Kalkal

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Kalkal (कलकल)[1] Kalkil (कलकिल)[2] Karkil (करकिल) Kilkil (किलकिल) is gotra of Jats found in Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. [3]

Origin

They are said to be originated from Raja Vindhyashakti of Vakataka dynasty, who was also known as Kilakila (किलकिला).[4]


Branches of Nagavansha are - 1. Vasati/Bains 2. Taxak 3. Aulak 4. Kalkal 5. Kala/ Kalidhaman/ Kalkhande 6. Meetha 7. Bharshiv 8. Bharaich[5]


Villages founded by Kalkal clan

History

Tejaji's ancestors were Nagavanshi descendant of Shvetanaga, who had five kingdoms in Central India, namely - 1. Khilchipur, 2. Raghaugarh, 3. Dharnawad, 4. Garhkila (Kilkila), and 5. Khairagarh [6]

Ram Swarup Joon[7] writes about Kilkil Nag or Bhind : In Rohilkhand there is a river called Kilkil. Bhind Nag Jats rule this territory: Kilkil Nag is a big gotra.

In Mahabharata

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. It mentions that there are other kingdoms in the south, Kalkal is included in verse Mahabharata (VI.10.60).

  • तर्यङ्गाः केकरकाः परॊष्ठाः परसंचरकास तदा ।
  • तदैव विन्ध्यपुलकाः पुलिन्थाः कल्कलैः सह Mahabharata (VI.10.60)

Nagavanshi Origin Theory

Kila-Kila (किलकिला) were Nagas, earlier known as Vidisa Vrisha and later Kila-Kila Vrisha. It means they were earlier ruler of Vidisa and offshoot of Vidisa Nagas.

Dr Naval Viyogi[8] writes that Earlier Vakatakas (250-510 AD) estiblished their rule in Vindhya region. Bu later established authority over whole of Central India. From Vakataka inscriptions it is well established that A dynasty which took its name Vakataka came into existence about a century before Samudragupta's conquests. The first king of the dynasty was Vindhyashakti (250–270). Second king was Pravarasena I (270–330).

Dr Naval Viyogi[9] mentions Kilkila at two places as a Kilkila River and as Kilkila Yavana:


[p.339]: Pravarasena I was son of Vindhyashakti, who not only performed four Asvamedhas but also assumed the title of Samriit.48 He had a long reign, so much so that his eldest son Gautamiputra could not succeed him, but his grand-son Rudrasena I succeeded him. Gautamiputra himself was married to the daughter of the Bharsiva king Bhavanaga. The son of this union was Rudrasena I grand son of Pravarsena I and Bhavanaga. As, there was matriarchal system of heredity among the Nagas (Chapter V pp 102-03 and VI), hence Rudrasena I became the legal heir of throne of Bhavanaga in addition to throne of his own grand father Pravarsena I.49 Rudrasena I was succeeded by his son Prithivisena I. Rudrasena II son of Prithivisena I was married to Prabhavati Gupta daughter of Chandra Gupta II born of the Empress Kubera Naga. Prabhavati Gupta ruled as regent after the death of her husband Rudrasena II, as guardian to her minor son Yuvraj Divakarsena and subsequently to another son called Damodarsena or Pravarasena.

It is obvious Vakataka dynasty took its root in Vindhya region and later extended its sways as far as Karnataka in South since Prithvisena subjugated the king of Kuntala a part of Karnataka and Kadamba kingdom. Their capitals were at Purika, Chanak, Pravarpur and Padmapur and Branches at Nandivardhan and Vatsagulma.


