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Himachal and Jammu Map.jpg
Jammu district map

Jammu (जम्मू, Urdu: جموں‎ , Punjabi: ਜੰਮੂ) is a city and district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It was also known informally as Duggardesh. Jammu or Duggar was known as Darva (दार्व) in Mahabharata.



It consists of the districts of Doda, Kathua, Jammu, Udhampur, Rajouri, Ramban, Reasi, Samba, Kishtwar & Poonch. Most of the land is hilly or mountainous, including the Pir Panjal range which separates it from the Kashmir Valley and part of the Great Himalayas in the eastern districts of Doda and Kishtwar.


The principal river is the Chenab.


Jammu is winter capital of the State and famous pilgrimage centre all over the world for Vaishno Devi Temple.


As of 2012, the Jammu Division consists of ten districts:

Name of District Headquarters Area (km²) Population
2001 Census
2011 Census
Kathua District Kathua 2,651 550,084 615,711
Jammu District Jammu 3,097 1,343,756 1,526,406
Samba District Samba 245,016 318,611
Udhampur District Udhampur 4,550 475,068 555,357
Reasi District Reasi 268,441 314,714
Rajouri District Rajouri 2,630 483,284 619,266
Poonch District Poonch 1,674 372,613 476,820
Doda District Doda 11,691 320,256 409,576
Ramban District Ramban 180,830 283,313
Kishtwar District Kishtwar 190,843 231,037

Jammu district

Jammu district comprises 4 tehsils -

This district consists of 8 blocks: Akhnoor, Bhalwal, Bishnah, Khour, Marh, Ranbirsinghpora, Satwari and Dansal.


According to local tradition, Jammu is named after its founder, Raja Jambulochan, who is believed to have ruled the area in the 9th century.[1] The local tradition holds the city to be 3000 years old but this is not supported by historians.[2]

According to Tarikh-i-Azmi, Jammu came into existence around 900 CE. The state of Durgara (modern forms "Duggar" and "Dogra)") is also attested from around this time.[3] The capital of the Durgara state at that time is believed to have been Vallapura (identified with modern Billawar). Its rulers are repeatedly mentioned in Kalhana's Rajatarangini.[4] Babbapura (modern Babor) is another state mentioned in Rajatarangini, some of whose rulers occur in the Vamshavali (family chronicles) of later Jammu rulers. These rulers are believed to have enjoyed almost independent status and allied themselves with the Sultans of Delhi. Raja Bhim Dev is prominently mentioned in the Delhi chronicles as a supporter of Mubarah Shah (r. 1421–1434).[5]

Jammu is mentioned by name in the chronicles of Timur (r. 1370–1406), who invaded Delhi in 1398 and returned to Samarkand via Jammu. In the Mughal chronicles of Babur in the early 16th century, Jammu is mentioned as a powerful state in the Punjab hills. It is said to have been ruled by Manhas people. Emperor Akbar brought the hill kingdoms of the region under Mughal suzerainty, but the kings enjoyed considerable political autonomy. In addition to Jammu, other kingdoms of the region such as Kishtwar and Rajauri were also prominently mentioned. It is evident that the Mughal empire treated these hill chiefs as allies and partners in the empire.[6]

After the decline of the Mughal power in the 18th century, the Jammu state under Raja Dhruv Dev of the Jamuwal (Jamwal) family asserted its supremacy among all the Dugar states. Its ascent reached its peak under his successor Raja Ranjit Dev (r. 1728–1780), who was widely respected among the hill states.[7][8] Ranjit Dev promoted religious freedom and security, which attracted a large number of craftsmen and traders to settle in Jammu, contributing to its economic prosperity.[9]

Towards the end of Ranjit Dev's rule, the Sikh clans of Punjab (misls) gained ascendency, and Jammu began to be contested by the Bhangi, Kanhaiya and Sukerchakia misls. Around 1770, the Bhangi misl attacked Jammu and forced Ranjit Dev to become a tributary. Brij Lal Dev, Ranjit Dev's successor, was defeated by the Sukerchakia chief Mahan Singh, who sacked Jammu and plundered it. Thus Jammu lost its supremacy over the surrounding country.[10] In 1808, Jammu itself was annexed to the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the son of Mahan Singh.[11]

