, and thus, this politic king did not leave a single enemy alive. Seeing the wickedness of men, he assumed an unapproachable appearance, and never showed any leniency ; on the contrary he issued orders according to the deeds of men. He was in reality a kind-hearted man, but in order to curb wicked men, he assumed the severe character , which was not his own. No one understood the times as he did, or could check mischief like him, or was more energetic,

[p.42]: or had more brilliant conceptions, or was more far-sighted than he was. His character was similar to that of his elder brother, in some qualifications he was superior, in some, equal, and in some, he was inferior. His elder brother's anger was like the poison of a dog, but his was like the sting of the bee. He did not disregard the Veda, and he maintained his dignity by curbing the haughtiness of his dependents. He did not wish for the death of the proud by duel but he settled their quarrels amicably. His brother used intolerably harsh words, but his words were affectionate and without abuse. He was avaricious of money and so collected a large fortune, and his charity was limited as he selected proper objects and proper occasions. He loved now constructions and horses, so that artists and native horse-dealers were enriched; The king was eager for conquests and also loved peace, he gave riches in charity, and had nothing with which he could not part on occasions bf great danger or emergency. On Indradvadashi day, he gave away many clothes such as were not seen by any. As Uchchala was easily accessible and loved his servants so this king was inaccessible by his servants. None had a greater passion for horse, conveyances than Uchchala; and no one excelled Sussala in the administration of the kingdom. Uchchala relieved famines which occurred now and then But in the reign of king Sussala, famine never appeared even in dream. In short,"this king was superior to his elder brother in all qualities except in

[p.43]: charity, in disregard for wealth, and in not being easily accessible to men.

Garga was Sahasramangala's guardian and tried to make him king, but Sussala banished Sahasramangala. When Garga was at Bhadāvakāsha, Sahasramanagala's son Prāsa bribed the Damaras with much gold and conspired with them. Garga did not give up Uchchala's infant son to Sussala when asked by him to do so, but showed his enmity on that occasion. An innumerable army which the king sent against Garga was destroyed by him, as grass is destroyed by the forest fire. Garga's wife's brother, Vijaya, born at Devasarasa, also killed many of the king's soldiers. It was but a month and a day after the king had ascended the throne that this danger caused anxiety in his mind. It was at the confluence of the Vitasta and the Sindhu where there were the gods Sureshvari and Amaresha, that the royal army was annihilated by Garga. In this great battle, the two ministers Shringāra and Kapila were killed, as also the two brothers Karna and Shudraka. They were Tantris. No one could remove their bodies from the field where they lay amongst those of many other good warriors. Many soldiers belonging to Harshamitra, lord of Kampana who was the son of the king's maternal uncle, were killed by Vijaya at Vijayeshvara. There fell Tihla, son of Mangalaraja, of the Kshatriya caste and also the Tantris Tivdākara and others. In the king's army, Sanjapala showed the greatest valor for

[p.44]: though he had few soldiers under him yet Garga with a large army could not overcome him.

The steady king sent Lakkaka and others to collect his scattered army at Vijayakshetra, and when this was done, he himself marched against Garga. On the nest day he searched and burnt the innumerable corpses of soldiers destroyed by Garga. Pressed by the powerful king, Garga burnt his own place of residence and marched towards Phalāhā. There, deserted by his followers, and deprived of his horses which were captured, Garga took shelter in Ratnavarsha, a hill fort, to which the king laid siege. Sanjapala who rode on his horse surrounded him there. Garga then gave up the son of Uchchala and submitted to the king, who came to him ; and he soon gained the king's confidence by bringing to him Malakoshtha, son of Karnakoshtha and an enemy to the king. The king accepted his submission, and as Vijaya was dead, and the disturbance was over, he slowly returned to his capital. He went to Lohara and searched and captured Salhana and Lothana. He was then served by Kalha, Somapala and other petty kings. The king entered Kashmira again and bestowed greater favors on Garga than on any other. The king was like the summer sun, his queen was like the cool shade of a tree and his son, like the woodland breeze. Vṛihatṭikka and Sukshmatikka, two Damaras, born at Devasarasa and of the same lineage as Vijaya, arrived within the limits of the king's territory, and asked for help from him. They

[p.45]: entered in his presence and stood like innocent men, and their followers wept. The king, confident of success on account of his peace with Garga, abandoned good manners and caused them to be driven away by those who had canes in their hands. They, and their proud followers thereupon drew their arms and boldly attacked the king's soldiers. Bhogadeva, the Damara, struck the king with his dagger and the cool Gajjaka also struck the king at his back with his sword. The attack of the enemies on the king proved fruitless, because he was yet destined to live ; but the mare oil which he rode perished. The admirable Shringarasimha, of the family of Vāna, as he rode on his horse, warded off the blows which were directed against the king, and in that act he died. Vrihattikka, Bhogadeva and others were killed by the king's soldiers, but Sukshmatikka, the cause of future rebellions, escaped. The rebels Gajjaka &c. were impaled and killed, and the king whose life was so lately endangered became more attached to Garga. A man will survive great calamities, if the ordaned time of his death has not yet arrived, and when the time of death comes, even a flower destroys life. The pearls that lie within the sea are not deprived of lustre by the heat of the submarine fire that touches them ; but when they are worn by young women on their breasts, they are spoilt by the heat of youth.

The king remembered not the services done by Sanjapala and others, and not being able to brook haughtiness

[p.46]: in others, banished them from the country. Yashoraja who was related to the Kāka family was banished by the king, and he came over to Sahasramangala who enlisted him in his party. He also enlisted others who had been Vanished from the country, and had attained wealth and fame, and he set himself against the king. His son Prasa intended to enter Kashmira by the Kānda road, but returned in fear after Yashoraja had been wounded by the king's soldiers. He then joined the exiled servants of the king and gained great celebrity.

Assembled chiefs at Kurukshetra meet Bhikshachara

At the time when preparations for war were being made, three hill chiefs Jāsaṭa of Champa, Vajradhara of Vallapura And Sahajapala of Vartula and two heir apparent Kahla of Trigarta and Anandaraja of Vallapura assembled together and arrived at Kurukshetra. They found Bhikshachara who was saved by Asamati with Naravarmma; and Naravarmma gave gold to the former for, expenses on the way. Jasata was related to Bhikshachara and treated him well, and the other chiefs also honored him. They then arrived at Vallapura. Vimba and others who were out of Kashmira joined Bhikshachara so that the fame of Sahasramangala was eclipsed. The people said that king Harsha had directed Bhikshachara to be king and questioned who the others were, and left Sahasramangala and his party and flocked to Bhikshachara. Darpaka of the royal line, son of the maternal uncle of Kumarapala, father of Bhikshachara, though not banished from Kashmira, for-

[p.47]: got the gratitude due to the king in his love for his relative and went over to Bhikshachara. He had been raised to prosperity by Sussala as if he were his own son. Advised by the heir-apparent and Jasata, the chief of Vallapura married his daughter to Bhikshachara and bestowed Padmaka on him. Gayapala, the Thakkura of the country, assembled many chiefs and desired to place Bhikshachara in the seat of his grandfather Harsha. The king heard this news, and became anxious, but in the meantime the powerful Gayapala was murdered by his relatives through stratagem. Darpaka who had joined them at Padmaka and was the chief of Bhikshachara's army fell in a battle. This reduced Bhikshachara to an insignificant state, like a cloud in a rainless season. Asamati had gone away from him, and his gold for the road expenses was reduced ; and even his father-in-law ill treated him then. For four or five years he lived in the house of Jasata and where he had barely food and clothing with difficulty. Dengapala, a Thakkura, who lived by the Chandrabhaga, married his daughter to Bhikshachara and took him to his house. There for sometime he lived not in poverty and without fear, there he was beloved and there he attained his manhood.

In the meantime the excited and bold Prasa, son of Sahasra, incurred the anger of the king by his frequent movements. Bent on rebellion, he entered Kashmira by the Siddhapatha road, when he was captured by the commands of the king and was brought before him

[p.48]: Amidst these troubles, the nobleness of Sanjapala was conspicuous ; for though aggrieved, he did not rebel but retired to another country. This noble hero spread his great fame in foreign countries by his valor. What more shall I say of him?

The king had banished Sahela and other nobles, and gave the post of Sarwadhikara to Gauraka, a Kayastha. This person was distantly related to the hermit of Vijayeshvara, and by his service had become the favourite of the king when he was at Lohara. The king gradually removed the Kayasthas who were in the service and made Gauraka, his minister. When he attained this post, he made new arrangements and he supported the king's dependents by means of the income which easily flowed in from various sources. The wickedness of this man was not known owing to his mildness, as the fatal taste of poison is hidden when it is sweetened. The king who had squandered the wealth treasured before, now filled his treasuries with the wealth of misers, even as the cloud discharges snows on the snows. When king's treasury is polluted with the wealth of misers, it is either robbed by thieves or by enemies. The king was avaricious, and always sent the hoarded treasure to Lohara hills, Vattapanjaka and others, creatures of Gauraka and servants of the state, impoverished the country, as if some great calamity had befalfen it.

After the death of Uchchala when the stone had been placed on his head, the servants of the state, like hunters, again oppressed the people. After the death of

[p.49]: Prashastakalasha his brother's son Kayastha Kanaka made good use of his money. He constantly relieved the miseries of persons who came from a distance, driven by famine. The king now, without due care, gave good posts to them whose character was proved after Uchchala's death to be bad. He placed the notorious Tilakasimha at Dvara and Tilakasimha's brother, Janaka, at Rājasthāna [palace.] Tilakasimha vigorously attacked Rasadhipa and exacted tribute from him. Tilaku [another person of the same name] of the family of Kaka, to whom, the king had bestowed Kampana, began to act very mischievously, as the storm docs to trees. Sajjaka, lord of Sheḍḍarājasthāna, armed himself with rustic weapons and subdued some powerless enemies. Avapishta, servant of Aṭṭamelaka, had, through the favor of the Kaka family, access to the king, and the king accepted his advice. Thus the king, leaving aside his pride, spout some days in selecting ministers high and low according to merit.