The Brahman origin theory of Vakataka by Jayaswal: Whether the Vakatakas were Aryan Brahmans or Nagas has been a subject of great controversy among the historians. Among the scholars who identify Vakatakas as Brahmanas, Jayaswal K.P. is at the forefront. We, therefore produce his opinion.50. He writes, 'There is no doubt that Vakatakas were Brahmans. They performed Brihaspati-sava and also four Ashwamedha sacrifices... their Gotra was Vishnubraddha 51 (a branch of Bhardwaja) which is still prevalent among the Brahmanas of Maharashtra (A.S.R. Part IV PP-125 and 128 foot-note below and plate no 57). In Puranas they have been called Vindhyakas or royal family of Vindhyadesh. It is, therefore clear that they were original inhabitant of Vindhya Pradesh. The Vindhyakas or the Vakatakas used to live at the bank of river Kilkila or the country around it. This is a small river-near Panna, having a reputation for its unhealthy water. We are thus brought to very area, Ajaygarh Panna (Panna, Madhya Pradesh) where the earliest Vakatak inscriptions are found, that is the district of Ganj-Nachna. The Bhagwata Purana, is describing the Vidisa Nagas and Praviraka, calls the whole group The kila-kila kings. The location of dynasty in Bundelkhand is thus unanimous."


48. Jayaswal K.P.,P.62 49. Jayaswal K.P.,P.63 50. Jayaswal K.P.,PP.66-67 51. According to an inscription of Varahdeva, who was a minister of Harisen, Vindhyashakti has been called Dvij E.I XXVI P.140


Vakatakas were offshoots of Vidisa Nagas: Dr Naval Viyogi[10] writes....[p.344] Vakatakas used their original family name as suffix with the name of village. Vagat as indicated in the theory of learned scholar K.P. Jayaswal. In corroboration of this theory some examples of such place names related to Satavahanas, another branch of Taka family, are being produced below; Gautamiputra Srisatkarni in the inscription of Nasik cave (Epigraphia Indica Part VIII no 4 P-71) has called himself Venakatak Swami Gautami Putta Siri Sadakari (The lord of Venakatak Gauamiputta Siri Satakari). Dr. V.V. Mirashi (Sanshodhana Muktavali sery 1 PP 110-12) comments upon above adjective that progenitor of Gautamiputra were ruling there in Maharashtra in the beginning.65 Vena is a river Ven-Ganga near Nagpur.

There are also some more examples of places of like wise names falling in the same area such as; Bhojkata (k)66 Nagar-Katak67, Nandi Katak.68 Karahekatak, Dhankatak. It shows these Vakatakas were a branch of Takas, similar to Bharsiva Taka as proved earlier. It is interesting to note that although Samudra Gupta was daughter's son of Lichchhavis but he has been called only Lichchhavi Dauhitra and not Lichchhavi. But here Rudrasena I has been called Bharsiva Maharaja, who was daughter's son of Bharsiva who came on their throne owing to prevalence of matriarchal system in this family. It shows these Vakatakas were blood relatives of Bharsiva. That is why Rudrasena I has been called Bharsiva otherwise how these Bharsivas would have given their daughter as bride, as well as family throne to a Brahmanas who were their hereditary sworn enemies from the time of Mahabharat. (See chapter X P 261) and Arthsashtra.69

H.H. Wilson (V.P. VollI P-657) has furnished with another most valuable information favouring our theory "that there were thirteen sons of Vindhya Shakti and rest. The Bhagwata has a different statement identifying the sons of the Vindhya race with the Valhikas (Vahikas) and making them thirteen.

tesān trayodashasutā bhavitārscha vāhilkah - means "the Vahlikas will be their thirteen sons." According to Cunningham70 these Vahlikas or Vahikas were Taka Nagas. It evidently confirms our theory that these Vakatakas were definitely of Taka origin and perhaps related to the earlier branch of Vidisa Naga (See. P-330) or Sesha Naga since Vindhya Shakti has been mentioned as descendant of Bhutanandi in the Puranas.