In 1818 Raja Kishore Singh Father of Raja Gulab Singh was appointed and anointed the ruler of Jammu Principality hence started the Jamwal Dynasty, aka Dogra dynasty, which came to rule the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir under British suzerainty. The rulers built large temples, renovated old shrines, built educational institutes and many more. A 43 km long railway line connecting Jammu with Sialkot was laid in 1897[12]

Jammu has historically been the capital of Jammu Province and the winter capital of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (1846–1952).

After the partition of India, Jammu continues as the winter capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.


डुग्गर (AS, p.382): डुग्गर जम्मू (कश्मीर) का इलाका है। संभवत: महाभारत, सभापर्व में इस प्रदेश को दार्व नाम से अभिहित किया गया है- 'कैराता: दरदा दार्वा: शूरावैयमकास्ताथा, औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागा: पारदा बाह्निकै: सह।' (सभापर्व 52, 13) संभवत: डुग्गर, जो कि डोगरा शासकों का मूल निवास स्थान था, दार्व का ही अपभ्रंश है।[13]


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[14] ने लेख किया है ...जम्मू (AS, p.356): महाभारत में वर्णित दार्व को वर्तमान डुग्गर या जम्मू का प्रदेश कहा जाता है--'कैराता दरदादार्वाः शूरा यमकास्तथा, औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह' सभा पर्व-52,13 (II.48.12)


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[15] ने लेख किया है ... दार्व (AS, p.432): दार्व देश को पाण्डव अर्जुन ने अपनी दिग्विजय यात्रा के प्रसंग में जीता था- 'ततस्त्रिगर्ता: कौंतेयं दार्वा: कोकनदास्तथा, क्षत्रिया बहवो राजन्नुपावर्तन्त सर्वश:' महाभारत, सभापर्व 27, 18.

दार्व के निवासियों ने युधिष्ठिर के राजसूय यज्ञ में उन्हें उपहार भेंट किए थे- 'कैराता दरदा: दार्वा: शूरावैयमकास्तथा औदुंबरादुर्वभागा: पारदा बाह्लिकै: सह' महाभारत, सभापर्व 52, 13.

दार्व देश का अभिज्ञान जम्मू (कश्मीर) के 'डुग्गर' (दे.डुग्गर) के इलाके से किया गया है। डुग्गर प्राचीन काल से ही डोगरा शासकों का मूल स्थान रहा है। सम्भवत: डुग्गर, दार्व का अपभ्रंश हो सकता है।

जम्मू परिचय और इतिहास

जम्मू शहर, उत्तर भारत जम्मू-कश्मीर राज्य की शीतकालीन राजधानी है। यह श्रीनगर के दक्षिण में तवी नदी के किनारे स्थित है और इसके उत्तर में शिवालिक पर्वतश्रेणी है। अब यह रेलमार्ग से जुड़ा है और एक निर्माण केन्द्र है। जम्मू 305 मीटर की ऊंचाई पर स्थित है और जम्मू प्रमुख पर्यटन स्थलों में से एक है।

नामकरण: जम्मू नगर का नाम इसके स्थापक के नाम पर पड़ा है। राय जम्बुलोचन ने इसकी स्थापना की और नाम रखा जम्बुपुरा जो कालांतर में बिगड़ कर जम्मू हो गया। कई इतिहासकारों एवं स्थानीय उक्तियों के अनुसार नगर की स्थापना राय जम्बुलोचन ने 14वीं शताब्दी ई.पू. में की थी। उसने इस स्थान पर एक किले का निर्माण किया व उसके निकट ही शहर बसाया। इस शहर का नाम ही जम्बुपुरा या जम्बुनगर पड़ा और कालांतर में जम्मू हो गया।