The king commenced to build three high temples on the banks of the Vitasta, one in his own name, one in the name of his mother-in-law, and one in the name of his wife. He spent much wealth and renewed the Diddavihara which was burnt by fire, during the revolution. When the king went to the town of Aṭṭilikā, he was advised by his faithful friends, Kalpa &c, who were with him, to destroy Garga. They were envious of Garga, because his son Kalyanachandra showed greater ability

[p.50]: in hunting than they. They repeatedly urged that the king should put down one who was most powerful, and they caused him to turn against Garga. One of king's servants told Garga of the king's intention to imprison whim and keep him at Lohara, and Garga was frightened. He with his son fled to his home, and after a few days the king also returned to his capital. The mutual distrust and difference between Garga and the king were matured by instigators who frequented their houses.

The king drove from him, Vijaya, brother of Garga's wife, though out of affection, the king was afterwards grieved for him. He now set free Mallakoshlaka, Garga's enemy, whom he had imprisoned before, and in his anger, also liberated the Damaras who were confined with Mallakoshtaka and raised him to power. The king's army slowly marched out for battle, but was, as before, annihilated by Garga at Amareshvara. There Prithvihara, a Samala, Damara,of the pasty of the king, gained great reputation by behaving more boldly than any others. Tilakasimha, lord of Dvara, was defeated by Garga and he fled, and his valor was the subject of laughter for all. Out of pity Gargachandra did not kill Tilakasimha's surviving soldiers who were wounded and wore without arms or clothes. When the dead were burnt, the funeral piles were countless.

The king then led back his army, he Burnt Garga's dwelling, and Garga retired from Lohara to the Chuḍāvana hill. The king arrived at its base, and Garga daily

[p.51]: maintained fight with the royal army on tho roads loading up to the hill. He harassed the king's soldiers every night by secret warfare and killed Trailokyaraja and other Tantris. In the month of Phalguna there was a heavy fall of snow, Garga's followers were few and the king was his enemy : yet he did not lose his presence of mind. The patient Tilaka, lord of Kampana, of the family of Kaka, was alone able to pursue him to the peak where he had taken shelter. Thus pressed by Tilaka, Garga sent his wife to his daughter [who was married to the king] and received the good will of the king who hid his anger in his assumed kindness. But he was secretly annoyed with Garga, and though he made peace with him and went away from the place, yet he favored Mallakoshta instead of crushing him. While the king's intentions were thus kept undisclosed, Garga for two or three months suffered the rivalry of Mallakoshta and bore insults from his inferiors. In the meantime the king caused disunion in the army of Garga and caused his servants to spread evil reports among themselves. Garga's inferior relations wore treated as his equals by the king, and Garga felt hurt at this ; he took advice, and he with his wife and son came to the king when the latter was in his bath. The king rebuked him and disarmed him. Who can feel a pride in manliness, or can respect heroism, with even Garga, when rebuked, remained powerless like a coward ? Where was then his pride of making and unmaking kings when like a common man, he conducted himself with weakness ?

[p.52]: The beings in this -world yield to the will of Vidhata, even as the strings of an instrument yield to the will of their maker. Some of those tricked persons, now favourites of the king, who could not even look on Garga in battle, came and bound his arms at every joint.

Kalyana and others who were in a house near Shrisangramamatha desisted from rising on the approach of the king. Videha, son of Garga, consoled himself when he heard that his father was alive, and was with difficulty made to give up his arms by the king. According to the king's orders, Garga and his wife and son were confined in the palace and were served with befitting food. The son of Garga fled from the house to Chatushka but the low Karna saw him and brought him back to the king. The favor of the vulgar people is as inconstant as that of a king; it appears and disappears by turns.

Murder of Garga and his sons

When Manidhara, lord of Darad, came to see the king, the king went out to visit him and at the same time ordered Garga to be killed by his servants. After living for two or three months in prison, he and his three sons were violently killed at night by means of ropes tied round their necks. In the same way that the royal servants killed Garga, Vimbamukha tied a rope round his own neck and with his son threw himself into the water, and thus obtained fame. In the year 94, in the month of Bhadra, the king killed Garga to make his path easy, but he had to suffer misery, for he had to meet a great rebellion.

[p.53]: The king was very much grieved at the accession of Kahla to the throne of Kalinjara and at the death of Malla, mother of his-principal queen.

In the meantime Nagapala, brother of Somapala, when the latter had killed his elder step-brother Pratapapala, took fright and killed the minister who was the instrument of the murder, and fled from his country and took refuge with king Sussala. The king was angry at this and discarding the love for his obedient servant Somapala determined to march again&t him. Somapala felt certain that the enraged king could neither be resisted nor be induced to return, and he brought the kings' enemy Bhikshachara from Vallapura. When the king heard that Somapala had brought his relative, he was angry, and he attacked Rajapuri and entered it. Somapala fled, and Sussala bestowed the kingdom on Nagapala and remained there for seven months overawing his several enemies. The great king thus gave Vajradhara and other kings an opportunity of serving him, and was greatly pleased at their service. His soldiers frequently wandered about the banks of the river Chandrabhaga, &c, and his enemies were unable even to look at the faces of his soldiers.

Tilaka, lord of Kampana, went before him and the Damaras. Prithvihara was charged to guard the way. The virtuous king saved Brahmapuri and the temples of gods from the enemy and attained the high fruits of virtue. What shall I say of tho furniture of this rich king ?

[p.54]: Even the grass for his horses were brought all the way from his own kingdom. Here Sussala passed his days in pleasure and trusted those who were near him and raised them to prosperity. He became angry with Gauraka who was now at a distance ; it was the king himself who had placed Gauraka in Kashmira for its protection. But he now found out that he was wicked and was stealing all his money. In connection with this affair, the king rebuked Gauraka's brother, Tilakasimha, and made his heart uneasy. The king became angry with Tilakasimha, despoiled him of his possession and made Ananda lord of Dvara. This person was born at Parnotsa and was master of Ananta. Somapala and other ministers were at that time much admired ; for though the king was there, yet they did not come to him. In the year 95, in the month of Vaishakha, the king returned to his country, and Nagapala, driven from his kingdom, followed him.

The king reduced his expenses through avarice and punished some of his dependents. He dismissed Gauraka from his post and punished Gauraka's dependents ; hence all his ministers were displeased with him. But he lost much of his wealth by his unwise acts and through the inexperience of the newly created ministers. He made bricks of gold and sent them to Lohara, as also heaps of gold like mountains. In order to punish the servants of Garga, he made Gajjaka who was Garga's minister, the superintendent of punishments. The servants of Garga

[p.55]: apprehending chastisement took refuge with Mallakoshtaka who in anger killed Gajjaka in disguise although Gajjaka had reposed his trust on him. At the breaking out of this disorder at Lohara, the king imprisoned Arjjuna who was near him. He was the elder step-brother of Mallakoshta. He also imprisoned Hasta, son off Saḍḍachandra, though his kinsman, and Hasta's brother Vindaka. The king, in pursuance of past enmity, imprisoned Suryya and his son and then Anandachandra and others ; and thus acted against the dictates of sound policy. When Mallakoshta fled out of Lohara, the king in anger, impaled Arjjuna Koshta.

The king left his army there and entered the city, destroyed his faithful men and made all the Damaras his enemies. He was even angry with Prithvihara who served him and who by the king's orders was attacked by the lord of Kampana and other ministers. But he escaped with difficulty and went to the house of his friend Kshira. None of his enemies opposed him as on the way he passed through Avantipura and other towns in a miserable plight. The distress of Prithvihara ruined the subjects of the king, even like the curse of some angry spirit. Then the quick-witted Kshira sent eighteen Damaras with Prithvihara to Shamāgāsa. The king went to Vijayeshvara and employed Tilaka, lord of Kampana, to suppress Prithvihara and his, unsubdued men. The most valiant Tilaka cut the enemies to pieces in battle and dispersed them, as the strong wind scatters

[p.56]: the clouds. When he returned after conquering the Damaras, the king, instead of honoring aim, insulted him and disallowed him from entering the city. And when the king had entered it, Tilaka, disheartened and grieved and discouraged in his master's service, retired to his own house.

When a master treats men of superior rank and men of inferior rank in the same way, and does not try to improve the position of men in middling condition; when he exhibits greater cruelty and enmity towards servants than towards open enemies ; and when, after his servants have done his work, he offers insult instead of reward to those who have shewn unusual skill in such work ; — such a master is deserted by his servants, as a house full of snakes is deserted by men. When the lord of Kampana left the king's service, the Damaras every where destroyed provisions, as blight destroys the harvest. The Brahmanas were struck with fear and began to starve, and in every city, they brought much infamy on the king. Horses and elephants began to die indicating the approach of some great calamity to the country. Men trembled in fear at the nearness of danger, even as trees tremble in the wind just before they are struck with lightning. In the beginning of the year 96, the Damaras were ready to fall, as the snow on the eve of melting at the touch of summer. At first the rebellion Broke out in Devasarasa and thence it spread, even as the pain in the

[p.57]: cheek-bone spreads over the whole face. The powerful Vijaya made common cause with his kinsman Tikkā and surrounded the royal army that was stationed at Sthāma. Nagavaṭṭa, son of a Kayastha, was the commander of the army at Sthama ; he sustained for a long-time the rush of the enemy. The lord of Kampana was asked by the king to go to battle and he went after much entreaty, but with relaxed powers, remembering the faults of the king. In the battle which ensued between him and Vijaya, victory remained long doubtful.

