From Jatland Wiki
(Redirected from Sakambhari)
Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Location of Nawa in Nagaur District
Location of the Desert Rivers by Irfan Habib

Sambhar (सांभर) is a town and lake in Jaipur district of Rajasthan. It is headquarter of Phulera tahsil.



Sambhar is located at coordinates: 26.92|N|75.2|E|[1]. It has an average elevation of 367  metres (1204 foot) . Its importance is primarily because of it is situated along the Sambhar Lake, the largest saline lake in India.

Ancient history

Its ancient name, mentioned in Harsha Inscription 961 AD (L-39), was Sankaranaka (शंकराणक). Its ancient name was also Shakambhari (शाकंभरी) after the goddess of the same name.[2]

Sambhar is known for the Salt lake, the tirtha of Devayani and Shakambhari temple.[3] On the banks of Sambhar lake three towns are located 1. Sambhar on the east bank, 2. Nawa on the northwest bank and 3. Gudha in between these villages. The people of these village depend on salt Industry. [4] Archaeology department had done excavation at Sambhar on site called Naliasar which indicated its antiquity.[5]

James Todd[6] writes that Sambhar, A name derived from the goddess Sakambhari, the tutelary divinity of the tribes, whose statue is in the middle of the lake. Sambhar is situated on the banks of the extensive salt lake of the same name, was probably anterior to Ajmer, and yielded an epithet to the princes of this race, who were styled Sambhari Rao. These continued to be the most important places of Chauhan power, until the translation of Prithwiraja to the imperial throne of Delhi threw a parting halo of splendour over the last of its independent kings. There were several princes whose actions emblazon the history of the Chauhans. Of these was Manika Rae, who first opposed the progress of the Muhammadan arms. Even the history of the conquerors records that the most obstinate opposition which the arms of Mahmud of Ghazni encountered was from the prince of Ajmer,[7] who forced him to retreat, foiled and disgraced, from this celebrated stronghold, in his destructive route to Saurashtra.

Alexander Cunningham on Sambhar

Alexander Cunningham[8] writes that Strabo relates that "in the territory of

[p.157]: Sopeithes there is a mountain composed of fossil salt sufficient for the whole of India." As this notice can only refer to the well-known mines of rock salt in the Salt Range, the whole of the upper portion of the Sindh Sagar Doab must have been included in the territories of Sopeithes. His sway, therefore, would have extended from the Indus on the west to the Akesines on the east, thus comprising the whole of the present districts of Pind Dadan and Shahpur. This assignment of the valuable salt mines to Sopeithes, or Sophites, may also be deduced from a passage in Pliny by the simple transposition of two letters in the name of a country, which has hitherto puzzled all the commentators. Pliny says, " when Alexander the Great was on his Indian expedition, he was presented by the king of Albania with a dog of unusual size," which successfully attacked both a lion and an elephant in his presence.1 The same story is repeated by his copyist, Solinus,2 without any change in the name of the country. Now, we know from the united testimony of Strabo, Diodorus, and Curtius, that the Indian king who presented Alexander with these fighting dogs was Sophites, and he, therefore, must have been the king of Albania. For this name I propose to read Labania, by the simple transposition of the first two letters. AABAN would, therefore, become AABAN, which at once suggests the Sanskrit word lavana, or ' salt,' as the original of this hitherto puzzling name. The mountain itself is named Orumenus by Pliny,3 who notes that the kings of the country

1 Hist. Nat., viii. 61.

2 Ibid., xxxi. 39. " Sunt et montes nativi salis, ut in Indis Oro- menus.

3 Ibid.

[p.158]: derived a greater revenue from the rock salt than from either gold or pearls. This name is probably intended for the Sanskrit Raumaka, which, according to the Pandits, is the name of the salt brought from the hill country of Ruma. H. H. Wilson, however, identifies Ruma with Sambhar ;1 and as rauma means " salt," it is probable that the term may have been applied to the Sambhar lake in Rajasthan, as well as to the Salt Range of hills in the Panjab.2

1 See his Sanskrit Dictionary in voce. Ruma, Rauma, Raumaka.

2 See Maps Nos. V. and VI.

Amoda Plates Of Prithvideva I (Kalachuri) Year 831 (=1079 AD)

Amoda Plates Of Prithvideva I (Kalachuri) Year 831 (=1079 AD)[9] mentions in VV.4-6 as under:

(V. 4) The kings born in his (Kartavirya) family became (known as) Haihayas on the earth. In their family was born that (famous) Kôkkala, the first king of the Chaidyas (the people of the Chedi country)

(V. 5) By that king was erected on the earth a pillar of victory after forcibly dispossessing the kings of Karnata and Vanga, the lord of the Gurjaras, the ruler of Konkana, the lord of Shakambhari, the Turushka and the descendant of Raghu (Probably the contemporary prince of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty) of their treasure, horses and elephants.