इतिहास: जम्मू शहर ऐतिहासिक नगर है और पूर्व जम्मू प्रांत की राजधानी रह चुका है और बाद में भी भारत के जम्मू एवं कश्मीर राज्य की शीतकालीन राजधानी रह चुका है। राय जम्बुलोचन राजा बाहुलोचन का छोटा भाई था। बाहुलोचन ने तवी नदी के तट पर बाहु किला बनवाया था और जम्बुलोचन ने जम्बुपुरा नगर बसवाया था।

महाभारत काल : नगर के नाम का उल्लेख महाभारत में भी मिलता है। जम्मू (AS, p.356): महाभारत में वर्णित दार्व को वर्तमान डुग्गर या जम्मू का प्रदेश कहा जाता है--'कैराता दरदादार्वाः शूरा यमकास्तथा, औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह' सभा पर्व-52,13 (II.48.12)[16]

दार्व (AS, p.432): दार्व देश को पाण्डव अर्जुन ने अपनी दिग्विजय यात्रा के प्रसंग में जीता था- 'ततस्त्रिगर्ता: कौंतेयं दार्वा: कोकनदास्तथा, क्षत्रिया बहवो राजन्नुपावर्तन्त सर्वश:' महाभारत, सभापर्व 27, 18. दार्व के निवासियों ने युधिष्ठिर के राजसूय यज्ञ में उन्हें उपहार भेंट किए थे- 'कैराता दरदा: दार्वा: शूरावैयमकास्तथा औदुंबरादुर्वभागा: पारदा बाह्लिकै: सह' महाभारत, सभापर्व 52, 13. दार्व देश का अभिज्ञान जम्मू (कश्मीर) के 'डुग्गर' (दे. डुग्गर) के इलाके से किया गया है। डुग्गर प्राचीन काल से ही डोगरा शासकों का मूल स्थान रहा है। सम्भवत: डुग्गर, दार्व का अपभ्रंश हो सकता है।[17]

डुग्गर (AS, p.382): डुग्गर जम्मू (कश्मीर) का इलाका है। संभवत: महाभारत, सभापर्व में इस प्रदेश को दार्व नाम से अभिहित किया गया है- 'कैराता: दरदा दार्वा: शूरावैयमकास्ताथा, औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागा: पारदा बाह्निकै: सह।' (सभापर्व 52, 13) संभवत: डुग्गर, जो कि डोगरा शासकों का मूल निवास स्थान था, दार्व का ही अपभ्रंश है।[18]

जम्मू शहर से 32 किलोमीटर दूरस्थ अखनूर में पुरातात्त्विक खुदाई के बाद इस जम्मू नगर के हड़प्पा सभ्यता के एक भाग होने के साक्ष्य भी मिले हैं। जम्मू में मौर्य, कुशाण, कुशानशाह और गुप्त वंश काल के अवशेष भी प्राप्त हुए हैं। 480 ई. के बाद इस क्षेत्र पर एफ्थलाइटिस का अधिकार हो गया था और यहां कपीस और काबुल से भी शासन हुआ था। इनके उत्तराधिकारी कुशानो-हेफ्थालाइट वंश हुए जिनका अधिकार 565 से 670 ई. तक रहा। तदोपरांत 670 ई. से लेकर 11वीं शताब्दी केआरंभ तक शाही राजवंश का राज रहा जिसे ग़ज़्नवी के अधीनस्थों ने छीन लिया। जम्मू का उल्लेख तैमूर (r. 1370–1406) के विजय अभियानों के अभिलेखों में भी मिलता है जो 1398 ई. में दिल्ली पर आक्रमण के बाद जम्मू होते हुये समरकंद लौटा था। मुगल काल में बाबर ने इसका उल्लेख एक पंजाब पहाड़ियों में स्थित एक शक्तिशाली राज्य के रूप में किया है। मिन्हास जाटों ने यहाँ राज्य किया था जो विर्क लोगों के भाई माने जाते हैं। अकबर के शासन में पहाड़ी राज्य उसके अधीन हो गए थे परंतु इन राज्यों के राजाओं को पर्याप्त स्वतंत्रता थी और वे मुगल साम्राज्य के सहयोगी माने जाते थे। जम्मू के अलावा किस्तवार और रजोरी राज्यों का भी उल्लेख आता है। [19]