When Mallakoshta gained power in Lohara, the king, in the month of Vaishakha, went to the village of Thalyoraka. His army was many times misled, and it found itself before the enemy, as a man is led by dreadful dreams before death. But he who relying on his own strength had defeated even king Harsha in the fullness of his power and force, who with great valor and jealousy had conquered the world and to whose courage there was no limit, even he, in time, was defeated and his army suddenly broken. When he fled, Prithvihara who was at the village of Hāmigrāma came unexpectedly and defeated the hero Sajjaka. Sajjaka fled and the cruel and powerful Prithvihara pursued him. Prithvihara burnt Nagamatha near the city and returned. He and other cruel Damaras made away with the horses of the king and those of the king's men and of the spies.

The king became furious and cruel and took to the wicked ways of wretched men. The policy of Prithvihara

[p.58]: failed, and the king at night avoided the Damaras, as one avoids food sprinkled with poison. He sent his brother Hamva to Vindaka and likewise sent his other brothers and sons to other men. He tore the nose and the ears of the mother of Jayaka who lived at the village of Siphinnā and sent her to him. In the city he impaled Suryyaka and his son, and in anger killed others, those who deserved death and those who did not deserve death. Furious, as death, he was feared by all, both by his household people and by outsiders, and they were all disgusted with him. Though, the king disapproved the unjust policy by which king Harsha had lost his kingdom yet he adopted it in practice. He who is himself without a fault and who never makes a blunder in matters of policy can alone, from a distance, point out the failings of those who enter in battle or are addicted to elephant fight, or of those who are engaged in gambling or arc placed in charge of the affairs of kings. The king made vigorous efforts and somewhat checked Mallakoshta and others.

Arrival of Mallakoshta and Bhikshachara

Now Vijaya slowly brought Bhikshachara, grandson of king Harsha, by the road of Vishalaṇṭa, but being defeated by the lord of Kampana, he fled towards Devasarasa. As he was running along a gap, he fell to the earth. The victor sent his head to the king as a fruit of the tree of victory. But the ungrateful monarch was not pleased with this groat act nor gave him fitting honor. He sent him a messenger saying " it was the Hollow, lord of Kampana

[p.59]: [alluding to Vijaja's death in the hollow] that has killed the rebel, why then do you boast ? Tilaka knew the king to be thoroughly ungrateful and in disgust thought of rebelling. If one is insulted and he desists from work, the good people do not blame him, but if he actually rebels, then his conduct becomes blamable. Let those who delight in politics say what may appear proper to them, but the proud, when they are requested by grateful persons, do good to others even at the sacrifice of their lives. When the cloth has caught fire, when the serpent has bitten on the skin, when secret plans have reached the enemy's ear, when a dilapidated house is about to fall, when the king appreciates not service and when friends are faithless and ready to turn away in time of danger, a wise man can attain prosperity only by avoiding them. But those who, instead of merely leaving their wicked master, proceed against him in anger, are called rebels, and who are greater sinners than they ? We are indebted to our parents for our birth, but are indebted to our master for everything ; so that those who rebel against their masters are greater sinners than those who kill their parents.

When Vijaya was killed and others subdued, Tilaka did not think the country had become quiet. For a short time he held himself aloof and spread disaffection, and all people knew that the sedition had spread. In order to bring back Mallakoshta and Bhikshachara, he sent his

[p.60]: army to Vishālānṭa. The lord of Kampana, though a rebel, informed the king of their approach, but the king forbade him to give him such information and thus said in anger: "Allow them passage without obstruction and we will kill them as they run before us, as horsemen kill a jackal when it comes before hunters." Though the king knew how to behave when the kingdom was thus divided, yet led by fate, he remained inactive on the present occasions. The rebel Tilaka gained over Marmmaraja, and other Damaras brought in the followers of Bhikshachara by mountainous roads. Such tales as reflected glory on Bhikshachara and discredit on the king were heard from place to place and were told by one to another. " Bhikshachara talks in none but the classical language." " He can pierce through ten pieces of stone by an arrow." " When walking, he can go and return one hundred yojanas without being tired." Such laudatory stories about Bhikshachara were repeated even by the aged, grey and long bearded men, and all listened with pleasure. Even those who knew nothing of the king told and sought for tales regarding Bhikshachara, as if he would be the sole king of the country possessing all the treasures. Old men who bathe in the bathing houses in the river, the inferior servants, the numberless men who pass as sons of kings, the naturally wicked but aspiring warriors, teachers who teach their students, the old men who live in temples, dancing girls, the chiefs of temples, the merchants who appropriate money deposited

[p.61]: with them, the effort Brahmanas who hear what is read and who are versed in magic, the soldiers mostly drawn from the agricultural population, the Damaras who live near the capital; — these humour tho people with exciting news, and generally become rebels in, Kashmira. The people trembled and the king became anxious as the report of the approach of Bhikshachara gained ground.

Victory of Prithvihara over the royal army

The very powerful Prithvihara who stationed himself on a level plain covered with trees and bordering on the mountains came out and defeated the royal army. Ananda, lord of Dvara, of the line of Ananta, Kāka and Tilakasimha ; — these three who had once fled from battle were made ministers. Vijaya fell in Jaishta, and the king suffered a defeat on the sixth day of bright moon in Ashadha and became disheartened. As when the cows run about, or the serpents ascend the tops of trees, or the ants lay eggs, the approach of rain is known, so the king knew by evil omens, that danger was nigh and did what was necessary to be done. On the third day of bright moon, in the month of Ashadha, he sent his queen, his son and other relatives to the fortified Lohara. He followed them, but the bridge on the Vitasta broke down and some Brahmanas and the twice-born inhabitants of Loshta fell in the river. Grieved at this ill omen, he accompanied his family for two or three days to Hushkapura, and then again returned to his capital. Bereft of his queen and son, he appeared as if he was forsaken

[p.62]: by wealth and power. This step appeared a good one for him in the time of danger; for though at present he was greatly frightened, yet afterwards he gained prosperity. Like king Harsha, he caused his own danger, but on account of his taking this step his line still rules the country.

In the month of Shravana, the warriors of Lohara brought Bhikshachara to the powerful Damaras of Madava. As friends accompany the bridegroom to the house of the bride, so came they who followed Bhikshachara from Lohara. Mallakoshta and others having satisfied the people of Lohara, sent them back to their own homes to annoy the lord of Kampana. When the enemy had approached on every side, the king began to enlist infantry at an enormous expense. Bent on his purpose, he spent so much money that even artisans and cart-drivers took up arms. The leaders of the army who were in the city left their armours on their horses, and prepared themselves for competition in athletic exercises in every street.

Battle of Hiranyapura: When Bhikshachara was at Mayagrama, the people of Lohara came out and fought with the king's soldiers who were at Amareshvara. In the fierce battle that took place near the town of Hiranyapura, the men of Lohara killed Vinayakadeva and other leaders of the king's army. Early in the battle, the enemy captured a fine mare belonging to the king, and thought that he had got the king's good fortune. On the banks of the

[p.63]: Kshiptika, near the capital, Prithvihara killed many good soldiers of the king. Though Tilaka was at Vijayesha, the Damaras who dwelt at Svāngāchiholaḍa came and fought a battle on the banks of the Mahasarit (great river.) They besieged the city in some places, they burnt the inhabitants in sonic places, they plundered them and yelled day and night. Every day there were disorders in the roads on account of the rebellion. The music of soldiers marching out, the entrance of the wounded troops, lamentation for the death of relatives and friends, the retreat of the defeated soldiers, the flight of birds and the falling of arrows, tho carrying of armours, the march of horses and the dust constantly raised by them ; — all these continually disturbed the citizens. Every morning the enemies came ready with, every thing and the people thought they would overcome the king on that very day. Who was more enduring than the king, since he gave no expression of grief when his kingdom was so much disturbed by the enemies? He was seen causing bandages to be bound on the wounds of the wounded, or the blades of arrows &c, to be extracted from the wounds, or causing money to be distributed. Immense sums of money were spent in daily expenses, — such as extra allowance for living in foreign districts, or in distributing good Food and medicine. Thousands of horses and soldiers were daily destroyed in tho field, or wounded in their houses. Mallakoshta and others of Lohara were checked

[p.64]: in their excesses by the king's army in which there were many horsemen. Advised by their partisans who were gained over by the king, the soldiers carried Bhikshachara to Sureshvari by a certain way. But as they were grossing a pool by a narrow bridge, they had to fight a battle. Bowmen formed the larger portion of their army, and though they were frightened by the king's horse, they gained the victory in the end. The lord of Kampana who had rebelled against the king, came out of Vijayeshvara where he lived and checked the powerful Damaras. He was afraid lest the Lavanya people (Damaras) would come to know his weakness and fall on his rear and harass him in his march ; wishing therefore to conceal his weakness, he fell on the soldiers of Ajaraja who arrived at Vijayeshvara, killed two hundred and fifty men of the enemy, left Vijayakshetra and entered the city. The Damaras, thus terrified, did not pursue him, but with shouts ascended the top of a hill and left him the road free. When leaving Madava, the lord of Kampana entered another province, he remembered the former behaviour of the king towards him and smiled at the welcome which the king now offered to him. But having shown his valor in battle, the lord of Kampana, like other inferior ministers, remained inactive.