(V. 6) He had eighteen, very valiant sons, who destroyed their enemies as lions break open the frontal globes of elephants , the eldest of them, an excellent prince, became the lord of Tripuri and he made his brothers the lords of mandalas by his side.

शाकंभरी - सांभर

शाकंभरी = सांभर (AS, p.893): विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[10] ने लेख किया है ...शाकंभरी देवी के नाम पर प्रसिद्ध स्थान है। इसका उल्लेख महाभारत, वनपर्व के तीर्थयात्रा प्रसंग में है- 'ततो गच्छेत् राजेन्द्र देव्याः स्थानं सुदुर्लभम, शाकम्भरीति विख्याता त्रिषु लोकेषु विश्रुता।'[11]

इसके बाद शाकंभरी देवी के नाम का कारण इस प्रकार बताया गया है- 'दिव्यं वर्षसहस्त्रं हि शाकेन किल सुब्रता, आहारं सकृत्वती मासि मासि नराधिप, ऋषयोऽभ्यागता स्तत्र देव्या भक्त्या तपोधनाः, आतिथ्यं च कृतं तेषां शाकेन किल भारत ततः शाकम्भरीत्येवनाम तस्याः प्रतिष्ठम्।'[12]

शाकंभरी या वर्तमान सांभर ज़िला, जयपुर (राजस्थान) में सीकर के निकट स्थित है। सांभर झील जो पास ही में स्थित है, शाकंभरी देवी के नाम पर ही प्रसिद्ध है। यहां शाकंभरी का प्राचीन मंदिर भी है। 12शती के अन्तिम चरण में सांभर के प्रदेश में चौहानों का राज्य था। अर्णोराज यहां के प्रतापी राजा थे। इनकी रानी देवलदेवी गुजरात के राजा कुमारपाल की बहन थीं। एक छोटी-सी बात पर रुष्ट होकर कुमारपाल ने अर्णोराज पर आक्रमण कर दिया, जिसके परिणामस्वरूप अर्णोराज को कैद कर लिया गया। किंतु उनके मंत्री उदयमहता और देवलदेवी के प्रयत्न से वे छूट गये और अंत में शाकंभरी नरेश ने अपनी कन्या मीनलकुमारी का विवाह कुमारपाल के साथ कर दिया।


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[13] ने लेख किया है ...रुमा सांभर झील (ज़िला जयपुर, राजस्थान) के निकटवर्ती क्षेत्र का नाम। रुमा झील से मिलने वाले नमक को सुश्रुत आदि वैद्यक ग्रंथों में 'रोमक' कहा गया है।

देवयानी का पितृगृह

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[14] ने लेख किया है ...देवयानी का पितृगृह अर्थात् शुक्राचार्य का आश्रम एक दूसरी जनश्रुति में 'देवयानी' नामक स्थान (राजस्थान) में भी माना जाता है।)

माली जाटों के इतिहास में

विक्रम संवत 1192 (=1135 ई.) में सांभर से प्रस्थान के बाद मलसी ने मालीसर गांव बसाया- वैशाख सुदी आखा तीज के दिन विक्रम संवत 1194 साल (=1137 ई.)। जहां मलसी ने पनघट का कुआं खुदवाया, जोहड़ खुदवाया, सवा सौ बीघा पड़तल भूमि छोड़ी तथा महादेव जी की छतरी करवाई। [15]

मलसी माली (1135 ई.) (पत्नि:सुंदर पूनिया पुत्री जोधराज पूनिया, चन्द्रा की पोती ) → धरमा (पत्नि:हेमी गोदारा, पुत्री मेहा गोदारा/हिदु की पोती) → जैतपाल (पत्नि: रायमल भावरीया, की पुत्री सायर) (भाई: करमसी, बहिन: राजां, जोरां) → उदय (पत्नि: सुलखा हरचतवाल की बेटी सिणगारी) (भाई रतन, जीवराज, बहिन सरस्वती) → धनराज (बहिन गणी) [16]