यहां 840 ई. से 1860 ई. तक देव वंश का शासन रहा था। तब नगर अन्य भारतीय नगरों से अलग-थलग पड़ गया और उनसे पिछड़ गया था। उसके उपरांत डोगरा शासक आये और जम्मू शहर को अपनी खोई हुई आभा व शान वापस मिली। उन्होंने यहां बड़े-बड़े मन्दिरों व तीर्थों का निर्माण किया व पुराने स्थानों का जीर्णोद्धार करवाया, साथ ही कई शैक्षिक संस्थाण भी बनवाये। उस काल में नगर ने काफ़ी उन्नति की।

इस क्षेत्र ने सिखों एवं मुगलों के आक्रमणों के साथ एक बार फिर से शक्ति-परिवर्तन देखा और अन्ततः ब्रिटिश राज का नियंत्रण हो गया। एक समय डोगरा वंश की राजधानी जम्मू 19वीं शताब्दी में रणजीत सिंह के राज्य का हिस्सा बन गया। जम्मू पर रणजीत सिंह के 1808 में अधिकार करने से पहले जम्मू सुकरचकिया मिसल के अधीन था जिसके मुखिया महान सिंह थे जो कि रणजीत सिंह के पिता थे. जम्मू के राजा ने बिना किसी विरोध के आत्मसमर्पण कर दिया और हरजाने के रूप में बीस हज़ार रुपये, हाथी और जेवरात दिए। 1809 ई. में भवानीदास ने जम्मू पर आक्रमण कर उसे रणजीत सिंह के राज्य में शामिल कर लिया। जमादार खुशहाल सिंह जम्मू का पहला गवर्नर बनाया गया। 1818 ई. में जम्मू गुलाबसिंह को चार लाख रुपये 'अधीनता कर' के बदले में दे दिया। [20]

जम्मू के मुख्य आकर्षण

हरि निवास महल, जम्मू

हरि निवास महल: हरि निवास महल भारत के जम्मू में एक महल है। इसके एक तरफ तवी नदी है और दूसरी तरफ त्रिकुटा पहाड़ियां है। महल का निर्माण जम्मू और कश्मीर के अंतिम महाराजा हरि सिंह (1895 - 1961) के द्वारा 20 वीं शताब्दी में किया गया था, जो 1925 में अपने पुराने मुबारक मंडी महल से यहां आकर बस गए थे। यहां उन्होंने बंबई जाने से पहले, कश्मीर में अपने प्रवास के अंतिम दिन बिताए। महाराजा हरि सिंह के वंशजों ने 1990 में इस महल को एक हेरिटेज होटल में बदल दिया है। यहाँ अमर महल म्यूजियम और पुस्तकालय है जिसमें महाराजा हरि सिंह की 120 किलो सोने की कुर्सी प्रदर्शन हेतु रखी हुई है।

In Mahabharata

Darva (दर्व) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.24.17),(II.48.12), (III.174.12),(VI.10.53),(VIII.51.18),

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 24 mentions them in the list of tribes Arjuna subjugated in verse (II.24.17). [21] ....That bull of the Kshatriya race then defeated the brave Kshatriyas of Kashmira and also king Lohita along with ten minor chiefs. Then the Trigartas, the Darvas, the Kokonadas, and various other Kshatriyas...

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 describes Kings who presented tributes to Yudhishthira. Darva is mentioned in verse (II.48.12). [22]

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 174 mentions about journey of Pandavas who crossed the country of Darvas to reach Kingdom of Suvahu in verse (III.174.12).[23] ....:Then all those warriors having in due course happily lived at Badari for one month, proceeded towards the realm of Suvahu, king of the Kiratas, by following the same track by which they had come. And crossing the difficult Himalayan regions, and the countries of China, Tukharas, Daradas, Darvas and all the climes of Kulindas, rich in heaps of jewels, those warlike men reached the capital of Suvahu.