Defeat of the king's army

At this time all the Damaras came to Madava and reached the banks of the Mahasarit, (great river). All the means which the king employed against the enemy became fruitless, as his plans were betrayed by his own

[p.65]: men. He who had attacked several kings before was now engaged in defending his own capital. The lord of Dvara remained at, Amaresha with the king's sons and the Kajasthamya ministers remained near Rajanagarden. They went to Prapāsada, but did not fight. They remained inactive as if they had been in a distant island. The army of the rebels sometimes gained and sometimes lost battles but Prithvihara always gained victories. In a battle, the soldiers in the king's army, great and small, were all defeated by Prithvihara as he fought excited with wine. The valor of Udaya, born of the line of Ichchhaṭi, was conspicuous in battle, although he was very young. He dwelt with Prithvihara, but the latter pulled him by the beard, whereupon he beat Prithvihara and snatched the sword from his hand. The battle took place just by the side of the capital, and oven women and children were killed, being accidentally struck by arrows. Thus, there was an increased slaughter of men, and the king became confounded and he was unable to get out of the array of the soldiers. When the king's movement was thus stopped, Somapala took this opportunity to plunder Chāṭalikā. Where is the valor in the village- jackal approaching the lion's den, when the lion is engaged in fighting with the elephant ? The king was so grieved at the misfortunes that befell his two kingdoms (Kashmira and Lohara) that he could not even look on himself. Evil deeds, dangers and miseries were around him, nevertheless his determination did

[p.66]: not leave him. The Brahmanas in the palace who were vexed with the king performed mystic rites to cause harm to the king under the pretence of doing him good. They told the king that his ministers were indifferent as to the issue of battles and asked him therefore to take away his treasure from them and send it to the hills of Lahara ; otherwise, they urged, if these troubles continued and if the enemy took, possession of the autumn harvest, there would be no means left for defence. Allthe ministers were alarmed when their indifference was thus pointed out by the Brahmanas to the king. He waited for suitable opportunity and conducted himself as if he had not noticed the lukewarmness of the ministers. The wily and avaricious Brahmanas who could not so much as turn a grass, now upset the plan of the king. The hot headed courtiers and others who served the king obtained influence with him and became as harmful as an army of the enemy. Many evils arose out of this. The country was harassed and plundered, as it had never been before. The wily people who had never seen the king's court before, and who did not know manners, spoke harshly to the aggrieved king when he was trying to quiet them. These troubles became more tumultuous than those caused by the Lavanyas, just as a disease in the throat becomes more painful than that in the leg. The king bribed those who were most active in conspiring against him and prevented the performance of mystic rites to some extent.

[p.67]: Vijaya, of the line of Varṇasoma the warrior, a commander in the army of Bhikshachara, made a sudden entry into the capital, but was killed by the horsemen. He had nearly upset the kingdom by speedily penetrating into the city. The king was intending to cause a dissension in the enemy's party, and Prithvihara, whose ardour had been somewhat chocked, expressed his desire for peace with him. When this great warrior wished for peace with the king, the soldiers of both parties thought that their wars wore at an end. The king sent three confidential ministers to bring Prithvihara to the neighbourhood of Nagamatha, but he came and treacherously murdered them. Mammaka, son of the nurse, Ganga and Dvijarāma the Vārika, and their three servants were murdered by the side of Tilakasimha. Gauraka, although he gave much wealth, was murdered by his merciless enemies and he died meditating on god Shiva to the last moment and amidst the cries of his friends and relatives. The king heard of this wicked deed ; and all the people of the country became vexed and broke ill of him in the capital.

The king found it difficult to pass the fourteenth bright lunar day of Ashvina. His kingdom was in tumult, he was weary and void of further hopes, and he asked even unworthy persons as to what he should do. When the king was thus in danger, those around him all rejoiced in their hearts, but in their outward behaviour, they expressed sympathy for the king. The king was

[p.68]: Unable to bear the great calamity ; his servants gradually left him and joined the opposite party. Vimba, the step brother of the lord of Kampana, accepted the post given, to him by the king at Dvara, and went over to the enemy's side. Janakasimha engaged through secret Messenger to marry his brother's daughter with Bhikshachara, and remained inactive. The cavalry men daily went over to Bhikshachara taking horses, swords, mails &c, with them. What more shall I say of those who remained idly with the king during the day, but whose shameless figures were seen at night with Bhikshachara ?

Situation of the king Sussala

When the king became powerless to execute his orders, the people freely and openly changed sides and created much tumult. The Damaras from all sides plundered the autumn harvest, and the people who had neither money nor men lived on roots. Men falsely believed that when king Sussala would depart, Bhikshachara would fill the earth with gold. When were the charities of Bhikshachara seen, or where were his riches ? Men who follow other men are deceived. The crescent of the moon has no clothes to give, and yet men bow down to it in the hope of obtaining clothing ! Fie to the avaricious who have no judgment. When the king's party obtained victory, the people hung their heads, but when Bhikshachara's party won, the people would create a tumult in their joy. The king and the Damaras stood in four of each other, like the Brahmana and the dog. The king was afraid on account of the defection of his people, and the Damaras

[p.69]: wished to flee on account of the king's firmness. Both parties remained in fear, neither knowing what step the other was going to adopt. The king mistrusted his friends and believed them to be rebels at heart, and despaired of his life whether he remained there or fled. At the time of this great danger, he bestowed garments, gold and jewels to the soldiers, yet none of them spoke well of him but all spoke ill of him. The people said without fear, " he is lost," "he will not be king again." The king heard this and felt disheartened, even as a sickman whom his physician has given up feels to hear the words, " he will not live," " he is dead." Even when the king came before his servants who wore called in by his orders, they would look disrespectfully and indifferently on him. At this time the soldiers became so timid that they could not, through fear, get out of their own homes. There was disaffection among the king's men and tho Damaras intended to attack him, and he was placed in great danger by his own soldiers. They shut up the doors of his palace, and harassed him at every step for the allowance which was due to them for serving abroad. The king was very rich and gave them more than was their due, but could not please them, as they were only bent on insulting him. As a sickman, when he goes to a shrine to die, is troubled by the beggars there, so the king was confined by these shameless soldiers who thus extorted their due. The tumultuous local officers used violence towards the king, attacked him, smashed his golden

[p.70]: vessels and robbed him of his wealth. The king could not keep down the tumults that arose every moment in the city, as in a sea, in which there were young and old. One morning his doors were closed by the soldiers, he saw the town in complete agitation, and directed Janaka, the superintendent of the city to go round and quell the tumult. But Janaka went a short distance only and returned.

The king gave money and bestowed titles on the soldiers and with difficulty got rid of them, and clad in mail and accompanied by his ladies, he set out of the capital. But before he got out of the court-yard, thieves began their plunder. When the king left his domestics and kingdom and had gone, some cried, some yelled, some committed plunder. The king was filled with shame, anger and fear, and was followed on the way by five or six thousand soldiers.

In the year 96, on the sixth dark lunar day of Agvahayana, when there was yet one prahara of the day left, the king set out with his servants. At every stop, his own men deserted him and stole his horses. Thus with a few soldiers, at night, he arrived at Pratapapura. When he came to Tilaka, he confided in him and shed tears in sorrow, as before a friend. Believing that Tilaka would not rebel against him, the king went to his house at Hushkapura the next day, and honored Tilaka by performing his bath &c, in his house. The king wished to collect an army, and with a view of again obtaining the kingdom he entered Kramarajya.

[p.71]: There Tilaka brought Kalyanavadya and other warlike Damaras before the king and the king became impatient and went away from the house. On the road he found robbers obstructing the passage ; he gave them money and went his way. Tilaka left him there, but Ananda, Tilaka's brother, went with him one stage further, out of politeness. The king, although deserted by his servants, satisfied the robbers in the road by his gift and by his valor. He was saved from them only because he was not yet destined to die. The claws of the lion with which he defends himself in impenetrable forests full of trees and rocks, come in time to adorn the necks of boys ; and the tusks of elephants which they use as weapons in battle are in time easily handled by men in the game of dice, Valor, charity, fame, wisdom &c., of living beings; — all perish in this wonderful world. Even the sun has different aspects, it is sometimes bright and sometimes dull. What stability is there then in the power of living beings ?

King's retreat eventually to Lohara

Unable to bear the sight of the houses burnt by the enemies, the king and his soldiers moved silently and in anger, and ascended the hills of Lohara. There through shame, he was unable to look on his queen and lay day and night on his bed and lamented. Even in the day time, light burned in his inner room from which he did not issue, only he showed himself to his servants at the time of his meal, as a favor. He did not touch perfumes, did not ride horses, nor did he relish songs or dancing,

[p.72]: nor enjoyed the company of his friends. He recollected in grief and narrated to his queen, one by one, the indifference, the anger, insolence and the rebellion of his men ; and he bestowed riches on his attendants, because they had left their homes and followed him.

When the king had departed, all the ministers in Kashmira, with their armies, met before the capital ; and by the consent of the ministers, the horsemen, the petty chieftains, the Tantris, the citizens and others, Janakasimha became their head and superintendent of the city. Mallakoshta and others who were in the confidence of Bhikshu, and were in frequent personal communication with him, caused Janakasimha to give his son and his brother's son as hostages, in order to inspire confidence. To the terror of all, night closed on the capital which was without a king and which was full of timid women and children. In the capital without a king, some weak persons were killed, some feeble persons were robbed and tho houses of some powerless men were burnt by the enemies.

Bhikshu's entrance into capital

On the next day, Bhikshu entered the capital, his soldiers shouted and filled the roads on all sides. He was in the midst of his horsemen, whose horses were painted with vermilion and were hid by innumerable swords drawn out of their scabbards. He excited the curiosity and fear of men, like a lion. His youthful hair flowed loosely out of his warrior's dress and adorned his back, as if to bind the goddess of victory. His earrings

[p.73]: adorned his face. His calm, spacious, white eyes, his beard, the marks of sandel that adorned him, his copper colored lips and his face beaming with additional grace on account of victory, — turned even the hearts of enemies towards him. The drawn sword cast its reflection, on the horse and the horse's hair fanned him. His horse stopped at every step and he accepted the offers of minor chiefs. Mallokoshta sat behind the boy (Bhikshu) and advised him in every thing, like a nurse, and pointed out persons to Bhikshu saying, "this person was dear to your father," "on this man's lap you were nursed," "this person is the main support of the kingdom." Bhikshu had first entered the house of Janakasimha for marriage, and he now entered the capital in order to assume the royal state. For, a long time his family was nearly extinct and when it lingered in him, it was an object of derision, like the hopes of a woman who places reliance on the child in her womb. But after seeing Bhikshu's career, men began to fear even the portraits of their enemies. Surely those who aspire to conquests should not be derided.