धरमा माली ने बेटी राजा व जोरां का विवाह किया- वैशाख सुदी तीज विक्रम संवत 1278 (=1221 ई.) विवाह में 21 गायें दहेज में दी। विक्रम संवत 1329 (=1272 ई.) में मालीसर गांव में धर्मा की याद में करमसीजैतपाल ने ₹900 में पानी की 'पीय' कराई तथा विक्रम संवत 1338 (=1281 ई.) में मालीसर गांव में दान किया। विक्रम संवत 1342 (=1286 ई.) में मालीसर गांव में चौधरी उदय ने दान कार्य किया। (करमसी की पत्नि महासी निठारवाल की बेटी हरकू थी- वंश विराम)[17]

चौधरी उदयसी, रतनसी, जीवराज गांव मालीसर छोड़ पलसाना बसे- वैशाख सुदी 7 विक्रम संवत 1352 (=1295 ई.) (शनिवार) के दिन सवा पहर दिन चढ़ते समय छड़ी रोपी। [18]

विक्रम संवत 1513 (=1456 ई.) में चौधरी घासीराम माली पलसाना छोड़कर कासली बसा। [19]

वैशाख सुदी आखातीज विक्रम संवत 1732 की साल (28 अप्रैल 1675 ई.) में चौधरी खडता व धर्मा ने कासली छोड़ गांव पूरां बसाया। [20]

विक्रम संवत 1746 (1689 ई.) की साल धर्मा ने पुरां में धर्माणा जोहड़ा खुदवाया। कार्तिक सुदी सात विक्रम संवत 1754 (=1697 ई.) में चौधरी पांचू, बीजा, लौहट ने पिता धर्मा का मौसर किया। वह गंगाजी घाल गंगोज कराया। विक्रम संवत 1780 (=1723 ई.) की साल चौधरी पांचू/बाछू ने दान कार्य किया। [21]

माली गोत्र के बसने और विस्थापन का क्रम:

रुल्याणा माली गांव के माली गोत्र के पूर्वज तुर्कों के सांभर पर आक्रमण के फलस्वरूप विक्रम संवत 1192 (1135 ई.) में सांभर से प्रस्थान कर गए तथा विक्रम संवत 1194 (1137 ई.) की साल के किसी दिन छड़ी रोककर मालीसर गाँव बसाया। माली गोत्र के बसने और विस्थापन का क्रम निम्न तरह से मिलता है[22]:

सांभर (विक्रम संवत 1192 = 1135 ई.) → मालीसर (विक्रम संवत 1194 = 1137 ई.) → पलसाना (विक्रम संवत 1352 = 1295 ई.) → कासली (विक्रम संवत 1513 = 1446 ई.) → छापर (विक्रम संवत 1518 = 1461 ई.) → बाड़ा (विक्रम संवत 1522 = 1465 ई.) → बुसड़ी खेड़ा (?) (विक्रम संवत 1525 = 1468 ई.) → भींवसर (विक्रम संवत् 1535 ई. = 1478 ई.)

कासली (विक्रम संवत 1513= 1446 ई.) → पुरां डूंगरा की (विक्रम संवत 1732= 1675 ई.) → रुल्याणा माली (वैशाख सुदी आखातीज विक्रम संवत 1841 = 22 अप्रैल 1784)

झाड़ी वाले माली ढूंढाड़बादलवासदुगोलीरुल्याणा माली

पलसाना से क्रमिक स्थानांतरण के लगभग चार सौ साल बाद माली पुरां (डूंगरा की) बसे और वहां से करीब सौ साल बाद दीपा माली का बेटा पीथा माली रुल्याणा माली में आकर बसा।

भाखर गोत्र के इतिहास में

भाखर गोत्र के प्रमुख निकास स्थल व थान[23]:

गढ़ आबू (निकास वि.सं 1260= 1203 ई.) → सांभर निकास → अजमेर निकास → सिद्धमुख निकास → ददरेवा निकास → तीबो डोडो थान (?) → भाखरोली थानलाडनू थानबलदु थानकीचक थानफोगड़ी थानखाखोली थानमोडावट थानफागल्वा थानरुल्याणा थान → बरड़वा थानरातगो थानआजड़ोली थानडकावा थानसुनथली थान (?) → घस्सू थानथोरासी थान