In Bhagawar71 Purana there is a pedigree of early Nagas or Naga kings of Kilkila begins with Bhutanandi and ending with Praviraka or Pravarsena I son of Vindhya Shakti. It is as follows72 :

kilkilāyan nirpatayo bhātananddoya vangirh
sisunandischa tadbratā. yasonandih pravirakāh

65. See chapter XI PP 285-86 for details 66.Harivansha (Vishnu Parva 6-32) 67.Mirashi V.V.P. 46 68. (a) Mirashi V.V.P. 46, (b) JNSI Vol II (1940) P.94 69.Arthashastra of Kautilya, Sangha Vrata Adhikaran XI 70. Cunningham A, PP-125-26 71. Jayaswal K.P. PP-67 72.Jayaswal K.P. PP-69


[p.345]: Here king Praviraka or Pravarsena I Vakataka has been included in list of Nagas who were Kilkila kings. It means he was also a Kilkila Naga king. Kilkila is the name of river near Panna.

This gets confirmation from Vishnu Purana73 :

Tesuchchha nneśukailkilā yavanā bhūpatayo bhavishyanti
mūrdhābhiśikta steśāņ vindhya shaktih (16)

Meaning: Kilkila Yavanas will be the kings...The chief of whom will be Vindhya Shakti (the appellation of Yavana is for non-Aryan as amended later by the scholars). Here the king Vindhya Shakti has been called Kil-Kila Nag and non-Aryan both.

These Kilkila Nagas were earlier related to Vidisa known as Vidisa-Vrisha. This view is supported by another statement of K.P. Jayaswal. He writes,74 "The Puranas in detailing the rise of Vindhyashakti state that Vindhya Shakti arose from the Kilkila kings. Here it is clear that Puranas mean the Nagas who at that time were prominently connected with Kil-kila as their name changes from Vidisa- Vrisha to Kil-Kila Vrisha." eg Vayu (358-370)

tachuchhanena cha kālena tatah kilakilāh-vrishah
tatah k(a)ilakilebhyaś cha vindhya saktir bhavish yati
(braharnanda verses j 78-179)
vrishān vaidesakāmś chāpi bhavishyāmś chanibodhata"

It is obvious these Kila-Kila Nagas were earlier known as Vidisa Vrisha and later Kila-Kila Vrisha. It means they were earlier ruler of Vidisa. Hence it is proved finally that Vakatakas were offshoots of Vidisa Nagas.


73. V.P. (Wilson) Ch. XXIV Part II P-656 74.Jayaswal K.P. PP-69

Kilkila in Chhattisgarh

Kilkila is a village in Lailunga (लैलूंगा) tahsil in Raigarh district in Chhattisgarh. There is need to further investigates the relation of this village with history of Kilkil clan.

Jat Origin Theory

Bhim Singh Dahiya has mentioned that this is yet another important clan of the Jats which founded an empire in Central India, which was later on called by the name of Vakataka. Under Pravarsena I, they were ruling from Bundelkhand to Hyderabad in the south. Some historians are of the view that his was a Brahman dynasty because Vindhyashakti the founder of this kingdom was a Brahmana. [11] This is entirely wrong. The evidence of the Puranas is definitely against it. Bhau Daji has shown that the Vakatakas were foreigners [12] Visnu Purana expressly says that “When they (Pauras) are destroyed, the Kailakila Yavanas will be kings the chief of whom will be Vindhyashati[13] Brahmand Puranas says, Tatah Kilakile Dhyascha Vindhyashakti Bhavishyati”. [14]


Here Paura stands for the Por clan of the Jats who are earlier mentioned in the Puranas as ruling in India. Both these Puranas expressly say that Vindhyashakti belonged to Kilkil or Kalkil clan. The Vayu and Matsya Puranas say that these people were Yavanas in institutions, manners, and policy. This is because the Greeks held sway in Bactria area for 200 Years. Otherwise, also, the word Yavana is used for any foreigner from West. [15] [14]