The wealth which was left out of king Sussala's treasures afforded means for luxuries to the new king. The king, the Damaras and the ministers who had plundered the treasures were now free from all difficulties and divided among themselves many horses, coats of mail, swords &c. The robbers who lived on poor food and walked about like evil spirits, now began to

[p.74]: enjoy in towns, the pleasures of heaven. The king sat in his court with villagers clad in flowing blankets. The Damaras witnessed the uncommon prosperity of Bhikshachara and spread a rumour that he was an incarnation of a god. Bhikshachara had never known the duties of a king and at every step was at a loss what to do, like a physician with medicines whose effects he has not tested. Janakasimha willingly gave his brother's daughter in marriage to the king, and the lord of Kampana also married his daughter to him and placed himself under his protection. Jaṅga, a leader of the army of the king to Rajapuri, accepted service under king Bhikshu, but he was more mindful of his own interests than of his master's. Vimba, the chief minister, was the king defacto while Bhikshachara was so in name. Vimba, although he enriched the prostitutes and behaved like a vulgar man, was yet liked both by the good and the wicked. Jyeshtapala who possessed great heroism, and as the step brother of Daryyaka became a great favourite of the king. Bhutavishva and other ministers of the king's grand-father also obtained much wealth.

Weak character of the king Bhikshachara

The king was at a loss as to what to do, the ministers were sunk in luxury, the robbers became powerful, and the government, though new, collapsed as soon as it was formed. The king did not look to his own duties, but only sought enjoyment in the company of new women and in many sorts of dainties. He was blinded by his pleasures,, and was only sent to attend his court by his

[p.75]: own men for his good. There, in the court, he sleep under the influence of wine. When the minister spoke to him haughtily and expressed his pity, the king instead of being angry loved him as his father. Served as a vulgar man by shameless and lewed flatterers, he was induced to do the work of menials. His patience was as unsteady as a line drawn on water. He spoke falsehood, and his friends deserted his service. Whatever his ministers told him was communicated by him to other kings ; he was like a vessel with a hole that dropped anything that, was poured in it. The ministers took him to their houses and feasted him ; and they robbed him, as a richman is robbed on the occasion of his father's death. In the house of Vimba, Vimba's wife, for whom he felt a passion, removed the dishes from before the king, and concealing herself from the eyes of her husband, she smiled, looked on the king and exposed to his sight, her breast and waist, and the king became impatient. Prithvihara and Mallakoshta became jealous of, and angry with, each other and now and then disturbed the capital. The king himself went to their houses and married the daughter of the one to the son of the other, but still these powerful men did not forget their anger. The king himself married in the house of Prithvihara at which Mallakoshta became angry and openly deserted the king. Janaka became powerful on account of his connection with the king; he rebelled and also caused disaffection in Ujānanda and other

[p.76]: Brahmana ministers. The king who was indifferent to those, acted according to the advice of his servants who were rebels at heart. His actions were without any plan, and he was blamed. What strange things will not occur where the Damaras are masters and Brahmana women are insulted by dog-eaters. In that kingdom without a king, or rather with many kings, all rules of custom were upset. In the reign of Bhikshachara, old Dinnaras became uncurrent and one hundred of the old could be bought for eighty of the new.

In order to attack Sussala, the mad king sent Vimba with an army to Lohara by the Rajapuri road. After Vismaya of Sallara had become his friend, the king, accompanied with Somapala, brought an army of Turushka to aid Vimba ; and to every individual Turushka he showed a cord and said that he would bind and drag Sussala with it. The Kashmirian, the Khasha, the Mlechchha soldiers could upset the world. What was impossible for them ? When Vimba had departed, Bhikshachara was deprived of his guide, and what wrong act did he not do? The unchaste wife of Vimba invited the king to her house and satisfied him with a feast and with her embraces. No pressure of work would prevent the king's visit to the wife of his minister. He, whose fall was nigh, feared, not ill fame. There he took his meals and played on the musical instruments tumbha and kamsya, and exhibited his shamelessness. He was not ashamed to do these things, like vulgar men. Slowly

[p.77]: the king lost his support and his wealth was gone, be could not even get his food in time.

Sussala who was avaricious and cruel and whom the people had abused before, became dear to them ; the subjects who had been vexed with him, and had ruined his wealth and fame, now became eager for his return. We who have seen these events still wonder why those subjects had been angry with him, and then loved him.

Sussala becomes king second time 1121 AD

The common people become enemies or friends in a moment, they are like brutes and have no regard for reason. The king (Sussala) came out of his kingdom (Lohara); and Mallakoshta, Janaka and others made him prepare himself for conquest. When the people plundered Akshasuva, a village belonging to Tikka and inhabited by Brahmanas, the Brahmanas there commenced mystic rites. The Brahmanas who dwelt in other Brahmana villages came to Vijayeshvara and to the neighbourhood of the Rājāna garden in the capital. Instigated by Ojānanda and other chief Brahmanas, the Brahmanas who were in the temple, even at Gokula, commenced to perform rites. Many images of gods were placed on vehicles and adorned with white umbrellas and clothes and chamaras from all sides covered the yard ; and the sounds of kāhalā, kaṃsya and tāla resounded on all sides. Thus there was seen an assembly of Brahmanas the like of which was never seen before. When the king's messengers went to silence them, they proudly said that they had no help except in the Long Beard.

[p.78]: They indicated king Sussala by speaking of the Long Beard, and they regarded him as a plaything. The Brahmanas concerted various plans with the citizens who came day by day to see the magic performed. The Brahmanas and the citizens who feared an attack from the king every moment were prepared for fight. Janaka Simha advised that the king should be brought into the city. To prevent the Brahmanas from performing the magic, the king went to Vijayakshetra, but he failed in his object. In the meantime Tilaka advised him to kill all the Damaras, but the king did not accept his advice. When the Lavanyas (Damaras) heard that the king had declined the proposal, they were pleased, but Prithvihara and others became afraid of Tilaka.

The king wished to imprison the haughty Lakshaka the charioteer, son of Prayaga's sister, but he escaped and went to Sussala. Then after killing many men, the king entered the capital and gave audience to the citizens who became vexed with him without cause. Even when the king spoke reasonably, the evil-minded citizens silenced him. There is no medicine for those who are bent on rebellion.

In the meantime Somapala, Vimba and others who were at Lohara came to Parnotsa to fight with king Sussala. Padmaratha, king of Kalinjara, remembered his friendship with Sussala, as he was born of the same family, and came with Kahla and others. The proud Sussala with his strong men came on the thirteenth

[p.79]: bright lunar day of Vaishakha and fought with the enemy. Those who have seen this great battle near Parnotsa describe it to this day. Sussala first wiped his disgrace in this engagement. From that day Sussala's natural vigour returned to him, as the lion returns to the forest. The Turushka soldiers dropped their ropes in fear and were destroyed by Sussala within a short time. Sussala also killed the maternal uncle of Somapala in the battle on the banks of the river Vitola. Though Sussala's army was smaller, yet he defeated tho enemies, killed them and made them flee, and they impeded one another in flight. How commendable the actions of the Kashmirians ! They fought against one of their masters, and spread evil reports of another ! When Somapala with the Turushkas had gone, the shameless Kashmirians left Vimba and went over to Sussala. They were not ashamed on that day to bend their heads to him against whom they had openly bent their bows on the preceding day. Accompanied by the Damaras and citizens who came to him, Sussala, in two or three days, marched towards Kashmira.

The Rajpoot Kahlana, son of Sahadeva, collected the Damaras who were at Kramarajya and advanced towards the king. The same Vimba who was the first to leave Sussala's army to go over to Bhikshu, now left Bhikshu and joined Sussala. Other ministers and Tantris of Janakasimha's army returned to Sussala

[p.80]: without a scruple. One warrior born in the village of Kānḍiletra had begun fasting (magic) at Bhangila, a lonely place ; and Bhikshu, whose men had now come over to Sussala, came with Prithvihara to over-come this man. He succeeded in his effort and then wished to destroy Janakasimha who was going over to Sussala. But Janakasimha heard of Bhikshachara's intention, and being then in the capital he collected and incited many citizens, horsemen and Tantris against Bhikshu. Bhikshu knew that the tumult was raised by Janakasimha, and he with Prithvihara suddenly entered the capital. Though Janakasimha was advised not to fight, still he fought with the army of Bhikshachara on the bridge before Sadashiva. There the proud soldiers of Janakasimha were unexpectedly defeated. Prithvihara accompanied by Alaka, his, brother's son, crossed over by another bridge and destroyed the enemy's army. When the citizens, the horsemen and the Tantris fled, Janakasimha with his friends fled at night and went to Lohara. Bikshu and Prithvihara pursued him in the morning and at their request, the horsemen and others joined them in the pursuit. The Brahmanas who were fasting (performing magic) hastily threw away the images of gods and fled leaving their work behind. Bhikshu did not molest those who guarded the empty temples as they told him that they had ceased from performing magic. We meet with surprise even to this day, many horsemen who served Janakasimha one day and Bhikshachara on the next day.