भाखर गोत्र के बसने और विस्थापन का क्रम[24]:

गढ़ आबू (वि.सं 1260= 1203 ई.) → सांभरभाखरोली (वि.सं 1263= 1206 ई.) → ददरेवा (वि.सं 1360= 1303 ई.) → बलदु (वि.सं 1420= 1363 ई.) → कीचक (वि.सं 1499= 1442 ई.) → मोडावट (वि.सं 1512= 1455 ई.) → फागल्वा (वि.सं 1670= 1613 ई.) → सिगड़ोला छोटा (वि.सं 1954= 1897 ई.) → रुल्याणा माली (वि.सं 1956= 1899 ई.)

Shakambhari in Mahabharata

Shakambhari (शाकम्भरी) Tirtha is mentioned in Mahabharata (III.82.11), (III.82.13), (III.82.14).

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 84 mentions merits of Shakambhari tirtha in verses (III.82.11-15) as under:

One should next proceed to the excellent spot of the Goddess celebrated over the three worlds by the name of Shakambhari. There, for the space of a thousand celestial years, she of excellent vows, month after month, had subsisted upon herbs and attracted by their reverence for the Goddess, many Rishis with wealth of asceticism, came thither to and were entertained by her with herbs. And it is for this that they bestowed on her the name of Shakambhari. The man who arriveth at Shakambhari, with rapt attention and leading a Brahmacharya mode of life and passeth three nights there in purity and subsisting on herbs alone, obtaineth, at the will of the goddess, the merit of him that liveth upon herbs for twelve years.[25]


Genealogy of Chauhan rulers Chahaman - Guvaka-II
Genealogy of Chauhan rulers Chandanaraja - Someshwara
Genealogy of Chauhan rulers Prithviraja-II - Ramadeva

Epic Mahabharata mentions this place as part of kingdom of the demon king Brishparva, as the place where his priest Sukracharya lived, and as the place where the marriage between his daughter Devayani and king Yayati took place. A temple dedicated to Devayani can be seen near the lake.

According to a Hindu tradition, Shakambhari Devi, the tutelary goddess of Chauhans, converted the forest to a plain of precious metals. People worried about potential feuds for wealth and felt it to be a curse rather than a blessing. They requested her to retract her favor, so she converted the silver to salt. This place still has a temple dedicated to Shakambhari Devi. According to a legend, the lake was gifted to the people of the area some 2,500 years ago by the Goddess Shakambhari. A small glimmering white temple in her honour stands under a rocky outcrop jutting into the lake. [26]

Dalip Singh Ahlawat writes that Yayati was the ruler of Jambudwipa (Asia). The traces of Yayati rule are present historically. There is a place called Jajpur about 10 km from Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, where one finds ruins of ancient fort known as "Yayati ke Kot" means the forts of Yayati. Similarly there is a well near Sambhar lake in Rajasthan known by the name of Devyani ka Kuan in which Devyani was pushed into the well due to enmity and Yayati had rescued her from that dry well.[27]

Thakur Deshraj has given an analysis of Jat population in Rajasthan as on 1931. After that census was not by castes. As per 1931 census the population of Jats in Rajasthan in Jaipur state was highest i.e. 313609[28] In Jaipur state also the highest Jat density areas, according to Thakur Deshraj in the earstwhile Jaipur state were – Malpura, Sambhar, Shekhawati, Torawati, Khetri and Sikar. [29]

Dasharatha Sharma[30] writes....[p.123]: Hammira was the last and most famous of the Chauhans of Ranthambhor. Hammira had ascended the throne in V.1339. Not very long after this, he started, according to the Hammiramahakavya, on a digvijaya or conquest of all the quarters. He first defeated Ajuna, the ruler of Bhamarasa, and then exacted tribute from the fort of Mandalakrita (मण्डलकृत) or Mandalgarh. Striking southwards from here, he reached Ujjayini and Dhara and defeated the Paramara ruler Bhoja. From here he turned northwards, and reached home passing through Chittor, Abu, Vardhanapura (वर्धनपुर) (Badnore), Changa (चंगा) (fortress of the mers still retains old name), Pushkar, Maharashtra (Marot), Sakambhari, Khandilla (खंडिल्ल) (Khandela), Champa (चम्पा) (Chaksu), and Karkarala (कर्कराला) (Karkaralagiri of the Balvan Inscription == Karauli), at the last of which places he received the homage of the ruler of Tribhuvanagiri (Tahangarh).