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes many hilly tribes, and many tribes residing on lands laying at the foot of the hills. Darvika and Darva are mentioned in shloka (VI.10.53). [24]

Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 51 describes terrible massacre and warriors who were killed on seventeenth day of War. Darva are mentioned in shloka (VIII.51.18). [25]

Buddhist Heritage of Jammu

Ref - Buddhist Heritage of Jammu by Dr. P K Koul

Various efforts, by enlightened sections of society Jammu, Government and semi-Government agencies, to make people, young men and children, aware and concious, about the importance of historical monuments, archeaological sites and cultural heritage, are encouraging. It is only by knowing our historical past, that we can claim to belong to a civilized society and a proud past. However some uneasy and unhealthy trends in identifying for preservation, and conservation of our valuable heritage sites, and their exploitation for tourism and economical development, can also be observed, and need attention by concerned authorities and intellectual public.

While the history, culture and monumental heritage of Buddhist Kashmir and Ladakh, has been deeply studied, researched upon and nicely documented, the Buddhist history and culture of Jammu region, though equally rich and ancient lacks proper intellectual attention, investigation, evaluation and preservation. The evaluational, preservational and developmental efforts of certain historical monuments in Jammu being pursued by certain Governmental and social agencies, seem to be influenced by their narrow regionalism, castism, sectarian and politically motivated consideration. For example state Archieve and Archeaological department does not seem to move beyond the limits of Mughal Heritage sites (roads, gardens; buildings etc.) or Dogra Heritage of recent past. Exploration and preservation of other sites in Jammu, which seem to be more rewarding and with more tourist potential, and belonging to ancient and medieval Jammu, seems to be neglected by the Government as well as, unaware-and disinterested public, which needs to be educated regarding their importance in our cultural life.

The important Buddhist ancient and medieval Archealogical sites and monuments of Jammu region include those of

  • Ambaran and Manda (Akhnoor – prehistoric to present day),
  • Sakhi maidan (Mendhar) or Sankhaya Parivein of Miling Panho Questions of Minander (Indo-Greek King Minander after whom the place finds its name),
  • Ram Kund (the hermitage of Acharya Ayupala of the same episode),
  • Kalaban site of Buddhist Kundalvan Vihara, (where 4th Buddhist Conference seem to be held, in the times of Kanishka, and where the account of deliberations of this conference were carved on copper plates and deposited in the Vihara)
  • the Nag Semi region of Kashtwar with rich Archaeological sites, (where Acharya Nag Sen of Milind Panho was born and educated under the guidance of’Acharya Assaguta (or Asav Gupta),
  • Demzi ‘with the residential Hermitage of this very Acharya,
  • Sai Draman ruins in Nag Seni the place of deliberations of Assagutta With his disciples, also in
  • Kishtwar,
  • Gupteshwar temple site where Brahmi Inscription of 4th-5th century A.D. has been traced and deciphered,
  • the site of Bindraban in Kishtwar, where an important and prolonged epigraph in Brahmi or Sharda (still undeciphered) exists, unattended by ASI or SAD (State Archaeological Department),
  • Sudh Mahadev and Bher Nag sites (Bhairav Nag) Jammu with two thousands years of epigraphic history,
  • Kaul Kandohlis temple architecture, and
  • extremely rich Naga sites and cultural Heritage at Bulandpur, Pasyal, Duggan, Bari, Karla, Kudgram, Jakhed etc.

Their neglect on the part of State Government, and other Governmental, social and cultural bodies for their proper development and revival as also places of tourist destination is very unfortunate.