[p.81]: The transcion glory of Bhikshachara shed a lustre on the fame of his wife's brother ; for to him he gave the wealth which belonged to his father Tilakasimha. When Janakasimha had fled, Bhikshu broke down the houses of those who had set themselves against him. When Sulhaṇa, Vimba and others had with their large armies defeated Tilaka at Hushkapura, Sussala was seen by the enemies approaching by the Lohara road after two or three days, with Mallakoshta, Janaka &c., and their army in front, and with many petty chieftains in his rear. The horseman who had rebelled against Sussala issued out by the way that runs along the shops of the capital. On some of them he frowned, his eyes quivering with rage and his nose extended, some he , pierced and some he killed. On the citizens who had opposed him before, and now blessed him and threw flowers at him, he looked with indifference. His coat of mail was listlessly thrown over his shoulder, his turban covered his hair full of dust, his sword rested in the scabbard, and he rode among the horsemen with their drawn sword. A garland of flowers hung round his neck ; and amidst loud shouts and sounds of bheri which filled all sides, Sussala entered the capital. He returned after six months and twelve days, on the third bright lunar day of Jyaishtha in the year 97. Before entering the kingdom, Sussala with the Lavanyas searched for and found Bhikshachara who had fled to the banks of the Kshiptika and with Prithvihara had

[p.82]: gone over to the other side of the Stream. Sussala met other Lavanyas on the way and returned. He entered the capital after driving out Bhikshachara and capturing the wounded Simha, a relative of Prithvihara. The capital, like a harlot, still bore marks of the enemy's possession and was therefore painful to the eyes of the proud Sussala. Movements of Prithvihara and Bhikshu:

Leaving Kashmira, Bhikshu with Prithvihara and others went to the village of Pushpānaḍa which was in the possession of Somapala. The king went and subdued all the Damaras and placed Malla, son of Vatta, at Kheri and Harshamitra at Kampana. Those who had heedlessly acted against him did not receive his mercy now.

The king was extremely jealous of Bhikshu and could not brook any trace of him, and bestowed the country in small portions on his own servants. The Damaras who had gained prosperity by wrong means would not yield their possessions and did not give up their plans of rebellion, even through fear of the angry king. Bhikshu, deprived of his kingdom, lived in the possession, of his friend Somapala and was encouraged by the gifts and the honor bestowed on him by his host. Vimba, with a view to obtain help, went to Vismaya, and was there surrounded by his enemies and fell fighting. On the death of Vimba, Bhikshachayra adopted the policy of taking Vimba's wife into his family and felt no shame.

The hero Prithvihara fell on Purapura, and though he had a small army, he defeated the son of Vatta and made

[p.83]: him flee from battle. When he had fled, Prithvi brought out- Bhikshu again, and, at the desire of his wild followers, entered Madava. Joined by Marikha, Yajya and other Damaras who dwelt there, he marched to Vijayakshetra in order to overcome the lord of Kampana.

Burning of Chakradhara

Harshamitra's army was destroyed, and he left Vijayakshetra and fled to Avantipura. The inhabitants of Vijayakshetra, and of the towns and villages went in fear to Chakradhara, and that place was filled with women, children, cattle, corn, and wealth, as also with the king's soldiers with arms and horse. The mounted soldiers of Bhikshu thirsting for plunder surrounded the place on all aides. Protected as they were by the wooden walls around the temple and by gates, they remained in the court-yard of the temple and could neither be captured nor killed. There was a wicked and senseless Damara named Janakaraja, an inhabitant of Katisthali, and this man had an enemy named Karpura within the enclosure; and in order to burn him Janaka set fire to the enclosure without feeling any scruple at the destruction of so many lives. At the sight of the fire ablaze on all sides, there arose a great cry of many beings. The horses broke away from their traces and ran about in the midst of the crowd of men, and killed many of them. The sky was overcast with the rising smoke which looked like a hairy and bearded Rakshasa. When the smoke had abated, the flames which spread on all sides seemed as if the clouds had melted and rolled in golden waves. The

[p.84]: fragments of fire looked like the falling red turbans of those who were walking in the sky and running away on account of heat. The crackling noise of the bursting of large joints of wood made it seem as if the Ganges in the sky was boiling in the heat. The particles of fire rose into the sky, as if the lives of animals, in fear of being burnt, fled into the deep firmament. The heaven was filled with the shrieks of birds whose young ones were burnt, and the earth with the cry of burning men. The women shut their eyes in fear and clasped their brothers, husbands, fathers, sons and were burnt by the fire. Those brave people among them who ran out were destroyed outside by the cruel Damaras. Those who were not burnt by the fire were thus killed there. When all within the enclosure had died, the murderers out of it were silent, and the neighbourhood in a short time became still. The fire slowly subsided and hissed on the moisture which issued -from the dead bodies. The blood and fat of the dead flowed on many sides, and the smell went many Yojanas. Chakradhara was twice burnt, on tho first occasion, it was through the anger of Sushrava, and on this second occasion it was by robbers. This destruction of life and villages, &c. by fire was like the burning of Tripura, or the burning of the Khandava forest. On the holy twelfth bright lunar day, in the month of Bhadra, Bhikshu committed this great crime, and he was deserted by the goddess of Royalty and by Fortune. Many men were burnt there with their

[p.85]: families, and thousands of houses in towns and villages became depopulated. Mankha, a Damara, born at Nannāgara searched the dead bodies, and like the Kapālikas, was gratified with the wealth found on them.

After having besieged Vijayakshetra, Bhikshāchara got possession of the person of the wicked Nageshvara whom he killed with tortures. What hateful actions did he not commit in the kingdom of his grandfather ! The death of him who rebelled against his father, pleased all. Harshamitra's wife, when her husband had left her and fled, was found by Prithvihara in the court-yard of Vijayesha. King Sussala accused himself as the cause of this destruction and slaughter of his subjects, and set out to fight. Janakaraja died near Avantipura, in order to suffer for his sins in hell. Irrational men do not remember that they sacrifice their happiness in the future world by trying to serve their ends in this fleeting life. The king made Simba, lord of Kampana, and drove the Damaras from Vijayakshetra and other places. Prithvihara was defeated by Mallakoshta and driven out of his country. He then went from Madava to Shamālā. Some of the dead bodies in the court-yard of Chakradhara were thrown into the Vitasta, some which could not be dragged were burnt.

At Kramarajya Rilhana subdued Kalyanavara and others; and Ananda, son of Ananta, became lord of Dvara. The powerful Prithvihara having impaled Siṃha fought with Janakasimha and others on the banks of-

[p.86]: the Kshiptika. One day in the month of Bhadra, when the bones of the dead are sent to a holy shrine, the women fill all sides with their cries. But similar cries of the widows of warriors who were slain in the war with Prithvihara were heard every day within the city. Shrivaka, a gallant brother of Yashoraja's wife, returned from foreign countries and the king placed him at the head of affairs at Kheri. Shrivaka did nothing that was obnoxious to the Lavanyas, neither did they do him any harm, and the time flowed in deep mutual friendship.

Defeat of the king Sussala at Manimusha

In the month of Ashvina, the king again marched out from Shamala but he was defeated by the enemies at the village of Manimusha. Here Bhikshu who was superior to all other warriors and had gained much experience by constant wars showed uncommon valor, Tukkadvija and other principal men in the king's army were surrounded by Bhikshu, Prithvihara and others, and killed. There were many warriors in both armies, but there was none who could go before Bhikshu in the battle.

In the war waged by Bhikshu and Prithvihara, which continued for many years, there were two curious mares named Kadamvari and Pataka ; the latter was pale, the former yellow in color. Though many horses died, these animals were neither killed nor were ever wearied by their work. There was no warrior but Bhikshachara who could protect the soldiers in times of danger. He was never tired, he bore every hardship, and was without

[p.87]: pride. In the army of Sussala there was no protector in times of danger, and for this reason many of his men were killed. When some of the Damaras sustained a fresh defeat, Bhikshāchara protected them, as an elephant protects his calves. None hut Prithvihara had risen so high, but he was in a miserable state, for he himself used to keep up every night at the door of Bhikshu. As Vishvedevas protect a Shraddha, so the great warrior Bhikshu from that time protected the soldiers in battle both in the front and in the rear. In battle he showed bis courage, and calmly and without impropriety he thus addressed his own men ; —

" I do not care for the kingdom, but there are deep stains on my reputation and I am exerting to remove them. When men are destroyed in battle, their helpless leaders feel as if their own kith and kin were destroyed, and long for aid. When I think of this, I feel aggrieved, but I am resolved to achieve my end although I thereby cause danger to my kith and kin day by day. He whose time of death has not arrived will not die, — and

who that aspires after fame will, after thinking of this, turn away from acts of courage? There is no need of adopting crooked modes of action. When I have myself promised to follow the right path why should I not speak of these ? "

These noble and spirited words of Bhikshu frightened the Damaras and therefore they never tried to foment quarrels among his soldiers. Those who are born in royal families slowly receive their education before they

[p.88]: become king by pondering on the conduct of previous kings. But Bhikshu saw nothing of his father or grandfather, so when he had got the kingdom he had become vain. But if he had succeeded in becoming a king once more, even fickle Fortune would not have been fickle towards him again. He mistook in believing that the wicked deceit of the Lavanyas would be of advantage to him. He passed his days in hope of obtaining the kingdom.

King Sussala thought that the advice given by the robbers would be useful to him. Those who have a mind for conquest never give out their plans nor make a show of their valor. Sussala remembered the enmity formerly shown by the men of his party and did not protect them in battle, so they had no faith on him, and for this reason he could not win. Thus looked upon with indifference by friends and by foes, the state of the kingdom became in every way pitiable. The wild hunters, eager for revenge, set fire to trees, but they suffer thereby because the trees are reduced in number, so even he was ruined by the stupidity of his men. Benefit is derived from Fate, not from men, either friends or foes. When the kingdom was thus divided, an untimely fall of snow overwhelmed Bhikshu's army, and it was overcome by Sussala. Bhikshu and Prithvihara again went to Pushpananada, and the Lavanyas paid tribute to the king and submitted to him. The hero Simba, lord of Kampana, subdued the Damaras and quelled all rebellion in Madavarajya.