[p.124]: after came a Koti-yajna which was very much like the asvamedha of Samudragupta. It was under the direction of his purohita Vishvarupa. This digvijaya, or rather a number of raids from time to time magnified into one systematic digvijaya (Balvan Inscription, EI, XIX, pp.49 ff) by Nayachandra, took place before V. 1345 (c. 1288 A.D.). The Balvan inscription of the year mentions the performance of not only one but two Kotiyagna by Hammira and describes the capture of the elephant force of Arjuna, the ruler of Malwa, a kingdom the condition of which was indeed bad enough to invite interference from all sides.

सांभर झील शाकंभरी देवी के नाम पर प्रसिद्ध है. यहां शाकंभरी का प्राचीन मंदिर भी है. १२ वीं शती के अंतिम चरण में सांभर के प्रदेश में चौहानों का राज्य था. अर्णोराज चुअहान यहां के प्रतापी राजा थे. इनकी रानी देवलदेवी गुजरात के राजा कुमारपाल की बहिन थी. एक छोटी सी बात पर रुष्ट होकर अर्णोराज पर आक्रमण कर दिया. जिसके परिणाम स्वरूप अर्णोराज को कैद कर लिया. किन्तु उनके मंत्री उदयमहता और देवलदेवी के प्रयत्न से वे छूट गये और अंत में शाकंभरी नरेश ने अपनी कन्या मीनलकुमारी का विवाह कुमरपाल के साथ कर दिया. [31]

Early Chauhans of Shakambhari

In the tenth century A.D. when Pratiharas became weak the Chahamanas established its kingdom in Sambhar area. The Harsh Inscription of s.v.1030 (973) tells us that they were rulers of the area. Shakambhari was their capital, and hence this dynasty was actually called Chahamanas dynasty of Sakambhari. The early branch of Chauhans ruled in Lat Pradesh and second branch was in Shakambhari.

1. Vasudeva (551 A.D.) : The earliest ruler of the Sapadalaksha line mentioned in our records is Vasudeva. He was, in some way, connected with the Salt Lake of Sambhar. According to the mythical account in the fourth canto of the Prithwirajavijaya, he received the gift of the Salt Lake of Sambhar from a Vidyadhara :whom he had befriended. In the Bijolia inscription, the lake is said to have been born of him. [32] The Prabandhakosa genealogy puts him in V. 608 or 551 A.D. As the number of generations, however, which scparated him from Vigraharaja II (V. 1030), the first ruler of Sambhar with a definite date, is unknown, it is not easy to decide whether the date V. 608 for Vasudeva’s reign is right. Dr. D.R. Bhandarkar would, on the basis of coin of Vasudeva Bahman, identified by him with this ruler (Vasudeva Chahamana), put him in V. 627 A.D. This view is untenable has been shown above. [33] Dasharatha Sharma [34] refers Prithvirajavijaya and writes that the description there shows that Vasudeva passed the night in the temple of Sakambhari. (See the last verse of Canto IV.) Early in the morning, he started from there for his capital which he reached a little after sunrise. So naturally Vasudeva's capital could not have been at a hard day's ride from Sambhar, at least according to the Prithvirajavijaya.

2. Samanta. In Vasudeva's family was born Samanta who is described in the Bijolia inscription as a Brahmana noble or Ananta (the tract near Harsha in Shekhawati) born in the Vatsa gotra at Ahichchhatrapura. [35] It is not now easy to identify the town. But, as already pointed out above, it might once have been the capital of the Ananta Province. [36] Samanta's exact date is uncertain. But as he precrded Guvaka I, a contemporary of Pratihara ruler Nagabhatta II (V. 872) by six generations, his reign might be assumed to have ended about V. 725. The same date will also be arrived at, if we assign 25 years for each reign and count backwards from Vigraharaja II (V.1030)