Lack of financial resources of State Government and lack of expertise on the part of State Archeaological Department may be one of the reasons for their neglect; other reasons could be, lack of desired interest on the part of those concerned with their upliftment, unable to rise above narrow confines of caste, creed and regional bias and the’ ability to handle gigantic nature of the work or exploration and preservation of these Monuments. The reluctance of concerned State Department to approach Central Department meant for such works (as ASI) with more financial resources and skill in matters of exploration and preservation, may be other reason. This is especially true in case of Kalaban, Mendhar, Sunder Bani, Kalakot Ramkund, Nag Seni, Bindraban, Monuments and Jammu Naga cult sites of great Archealogical importance.

It is well known that credit of major explorations, of important J&K heritage sites in Jammu and Kashmir (Burzhama, Martand, Harwan, Akhnoor, Krimchi, Babor etc.) goes to the ASI as also to the local Archealogists, (R. C. Kak and K.N. Shastri).

Additional important explorations of Kusan period in Jammu region at Babe-da- Tibba, Kot Bhalwal and Bodh Vihari Manda, with relics and Gold coin also goes to ASI. Therefore it seems to be a high time, when we must make over people and coming generations conscious of their cultural heritage native for its preservation and development. Our Monument Heritage scattered over different areas and regions of Jammu need to be attended and preserved.

As reported in media, Buddhist tourist sites in Kashmir and Ladakh may surely be revived as Tourist destination and I dare suggest that very very important Archeaological and Monumental Buddhist and other sites do occur in Jammu region also. We have a recent find of Buddhist Stupa at Ambaran in Akhnoor of 1st and 2nd century A.D., a big Martand like temple type sites at Sakhi Maidan and Kalakote (Temples constructed on ancient remnants of Bodh Milind Vihara ~ etc.). Sakhi Maidan is the Sankhaya Pariven of Milind Panho. Kundalban Vihara of Kanishkas time may also lie in the vicinity of Kalaban near Sakhi Maidan, also in Mendhar.

Even place name Mendhar in Poonch derives its name from Great King Menander, and the Great Acharya Nag Sen of Menander Episode in their memory and in Nag Seni region of Kishtwar. The important archaeological sites of Sai Draman (the plain of Sai or Assagutta or Ashav Gupta, the famous Buddhist Scholar), and Demzi (the recluse or Tapasvi, Sai’s living hermitage), are important Buddhist sites in Jammu’s Buddhist heritage. Sai Draman is the place where Ashav Gupta or Archarya Assagutta held religions deliberation with his deciples and Dernzy is the place where Tapsvi or Scholar lived. All these names seem to be Pali or local dialectical versions of Sanskrit names.

The ancient relics recently found from the Stupa at Ambaran can be of none else than of Acharya Nag Sell, or King Menander who became Buddhist monk or Arhat after his dialogue and discussion with Acharya Nag Sen (as described in Milind Panho) or of Buddhist saint and Scholar, Asavgupta orAssagutta. The Archealogical Survey of India’s Jammu’s Superintending Archealogist, Mr. Mani, who is credited to have explored it is so far silent about the identity of the relic, a very important and unsolved question so far by the ASL.

It is strange that the illustrious son of the soil Nag Sell, of Kashtwars Nag Seni region and his important literary work, Milind Panho, in the form of translation in languages of Buddhist countries (Chinese, Buramese Sinhala (cyloneese) and English) made its head way and presence via Central Asia routes through the agency of Kashmiri Buddhist missionaries, who visited there in the early centuries of Christian era, through silk route, but the native scholars of Indian Kashmir and Kishtwar never knew that one of the greatest illustrious scholar from their land lived in Kishtwar in the hermitage of Nag Sen and preached Buddhism to the world’. “.