This Kalkil clan of the Jats is still existing. The fact that the race of Vindhyashakti was of Jats is further proved by their marriage alliance which were with the Dharan / Guptas and the Bharashivas / Tank Jats. The fact that these king were supporters of traditional Hindusim or that they performed horse sacrifices does not prove anything. We know that these foreigners were among the first to use Sanskrit language in their inscriptions. The horse sacrifice also cannot be called as peculiar to India because the sacrifice of horse, especially a white horse was the traditional custom of the Central Asian people right up to the Tatars. Another Custom of these Central Asian people i.e. worship of a sword was scrupulously followed even by Chenghiz Khan. The worship of the arms on festival days, called Shastra Puja on Dushera days, even among the later Rajputs and other Kshatriyas comes from that very source. [14]

A small state of Yadnagar in Meerut was of the Kalkil Jats who are now settled in that area.[16] [17]

Mahabharata mentions a people and a country called Kalkala in the south. [18] [14]


Bhim Singh Dahiya[19] has provided Clan Identification Chart in which Kilkil is mentioned at S.No. 68:

Sl West Asian/Iranian Greek Chines Central Asian Indian Present name
1 2 3 4 5 6
68. - - - Kirkin Kilkila Kalkil

Kalkal (कलकल)) may be identified with one of The Mahabharata Tribes - Kalkala (कल्कल).[20] The tribe is listed in the 'geography' Mahabharata (VI.10.60). [21]

कलकल गोत्र का इतिहास

कलकल - इन लोगों का राज्य मध्य एशिया के ‘वाकाटक’ प्रदेश पर रहा था। (अधिक जानकारी के लिये, तृतीय अध्याय में इन गोत्रों के प्रकरण में देखो)।[22]

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[23] लिखते हैं - कलकल जाटवंश नागवंश की शाखा है। यह प्राचीन वंश है। इस वंश का राज्य मध्य एशिया के वाकाटक (Vakataka) प्रदेश पर रहा। इस वंश के सम्राट् परवरसेन प्रथम (Pravarasena) ने बुन्देलखण्ड से लेकर दक्षिण में हैदराबाद तक राज्य किया। विष्णु पुराना अंग्रेजी पृ० 382 लेखक विल्सन लिखता है कि “भविष्य में होने वाले पौरव (जाट) वंश के 11 राजाओं का शासन 300 वर्ष रहकर समाप्त हो जायेगा तब किलकिल यवन राज्य करेंगे जिनका सम्राट् विन्ध्यशक्ति नामक होगा। इस वंश के 10 राजा 106 वर्ष राज्य करेंगे।” यह किलकिल जाटवंश है और इनका सम्राट् विंध्यशक्ति भी जाट था। इसका प्रमाण यह है कि इस वंश के विवाह शादी के सम्बन्ध जाट धारण गोत्र के गुप्तों और भारशिव एवं टांक/तक्षक जाटों के साथ रहे। (बी० एस० दहिया, जाट्स दी एन्शन्ट रूलर्ज, पृ० 284)।

“ततः किलकिलेभ्यश्च बिन्ध्यशक्तिर्भविष्यति” वायु पुराण 258, ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण 178 के


1. पाण्डवों की दिग्विजय में अर्जुन ने उत्तर दिशा के अनेक देशों के साथ कालकूट (कालखण्डे) देश को भी जीत लिया था (महाभारत सभापर्व, अध्याय 26)। यह कालकूट देश चीनी तुर्किस्तान में था जिस पर कालखण्डे गोत्र के जाटों का राज्य था।


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-248


अनुसार वह राजा विंध्यशक्ति जो किलकिल के नाम से प्रसिद्ध था, किलकिला नदी के किनारे प्रतिष्ठित थी। यह नदी पन्ना नगर से नागौद जाते हुए लगभग 4 मील पर है। इनका शासनकाल ईस्वी पूर्व 248 वर्ष माना गया है। बुन्देलखण्ड पर इनका एकछत्र राज्य था। इस वंश की जि० मेरठ में यादनगर एक अच्छी रियासत थी। यहां के जाट अपने वंश किलकिल को कलकल बोलते हैं। अलीपुर, उपैड़ा, लुकलाड़ा में भी इसी वंश के जाट हैं। यह वंश केवल जाटों में ही है।[24] हरयाणा में दादरी तहसील में इमलोटा गांव कलकलवंशी जाटों का है। यह कलकलवंश चन्द्रवंशी है।