3. Naradeva : The next ruler was Naradeva who ruled at Purnatalla, most probably the village Puntala in the Jodhpur state. He is mentioned by the name Nrpa in the Bijolia inscription [37] and as Naradeva in Hammiramahakavya, the Sujanacharita, and the Prabandhakosha genealogy. Dr. R.CBhandarkar and Mr.Akshaya Keerty Vyasa put one Puranatalla as successor of Samanta. [38] But actually Purnatalla of the Bijolia inscription, wherein alone the name is mentioned, as the name of a person but of a locality where Nripa or Naradeva flourished. (V.12:Purntalle Nripastatah) The well known Jaina scholar Hemachandra belonged to Purnatalla-gachchha, i.e. branch which had its origin at Purnatalla or Puntalla in Jodhpur state. The real succession of the next four rulers after Naradeva, who are no more than mere names to us, can be tabulated as follows:

4. Jayaraja, son of Samanta > 5. Vigrharaja I > 6. Chandraraja I > 7. Gopendraraja or Gopendraka

8. Durlabharaja I (788 AD): Gopendraka’s son Durlabharaja I achieved greater fame than his immediate predecessor. According to the prithvirajavijaya, he bathed his sword at the confluence of the Gnga and the Ocean and enjoyed the Gauda land. As his son Guvaka-I was an honoured courtier of the- Imperial Pratihara Nagabhatta II.

9. Guvaka-I (815 AD): Also known as Govindaraja, He was the samanta of Nagabhata II and according to Nagavaloka he had been honoured in the court of Nagabhata. It is learned from Prithvirajavijaya that Guvaka had married his sister Kalavati with king Nagabhata II of Kannauj. According to Gwalior inscription Guvaka had fought against the Muslims on behalf of Nagabhata, and had defeated Sultan Beg Varisa.

10. Chandraraj II : After Guvaka I, his son Chandraraj II, grandson Guvaka II and grand son-in-law Chandana ruled over his kingdom. Chandana had defeated and killed Tomara king Rudradeva. At that time Tomara dynasty ruled over Delhi. This indicates that after Rudradeva, Chahamana dynasty established its authority over Delhi.

11. Guvaka II (880 AD) :

12. Chandana : The successor of Guvaka II was Chandana who was very illustrious. He killed a Tomar Raja named Rudrena. (Harsha Inscription, verse-14).

13. Vakapatiraj I: Chandana was succeeded by his son Vakapatiraj I and started opposing the Pratihara dynasty i.e. Mahipala I. Vakapatiraj was a Shaiva and had built a Siva temple in Pushkar. The Harsh inscription confirms that Harsha Nagari was central place for the later Chauhan rulers. Verse 16 reveals that a representative of Pratiharas named Tantrapala came to see Vakpati, who was present at Anantagochar. Dr Dasharath Sharma considers Anantagochar as the area around Harshagiri.

14. Singhraja': The maharajadhiraja : Vakapatiraj was succeeded by his son Singhraj :the first maharajadhiraja. He was the first of the Chahamana dynasty who adopted the title of maharajadhiraja. This also indicates that he had declared himself independent from the Pratihara dynasty. Harsha inscription indicates that Singhraj had defeated Tomara leader Salban and had made many princes and samantas as his prisoner. Pratihara king had come to Singhraj for the release of the said provinces and samantas. Singhraj was a very generous and charitable man. He had donated several villages to the temple of Harshnath.

15. Vigraharaj II: Singhraj was succeeded by his son Vigraharaj. He was a very powerful ruler. He had attacked king Mookerjee I of Chalukya dynasty and after conquering Sarasvat Mandala and later he had extended his empire up to river Narmada. But according to `Hamir mahakavya` of Nayachandra, Suri Vigraharaj had killed Moolaraj. This does appear to be correct. However, it is certain that Vigraharaj had built a temple of Ashapuri Devi in Bhriguka at the bank of river Narmada.

16. Durlabhraj II (999 AD): After the death of Vigraharaj his younger brother Durlabhraj ascended the throne and he defeated Chahamanas of Naddul branch and incorporated Rasoshittan Mandal into his empire. At the end of 10th century Durlabharaja was a powerful Chauhan ruler. It is said that his empire extended to Jaipur in the east, Jodhpur in the west, Sikar in the north and Ajmer in the south.

17. Govindaraj II: Durlabhraj II was succeeded by his son Govindaraj II. During his reign the attack of Mahmud Ghaznavi had started and they were getting prominence. He suffered not much loss.

18. Vakapati II: After him two other kings, Vakapati II and Viryarama came.

19. Viryarama was defeated by king Anahilla of Naddul branch of Chahamana and later was killed in war with Paramara Bhoja.