[p.89]: Now when the enemies had been so much reduced, the king's zeal begin to cool, and he manifested his former enmity towards the men of his own party. When the king's evil designs were rumoured, Uhlaṇa fled. The king in his anger exiled Mallakoshta. Ananda, lord of Dvara, son of Ananta, was imprisoned and Prajji, an inhabitant of Sindhu and born in a royal family, was made lord of Dvara by the king. The king then went to Vijayakshetra and with Simba entered the city, and bound and cast this faithful person into prison. The flames of his anger were fanned by his recollection of past events, and raged, unabated by the water of forgiveness, to consume his servants. The king lost his intellect in his anger and impaled Simba and Simba's younger brothers Simha and Thakkanasimha. He made Shrivaka, lord of Kampana, and having confined Janakasimha, he appointed Sujji, brother of Prajji, in the Rājasthāna (palace.) Thus all the foreigners became his trusty ministers, but he who followed him to Lohara was his native faithful minister. People then became afraid of him, left him, and took shelter with his enemies. In the capital there was scarcely one in a hundred who was of his party. When the rebellion had ceased, the king by his actions fomented such a tumult as could not be remedied, and which never was put down. In an offence in which if one be reviled, other servants are likely to be frightened, there the forbearance of a prudent king is praiseworthy.

[p.90]: In the month of Magha, Bhikshu, Prithvihara, and other warriors were invited by Mallakoshta and others, and they again marched towards the city. The king believed that the spot surrounded by the Vitasta was impregnable by the enemies, and he left the palace and went to Navamatha. In the year 98, in the month of Chaitra, when the Damaras were eager for fight, Mallakoshta came first and commenced the war. He fought with the cavalry within the city, and the ladies of the king's household looked with fear on the battle from the top of the palace. Bhikshu pitched his camp on the banks of the Kshiptika, as Rama had assembled his monkeys on the shores of the sea. The Damaras brought trees from the king's garden for fuel for cooking, and grass from his stable for their horses' food. When Prithvihara, after having assembled the lawless inhabitants of Madavarajya, began to collect an army at Vijayakshetra, the king took courage, and in the month of Vaishakha ordered Prajji and others to attack Mallakoshta. Prajji fell on him with valor. In this sudden attack many were wounded, made insensible and killed and some with difficulty fled crossing over the bridge. When Prajji was engaged in the battle with Mallakoshta, Manujeshvara, the younger brother of Prithvihara, drove out Sujji from the city and entered it. But not being able to cross over to the other side of the Vitasta, as the bridge was broken, he burnt the houses on his side, and reached Kshiptika.

Disaster on the bridge over the Sindhu

Sussala thought that the Lavanyas had taken possession

[p.91]: of the capital and became distracted, and came with with his army from Vijayakshetra. His soldiers, in their anxiety to precede the enemy, crowded on the bridge on the deep Sindhu and broke it. On the sixth dark lunar day of Jaishtha, the innumerable army perished in the water, as the people had perished by the fire at Chakradhara, As the king raised both hands to stop tho hurry of his soldiers, some frightened men fell on him front behind and he too fell in the river. Some men who could not swim clung to him and so he was pulled under water several times, and as his limbs were fatigued, he escaped only with the greatest difficulty on account of his great strength. The king left on the other side of the river those of his soldiers and leaders who could not cross over, and marched with the a small portion of his army that had crossed. Though he left much of his army behind, he eutered the capital and fought with Mallakoshta and others.

Milla, mother of Vijaya, brought the army with her husband had got ready, from Vijayeshvara to Devasara. But Prithvihara came up and killed her, and also destroyed Tikka and routed the king's army. When the whole, army had fled, one Kalyananraja, a Brahmann, well versed in wrestling, fell fighting in battle. There were many minister, Damaras and leaders in the army of Sussala, many of whom Prithvihara captured. He pursued to the Vitasta those who fled and captured the Brahmana Ojananda and others and impaled them. Ministers Janaka, Shrivaka and

[p.92]: others and the king's sons crossed the mountain and took shelter with the Khashas at Vishalātā. Thus Prithvihara who was ambitious of victories gained one. He collected the Damaras and with Bhikshu arrived near the capital.

Defeat of the king Sussala — Renewal of war

The war recommenced and men and horses were killed on both sides. Prithvihara informed the soldiers of Madava that a certain road to the king's palace was entirely blocked up and he himself became their leader.

Warriors born of the families of celebrated chieftains, as well as Kashmirian warriors joined the Damaras and became in every way invincible. Shobhaka and other Kashmirians of the celebrated family of Kaka, and Ratna and others were on Bhikshu's side. Under the pretence of hearing the sounds which arose from the army, Prithvihara, excited by curiosity, counted the musical instruments ; and excluding the numerous turis and other instruments, he counted twelve hundred Dundabhi of the Chandalas.*

Although the king's army was destroyed as narrated, yet with twenty or thirty men of the royal blood and of his own country, Sussala faced the enemies.

Udaya and Dhanyaka, Kshatriyas, born of Ichchhita family, and Udayabrahma and Jajjala, lords of Champa and Vallapura; Tejahsalhana, the chief of the Hamsa family, who lived at Harihaḍa, and Savyaraja and others of Kshatrikabhinjika ; Nila and others, sons of Viḍāla, born of the family of Bhāvuka ; Ramapala of Sahaja and his young son ; — these and other warriors of renowned

* Lit, men who cook dogs.

[p.93]: families were eager for the well contested battle, and opposed on all sides the enemies who besieged the city.

Rilhana who was, as if he was the king's son, first advanced in battle accompanied by Vijaya and other horse men. As an iron mail defended his arm, so the energetic king protected Sujji and Prajji who were well versed in battle. The king who had shared his kingdom with them was now, in this time of peril, able by their help, to sustain the weight of his misfortunes. Bhagika, Sharadbhasi, Mummuni, Mungata, Kalasha and other men of the king's party harassed the enemies. Kamalaya, son of Lavaraja king of Takka, took the king's side in this war. He was adorned with chamara and banner ; and his blows, like those of a spirited elephant, could not be brooked by the horsemen. His younger brother Sangika and his brother's son Prithvipala defended him on two sides, as the two princes of Panchala defended Arjjuna. Though the whole country was against the king, yet with these valuable allies and with the horses bought at great price, he was able to gain a victory. As the master of a house visits every room at a feast, so the king went calmly through the scenes of battles. This danger had at first frightened him, but as the danger increased, he became cool. He entered into the midst of the danger which had at first made him uneasy, and he removed it, as a man who is afraid of chill water at first, plunges into it and pushes it away by the hand. Where the enemy's army was like darkness there the royalists came like

[p.94]: light, and where they were like moon beams there the latter came like darkness.

Bhikshu besieged at Gopadri

Once led by some signal, all the Damaras attacked the city together, after crossing the great river (Mahasarit). The king's forces were divided all over the large city, but the king with a few horsemen drove them out as they entered. Thus driven, the Damaras could not gain a firm hold of the royal troops, as one is unable to catch leaves scattered by the winter breeze. Ananda of the family of Kaka, Loshtasha, Nala and other renowned warriors in the Damara army were killed by the king's soldiers. Lamnā was not brought before the eyes of the severe king, but the king's servants, like Chandalas, killed many people. The remnant of Bhikshu's army ascended the hill of Gopadri in fear, but the king's soldiers surrounded them on all sides and their destruction became imminent. In order to save his horses, the proud Bhikshu sent them to a place beyond the reach of arrows. Prithvihara's neck was pierced by an arrow, and he with difficulty stood by the side of Bhikshu. There also stood two or three great warriors similarly distressed. Besieged, as a sea side rock by the waves, the army of Bhikshu left Gopāchala and ascended other hills. The king's army was led up the hill by Sussa. At this time Mallakoshta's infantry which had harassed many places arrived at the spot. The royal soldiers in their eagerness to follow up the enemy, left the king behind and never thought of him. The king -was attacked by Mallakoshta,

[p.95]: but at the very moment when he was unable to save himself any longer, Prajji and his younger brother entered the field of battle. On the eighth dark lunar day of Ashada, many horsemen arrived and the sound of their weapons told their worth. Mallakoshtaka, aided by his son, was checked by them, as the forest fire, aided by wind, is quenched by the rains of Shravana and Bhadra.

Many fights were then fought, and there never was heroism and valor tested as on this day. The enemies thought that the army of Lohara had come, and therefore could fight no more. On that day of trouble, the king and Bhikshu felt each others strength.

Prithvihara ordered the Madava soldiers to keep on fighting there, while he himself marched along the banks of the Kshiptika and attacked Yashoraja who had come from a foreign country, and whom the king had made lord of Mandala that he might overcome the enemies.

The Lavanyas had witnessed his valor in battle before in, the engagement of Kheri, and they now saw his face and trembled. The king anointed him with saffron, gave him umbrella, horse &c, and raised him as high in the estimation of all as himself. As a long suffering patient trusts for his recovery to a new physician, so the king, long troubled, placed his faith on him. Against Mallakoshta the king employed Panchachandra, the eldest of the surviving sons of Garga. This person was brought up by his mother named Chhuḍḍā, and his father's dependants having gradually joined him, he gained some

[p.96]: celebrity. The king followed by Yashoraja gained a victory over the Damaras, some of whom came over to him and some were dispersed. Prithvihara with Bhikshu retired to his own place, and the king in pursuit of Mallakoshta went to Amareshvara. In the meantime Mallakoshta sent robbers,* by night who burnt the uninhabited capital near Sadashiva. Again Prithvihara came out several times to fight, and he was met by Prajji, Sujji and others on the banks of the Kshiptika. He repeatedly burnt the houses in the capital and turned the beautiful bank of the Vitasta to a desert.

After fighting several battles in which many were killed, the king attacked Lahara with a large army. At the time of crossing the Sindhu, there being no bridge over it, and the leather bags having burst, Kandaraja and others fell into the water and went to the house of Yama. Driven by the king, Mallakoshta went to Darat and Chhāḍḍa with her son ascended Lahara. Jayyaka, the Lavanya, brought Janaka, Shrivaka and others from Vishalata to the king. The king spent the summer in Lahara and on the approach of autumn went with Yashoraja to Shamala. Ḍambha of royal blood, son of Sajja, was defending Munimusha, when his soldiers fled in fear of Prithvihara, and he fell fighting. In many battles which were fought in the village of Suvarnasanu, at Shurapura and in other places, the king was victorious and successively beat the enemy. Shrivaka was defeated

* The Damara are generally meant by the term robbers.


by Prithvihara and others at Shrikalyanapura and Nagavatta and others fell in the battle.