छोटी सादड़ी महाराज गौर का शिलालेख संवत 547 (491 AD)

Sanskrit Text
तस्या प्रणम्य प्रकरोम्यह x x जस्त्रम
(कीर्तिशु) भां गुणा गणोघम (पींन्टपाणाम) (3)
x x कुलो (भद्) वव (ञ् श) गौरा
क्षात्रेप (दे) सतत दीक्षित x शौंडा
x x x
धान्य सोम इति क्षत्र गणस्य मध्ये (4)
... ... ...
x x किल राज्य जित प्रतापो
यो राज्यवर्द्धण (न) गुणै कृत नाम धेयः
x x x
जातः सुतो करि करायत दीर्घ बाहु ।
नाम्ना स राष्ट्र इति प्रोद्धत पुन्य (पय) कीर्ति (6)
सोयम यशो भरण भूषित सर्व गात्रः
प्रोत्फुल पद्मः ......तायत चारु नेत्रः ।
दक्षो दयालु रिह शासित शत्रु पक्षः ।
क्षमां शासति ....यश गुप्त इति क्षितीन्दुः (8)
तेनेयं भूतधात्री क्रतु मिरिहचिता (पूर्व) श्रंगेव भाति
प्रासादे रद्रि तुंगैः शशिकर वषुषैः स्थापितेः भूषिताद्य
नाना दानेन्दु शुभ्रैर्द्विजवर भवनैर्येन लक्ष्मीर्व्विभक्ता ।
x x x स्थित यश वषुशा श्री महाराज गौरः (11)
यातेषु पंचसु शतेष्वथ वत्सराणाम्
द्वे विंशतीसम धिकेषु स सप्तकेषु ।।
माघस्य शुक्ल दिवसे त्वगमत्प्रतिष्ठाम् ।
प्रोत्फुल्ल कुन्द धवलोज्वलिते दश म्याम् (13)
Chhoti Sadri Inscription of samvat 547 (491 AD)[25]

गौर लोगों का एक शिला लेख छोटी सादड़ी से दो मील के दूरी पर स्थित पहाड़ पर भ्रमर-माता के मंदिर में पाया गया था. इसकी लिपि ब्रह्मी और भाषा संस्कृत है. पंडित गौरी शंकर हीराचन्द ओझा ने उसे देखा है और नागरी-प्रचारिणी-पत्रिका, भाग 13, अंक 1 में ’गौर क्षेत्रिय वंश’ शीर्षक लेख भी लिखा है. उस घिसे हुए और पुराने लेख की पंक्तियों से इसका मूल पाठ यहाँ दिया गया है.

इन श्लोकों में दो प्रार्थना सम्बन्धी श्लोक हैं. शेष में बताया गया है - महाराज धान्यसोम क्षत्रिय लोगों में प्रसिद्ध राजा थे. उनके पीछे राज्यवर्धन हुये. राज्यवर्धन के पुत्र राष्ट्रों में राष्ट्र-नायक हुये. उनका पुत्र यशगुप्त हुआ. उन गोर नरेश ने संवत 547 माघ सुदी दसमी (ई. 491) को अपने माता-पिता के पुण्य (स्मृति) के निमित्त देवी का मंदिर बनवाया. इस लेख से स्पष्ट है कि छ्ठी शताब्दी में गोरा लोग छोटी सादड़ी में राज करते थे.

डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा[26] पर इस शिलालेख के बारे में लिखते हैं कि छोटी सादड़ी जिला चितोडगढ़ का भ्रमरमाता का 17 पंक्तियों का लेख पांचवीं शादी की राजनीतिक स्थिति को समझाने में सहायक है. इसमें गौरवंश तथा औलिकरवंश के शासकों का वर्णन मिलता है. गौर वंश के पुण्यशोभ , राज्यवर्धन, यशोगुप्त आदि शासकों तथा औलिकर वंश के आदित्यवर्द्धन के नाम उपलब्ध हैं. इन शासकों का राज्य चित्तोड़ क्षेत्र तक तथा निकट वर्ती भागों में होने की संभावना इस लेख से प्रमाणित होती है. गौर वंशीय शासकों द्वारा यहाँ माता का मंदिर बनवाया गया जिससे इनकी शाक्त-धर्म के प्रति भक्ति होना दिखाई देता है. प्रस्तुत लेख में अपराजित राजपुत्र गोभट्टपादानुध्यात् पंक्ति बड़े महत्व की है. 'राजपुत्र' शब्दों से किसी भी सामंत का किसी शासक के प्रति सेवाभाव होना प्रमाणित होता है.


नोट - 1. x x किल राज्य जित प्रतापो वाक्य पर ध्यान दिये जाने की आवश्यकता है। इसमें अस्पष्ट शब्द 'किल' होना चाहिए। अगर ऐसा है तो किलकिल राज्य का उल्लेख है। किलकिल एक जाट वंश है।

2. भ्रमर-माता या भवर माता का संबंध भव नाग (290-315 AD) से होना चाहिए।

3. भवारा गोत्र के जाट भी छोटी सादड़ी, |चितोडगढ़ में रहते हैं।

Distribution in Haryana

Villages in Bhiwani district

They live in District Bhiwani in Haryana in villages:

Imlota (इमलोटा - इसे बिलोटा भी कहते हैं)

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

They live in districts Ghaziabad, Meerut, and Hapur in Uttar Pradesh.

Villages in Ghaziabad district

Allipur Mugalpur, Ayadnagar, Lakhrada, Meekanpur, Upeda,

Distribution in Rajasthan

Villages in Nagaur district

Hirani, Kalkala Ki Dhani,

Villages in Churu district

Rampurabas Jasrasar

Notable persons from this clan

  • Jagdish Singh Kalkal - RJS Rajasthan
  • Badan Singh KalKal - First Sarpanch of Village Imlota or (बलोटा)
  • Vijay Singh KalKal - Rt. Chief Engineer and was the candidate from Ch Dadri from INLD.

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. क-113
  2. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.239, s.n.110
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, pp.342, 248
  4. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 230
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III,p.242
  6. Sant Kanha Ram: Shri Veer Tejaji Ka Itihas Evam Jiwan Charitra (Shodh Granth), Published by Veer Tejaji Shodh Sansthan Sursura, Ajmer, 2015. p.158
  7. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 91
  8. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India/General Index of Nagas, The Ancient Rulers of India, p.338
  9. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India/General Index of Nagas, The Ancient Rulers of India,pp.338-339
  10. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India/General Index of Nagas, The Ancient Rulers of India,pp.344-345
  11. R.C. Majumdar, Ancient India 1962, Hindi Edition p. 253
  12. Journal of Bombay Branch of Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. VII. p. 69
  13. Wilson, Edition, p. 380
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 284
  15. D.P. Singhal, India and World Civilisation, Vol. I.p.385
  16. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III,p.249
  17. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Jat Clan in India,p.285
  18. Sanskrit English Dictionary ( M. Williams) , p. 262
  19. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix II, p.323
  20. Sandhya Jain:Adideo Arya Devata, A Panoramic view of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Published in 2004 by Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi, p.130
  21. तर्यङ्गाः केकरकाः परॊष्ठाः परसंचरकास तदा ।
    तदैव विन्ध्यपुलकाः पुलिन्थाः कल्कलैः सह (VI.10.60)
  22. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p. 341
  23. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ-248,249
  24. जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 330, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री।
  25. ठाकुर देशराज:जाट इतिहास, 1992,पृ.591-592
  26. डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ. 46 -47

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