Note - Please click → Patan for details of similarly named villages at other places.
Patan (पाटन)/(पाटण) is a town and District in Gujarat. It was capital of Gujarat in medieval times.
Variants of name
It is variously referred to in Sanskrit literature as
- Anahilapataka(अणहिलपाटक) - Towns and Villages of Chauhan Dominions- SN:170. mentioned in Nanana grant of Alhana S.V.1219 & S.V.1220. Identified by Dasharatha Sharma as Modern Patan Gujarat (पाटण) 25N. 70E. in Gujarat
- Anahillapura (Anahilapataka) (Verse-11: Sunda hill Inscription of Chachigadeva)
- Anahilvad Pattan,
- Anhilpur Patan,
- Anhilwad Patan,
- Pattan .
- Anhalavada (अन्हलवाड़ा) (गुजरात)= Patan (पाटन) (AS, p.24)
The city has many Hindu and Jain temples and a few mosques, dargahs and rojas. The city has many historical places also. Patan, an ancient fortified town, was founded in 745 AD by Vanraj Chavda, the most prominent king of the Chavda Kingdom. He named the city Anhilpur Patan or "Anhilwad Patan" after his close friend and Prime Minister Anhila.
The Chalukyas, with Paramaras of Malwa, the Chauhans of Sakambhari and Chandelas of Kalinjar and Mahoba, were serious contestants for supremacy in northern India. At the zenith of their imperial greatness the bounds of Gujarat were extended to cover Saurashtra and Kutch in the West, Lata in the South, Malwa in the East and Southern Rajasthan in the North. Historian Tertius Chandler estimates that Anhilwara was the tenth-largest city in the world in the year 1000, with a population of approximately 100,000.
When Muizzuddin Muhammad Ghori had attempted to conquer Gujarat, the forces of Mularaja-II, the then King of Patan, a mere boy-ruler, led by his heroic mother Naikidevi, inflicted such a crushing and conclusive defeat on him that the foreigner did not dare again during his lifetime to cast his greedy eye upon Patan. He never again entered India through Gujarat. The battle was fought at Kayadra, a village near Mount Abu. Muizzuddin’s army was completely routed in the conflict, but somehow he escaped with his defeated army from Gujarat.Muhammed's general (and later Sultanate of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak sacked the city between 1200 and 1210, and it was destroyed by the Alladin Khilji in 1298.
James Tod writes that The Balhara kings, and their capital Nahrwala, or Anhilwara Patan, have given rise to much conjecture amongst the learned. We shall, endeavour to condense what has been said by ancient and modern authorities on the subject ; and from manuscripts, ancient inscriptions, and the result of a personal visit to this ancient domain, to set the matter completely at rest.  Baleo Kouros has been identified with Vilivāyakura, a name found on coins of the Andhra dynasty. 
James Tod writes that At all events, the prince of Deo laid the foundation of Anhilwara Patan in S. 802 (A.D. 746), which henceforth became the capital city of this portion of India, in lieu of Valabhipura, which gave the title of Balakaraes to its princes, the Balhara of the earlier Arabian travellers, and following them, the geographers of Europe. The Balhara of Arab travellers of the tenth century were the Rashtrakuta dynasty of Malkhed, Balhara being a corruption of Vallabha-raja, Vallabha being the royal title. 
H. W. Bellew writes that The next tribe of the Sharkhbun branch of the Sarbani Afghan is the Shirani, called also Char (Chawara or Chaora Rajput). The Chaora, according to Colonel Tod (Annals of Rajasthan), was once a renowned tribe in the history of India, though its name, he says, is now scarcely known, and its origin is veiled in obscurity. It belongs neither to the Solar race nor the Lunar race, and is probably of Skythic descent. The name is unknown in Hindustan, and is confined, with many others originating beyond the Indus, to the peninsula of Saurashtra. If foreign to India proper, continues Tod, its establishment must have been at a remote period, as individuals of the tribe intermarried with the Surajbansi ancestry of the present princes of Mewar, when this family were the lords of Balabhi. The capital of the Chaora was the insular Deobandar, on the coast of Saurashtra, and the temple of Somnath, with many others on this coast, dedicated to Balnath, is attributed to this tribe of the Saura or worshippers of the sun. It was Vena Raja or Banraj, prince of Deo, who, 746, A.D., laid the foundation of Anhalwara, which his dynasty ruled for one hundred and eighty-four years, when Bhojraj, the seventh from the founder and the last of the Chaora, was deposed, 931 A.D., by his own daughter's son, Mulraj of the Solanki tribe. Mulraj ruled Anhalwara for fifty-eight years. During the reign of his son and successor, Chawand or Chaond Rae, called Jamand by Muhammadan historians, Mahmud of Ghazni invaded the kingdom of Anhalwara, and drained it of its immense riches, for Anhalwara was at that time the entrepot of the productions of the eastern and the western hemispheres.
- James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Annals of Mewar,p.250, fn-1
- " Hippokoura, the royal seat of Baleo Kouros " (Periplus, viii. 83).
- BG, i. Part ii. 158 ; McCrindle, Ptolemy, 179.
- James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,p.122
- BG, i. Part ii. 209.
- An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.165
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