These important Buddhist sites of Jammu region can be developed as international Buddhist sites of ancient India, and as international Buddhist tourist destination. These like Nalanda and Patna and Bodh Gaya (in Bihar) have the potential to attract developmental assistance and grants from Buddhist countries like Japan etc., thus promising great development in the region and of the people State Central Governments the Archeaological Survey of India, the Ministry of Culture needs to move forward after 5 in recognizing the cultural importance of these site, and take effective steps in their development. A.S.L is already looking world heritage sites, 99 National Archeaological sites and monuments and some 3675 heritage sites in India alone, With vast experience, technical know how and expertise in the field. Preservation of Jammu region’s glorious ancient, medieval and present, heritage and monuments scattered all over Jammu is also an important obligation and national duty of all these agencies as referred above, as well as all intellectuals of Jammu interested in this field. A complete informational booklet, containing preliminary details of all noted Archealogical and Monumental sites of the region is what, can be desired to be published immediately by the concerned State or Central Department for the awareness of common people, students of educational institutions and researchers in this field.

Notable persons

  • Ch. Kamal Singh - President, Jat Kalyan Sabha Jammu and Kashmir, Mob: 9419182937, 0191-2555490, Address: Chauhan's, A-42, Bharat Nagar, Talab Tillo, Jammu, - 180002, Email: jattkalyansabha@gmail.com. General Secretary, Sir Chhotu Ram Jat Charitable Trust, Sir Chhotu Ram Jat Bhawan, 17 Mile Stone, NH-1 A, Thandi Kui, Kamala Ganv, Vijpur, Jammu

External links


  1. "Priya Sethi lays foundation stone of statue of Jambu Lochan". Daily Excelsior. 1 August 2016.
  2. Kapur, Manohar Lal (1980), History of Jammu and Kashmir State: The making of the State, Kashmir History Publications,p.9
  3. Kapur, History of Jammu and Kashmir State 1980, pp. 9–10.
  4. Bamzai, P. N. K. (1994), Culture and Political History of Kashmir: Ancient Kashmir, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., ISBN 978-81-85880-31-0,p.184
  5. Charak, Sukh Dev Singh; Billawaria, Anita K. (1998), Pahāṛi Styles of Indian Murals, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 978-8-17017-356-4,pp.6-7
  6. Mohammad, Jigar (November 2010), "Raja Ranjit Dev's Inclusive Policies and Politico-economic developments in Jammu", Epilogue, 4 (11), pp. 40–42
  7. Jeratha, Aśoka (1998), Dogra Legends of Art & Culture, Indus Publishing, ISBN 978-81-7387-082-8,p.187
  8. Panikkar, K. M. (1930), Gulab Singh, London: Martin Hopkinson Ltd,p.10
  9. Rai, Mridu (2004), Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir, C. Hurst & Co, ISBN 1850656614,pp.94-95
  10. Panikkar, Gulab Singh 1930, p. 10–12.
  11. Panikkar, Gulab Singh 1930, p. 15–16.
  12. "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 14, page 49 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library". dsal.uchicago.edu.
  13. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.382
  14. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.356
  15. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.432
  16. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.356
  17. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.432
  18. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.382
  19. Mohammad, Jigar (November 2010), "Raja Ranjit Dev's Inclusive Policies and Politico-economic developments in Jammu", Epilogue, 4 (11), pp. 40–42
  20. भारतकोश-जम्मू
  21. ततस तरिगर्तान कौन्तेयॊ दार्वान कॊक नथाश च ये, कषत्रिया बहवॊ राजन्न उपावर्तन्त सर्वशः (II.24.17)
  22. कायव्या दरदा दार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तदा, औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह (II.48.12)
  23. विहृत्य मासं सुखिनॊ बथर्यां; किरात राज्ञॊ विषयं सुबाहॊः, चीनांस तुखारान दरदान सदार्वान; थेशान कुणिन्थस्य च भूरि रत्नान (III.174.12)
  24. दर्वीकाः सकचा दर्वा वातजाम रदॊरगाः, बहु वाद्याश च कौरव्य सुदामानः सुमल्लिकाः Mahabharata (VI.10.53)
  25. उग्राश च करूरकर्माणस तुखारा यवनाः खशाः, दार्वाभिसारा थरथाः शका रमठ तङ्गणाः Mahabharata (VIII.51.18)

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