Death of Garga's wife: With a view to kill the wife of Garga who was with her mother, Prithvihara, in the month of Pausha, sent Tikka from the village of Suvamasanu to Devasarasa. She felt herself secure with her own and with the king's army, but Tikka came there suddenly and killed her in a fight. This shameless man thus killed a woman for the second time. Where is the difference between him and a Tiryyacha, a Mlechchha, a robber or a Rakshasa ? The men of Lahara, when they beheld their helpless mistress killed, fled like beasts. Strange that they held arms again !

When the king learnt that Madava which had been to some extent pacified, had once more become disaffected, he again went to Vijayeshvara. The sons of Mallaraja (Sussala's father) created dangers for themselves by their evil tongue. It has been found that servants forget real benefits done to them and remember and resent insults, just as a sieve retain the husks and allow the grains to pass through. Yashoraja who was from his boyhood used to flattering language became offended with the king for his harsh and insulting words.

The vile Yashoraja was at Avantipura with a large army, and he thence marched and joined the enemy's party. On his going over to the enemies with the best part of the army, the king fled in distraction from Vijayakshetra. How worthless is a kingdom if its owner has to put up with insults and robbery from thieves when

[p.98]: running away to save his life. He fleck in the month of Magha and entered the city (capital) ; and when his servant named Vatha rose against him, he suspected even his own sons. He was disappointed in every Kashmirian on whom he relied, and he therefore placed his trust on the party of Prajji who in his valor, his charity, his sound policy and his faithfulness resembled the princes of olden times, Rudrapala and others. Pure in his actions, he exalted in the country, the fame of alms and learning which were almost destroyed in the troubles of the time.

Yashoraja said to Bhikshu : " The Damaras doubt your valor and do not aspire to obtain the kingdom, We have a large army and by creating a fresh disturbance may either conquer the kingdom or should retire to some other country." While they counseled thus, Mallakoshta heard that Chhudda was dead, and returned borne from Daratpura. The new year now commenced, it was a very cruel year of troubles in which many perished, and in which one in a hundred got his meal. In the spring, the Damaras, as before, came by different ways and besieged the king in his capital and the firm Sussala was again immersed in an endless sea of battles day and night. The Damaras well skilled in burning, plundering and fighting caused more serious disturbances and troubles than before. Yashoraja, Bhikshu, Prithvihara and others intended to enter the capital and remained by the Mahasarit (great river) where none troubled them, After some days of fighting Yashoraja was killed by

[p.99]: his own men who mistook him for a foe. When he was displaying his valor in fighting with Vijaya, son of Kayya, a horseman of the party of Sussala, he was struck by the lance of one of his irresistible lancers, who mistook him for a foe at seeing the golden mail of his horse, and he died. It is also rumoured that he was killed by the Damaras who feared that he might give the kingdom to Bhikshu and then kill them. As he had by his rebellion deceived his master (Sussala)- who trusted him, so was he soon killed in battle by those whom he trusted.

Battles on the Kshiptika and about the capital

Prithvihara who had led the Damaras in battle in different places now reached the banks of the Kshiptika and engaged himself in battle. The followers of Bhikshu who were there behaved very gallantly, and did not allow the enemy to make, head. Each day was marked by fire, by battle, and by massacre. The sun became fierce, there were earthquakes several times, and terrible storms blew breaking down many trees. The dust raised by the storms seemed like pillars raised to support the sky which was rent by blows.

Burning of the capital:

When the great war had begun in the month of Jaiyashta, on the eleventh bright lunar day, the Damaras set fire to a wooden house, and the fire being either carried by the wind or lightning, the whole city was burnt unopposed. The smoke was seen to rise from the great bridge of Sakshikasvami, like an array of elephants ; and then the house and Vihara of Indradevi caught fire, and the whole city was seen in flames. Neither the

[p.100]: ground nor the space around, nor the sky was visible, — all being darkened by the smoke. The son was sometimes seen and was sometimes invisible, and it wore a face like that of a drunken man. The houses which were enveloped in the darkness of the smoke were suddenly lit up in a flame, they were thus visible for one moment and were seen no more. The houses on both sides of the Vitasta caught fire, and the river looked like the sword of Yama streaming blood front both its sides. The numerous and increasing tongues of flame shot up to the sky and fell again, and looked like golden umbrellas. The flames rising to various heights, and sending forth smoke from their tops looked like the peaks of the Sumeru with the clouds resting on them. Houses were seen now and then in the midst of the flames and their foolish owners believed that they had escaped the fire. The burning houses fell on the Vitasta and heated its water, as the water of the sea is heated by the eruption of submarine volcanoes. The burning leaves of the garden trees flew into the sky with the birds whose wings had caught fire. The flames caught the white-washed temples of gods and looked like the evening resting on a Himalayan peak. Boats, floating houses and bridges of boats were removed to a distance from the town through fear of the fire, and the river was without a boat. Even mathas, temples, houses and palaces were all destroyed, and within a short time, the city looked like a burnt forest. When the city was

[p.101]: consumed, a huge figure of Buddha was seen without a shelter and blackened by the smoke, it stood high like a burnt tree.

The soldiers had gone to save the burning houses, and the king was left with one hundred warriors only. The bridge lay broken and the king was unable to cross the Vitasta. The enemies who were in large numbers saw their opportunity and tried to surround the king. The king meditated on the burning of his city and the destruction of his subjects, and being much depressed, he longed for the approach of death. And as the king turned backward intending to go, Kamalaya was informed, of the fact by another person, and fearing that he was fleeing said " Where do you flee ?" The firm king turned his face which was marked with sandel, and which beamed in a smile of anger ; fie stopped his horse and said. " For my kingdom I will act in a manner different from that in which the experienced, the proud king, out grandfather did in the battle with Hammira. Wherever Harshadeva may be, he is our relative, he has fled without seeing the end of our work. Who among the proud abandons his country on getting into mire (difficulties) without sacrificing his person and his blood, even as a snake abandons his skin after getting into the mud ? He thus said and pulled the reins, and the horse reared his head. He intended to touch the animal with both hands and raised his sword. The son of Lavaraja stopped the horse by holding the reins, though there were other attendants ; he had not spoken a word

[p.102]: before he came to the presence of the king. The king was over-powered -with blows, and Prithvipala alone came out of the room before the king in his danger. The king out of affection for him praised his courage and acknowledged that by his service he had paid off all the benefits which the king had done to him before.

The enemies who were in three companies, discharged their arrows in order to kill the king, the haughty horsemen were on the left. So situated, the king all of a sudden urged his horse and came in the midst of his numerous foes. Though attended by only a small force, it seemed as if the king multiplied himself by being reflected on the swords of the enemy, and seemed to be present everywhere. As the hawk defeats the sparrow, the lion, the deer, so he alone defeated many warriors. The passage of the cavalry being obstructed by the array of the infantry, the former fell on the latter and wounded them, both by arms and by horses' hoofs. Great warriors looked red in the reflection of the flame, as if they were smeared with blood, and fell by mutual blows.

After the king had annoyed the enemy, he returned in the evening to his burnt city, his eyes filled with tears and his hopes fled. When the enemy found that the king, though reduced, could not be overcome, he despaired of success. The king too, on account of the destruction of valuable objects, held his life in small regard. At all times waking or sleeping, walking or sitting, bathing or eating, he used to issue out whenever

[p.103]: required by his enemies, and his enemies looked on him with tears.

Severe famine:

As all the articles of food were consumed by the fire there occurred a severe famine in the kingdom. The stores were reduced, the produce was trifling, and the trade stopped during the long rebellion of the Damaras. The king was very much afflicted ; and even the chiefs who could not obtain money from the royal treasury died of famine. The horses which escaped the fire were burnt by the hungry men who were in search of food, and were consumed every day. Men stopped their noses when they crossed the bridges over the river which emitted stench of dead bodies swollen by the water. The earth was whitened by the disjointed and scattered fleshless skeletons and fractured skulls, and looked as if she had taken the kapalika* vow. The people walked with difficulty, their completion was turned brown by the sun, and loan and Buffering from hunger, they looked like the burnt stumps of trees. After a few days had passed, there arose a false rumour that Prithvihara, pierced by an arrow, had died in a long contested battle. When Prithvihara was overpowered with wounds, the men took him to a sheltered place. But the king heard of his death and fought severely. Victory entices men with false hopes, even like a prostitute, but avoids them when they follow her. Unpropitious ,Fate lures with false hopes and then adds to the misery of the victim, even as the clouds, in order

* This tow enjoins the carrying of a skull.

[p.104]: to destroy luminous mountain plants, display their lightnings, and then leave the mountains in dense darkness.

Death of queen Meghamanjari:

After suffering affliction for a long time, the king awaited with anxiety the arrival of the queen. Her affection was great, her words were kind and respectful, and her frankness was becoming; these qualifications were to her as her children. But this beloved queen Meghamanjari who was the witness of his deeds and the ornament of the house died at that time. The king then felt that there was no happiness in the world; he became dejected in spirit and found no occupation in life or in the kingdom. The queen had been reduced in health when she heard of the danger of her husband. She was anxious about him, and had set out from her home, and was coming towards Kashmira, when on the way near Phalapura she died of exhaustion. At first the king had hoped to see her, but then when he learnt of the catastrophe, he became very much afflicted with grief. Four great ladies of the family followed the queen to the other world in order to show their devotion. They were never harshly treated. Not being able to bear her death, a cook named Teja shewed his devotion to her by suicide and he was honored among the servants. He was also marching with her, and of the day following her death, he plunged into the river, out of devotion to her, unattended and unobserved, tying about him a stone which was near her funeral pyre. The enemies did some good to the king,

[p.105]: as by calling him out to battle, they made him forget his grief in his anger.

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