20. Chamundaraj : After Viryarama three other rulers, Chamundaraj, Singhatdushala and Durlabhraj III came one by one.

21. Durlabharaj III: He was killed while fighting against the mlechchas. Other kings who came after him were Vir Singh and Vigraharaj III.

22.Vigrharaja III is said to have given military help to Parmara king Uditaditya against Chalukya king.

23. Prithviraj I : Vigrharaja III was succeeded by Prithviraj I. He ruled in 1105 A.D. Prithviraj I had killed 700 Chalukyas who had come to loot the brahmanas of Pushkar.

Chauhans of Ajmer

24. Ajairaj II: Prithviraj I was succeeded by his son Ajairaj II who was a famous ruler of his time. He founded Ajmer and also attacked Malava captured Sulhana and made the senapati of Parmar king Naravarman as his prisoner. He killed rulers Chachig, Sindhul and Yashoraj.

25. Arnoraj : Ajairaj was succeeded by his son Arnoraj before 1133 AD. Jaisingh Siddhraj, Chalukya ruler, attacked Arnoraj but later he returned the kingdom of Arnoraj and married his daughter Kanchandevi with him. Arnoraj's second wife was Sidhawa ,daughter of Marwar ruler of Avichi province. Jaisingh Siddharaj's son also fought against Arnoraj. Arnoraj entered into a treaty with king Ballal of Ujjain and attacked Siddharaj's son Kumarpal. Arnoraj had also conquered the king of Kushavarna and had successfully faced the attack of the Muslims. Near about 1155 A.D.

26. Jugdeva :Arnoraj's son Jugdeva killed his father and ascended the throne. But only after a few days his younger brother Vigraharaja IV usurped the throne from him. Kanchanadevi's son was Someshwar and Sudhawa had three sons, whose elder son Jagdev killed Arnoraj. This murder was prior to year 1153 AD. Jagdev ruled for a short period who was dethroned by Vigraharaj IV. [39]

27. Vigraharaj IV (1159 AD) : He ruled from 1153 to 1163 A.D. He was a powerful king and is also known as Bisaldeva. He conquered Delhi from the kings of Tomar dynasty and attacked Chalukya king Kumarpala and to avenge his father's defeat, he destroyed the areas of Pallika and Naddul. Narhar Inscription of Vigraharaja IV of s.v. 1215 (1159 AD) tells us that Vigraharaj IV ruled over wide areas of Shekhawati.

28.Amarangeya: After the death of Bisaldeva his son Amarangeya succeeded him as a king. But he died at an early age and was succeeded by Prithviraj II.

29. Prithviraj II: To check the attacks of the Muslims Prithviraj II had appointed his maternal uncle Guhila Kilahana as the ruler of Punjab.

30. Someshwara: After the death of Prithviraj II, his uncle Someshwara succeeded him as a king. He was the son of Arnoraj and his mother Kanchandevi was a princess of Chalukya dynasty. Someshwara had extended his empire to Gwalior, Kannauj and to Hissar and Sarhind in the west.

31. Prithviraj III (1166-1192 CE): He was the son of Someshwara and ascended the throne at the age of 15 years. Because of his minor age, his mother Karpuradevi looked after the administration of the state for one year. During this period Nagas, who had many small states, organized and rebelled against Chauhan dynasty. Rani Karpuri Devi sent her faithful minister Bhuwanikamal and suppressed the Nagas. Later on we do not hear about Nagas in history. [40]

Prithviraja III defeated the Afghan ruler Muhammad Ghori in the First Battle of Tarain in 1191 CE. Ghori attacked for a second time next year, and Prithviraja III was defeated and slain at the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 CE. After his defeat Delhi came under the control of Muslim rulers.

Jat Rulers at Sambhar

Several Jat clans are associated with Sambhar as rulers. Some of them are:


Sir Henry Eliot has mentioned that after defeat of Jat Raja Sahasi Rai II, Raja Matta of Shivistan attacked Alore (the capital of Chach) with brother of Raja of Kannauj and his army. The Jat Raja Ranmal was the ruler of Kannauj at that time. He was famous as Rana. After that the other Jat rulers were eliminated except the Balharas. The Balharas were strong rulers from Khambhat to Sambhar. There are seven tanks of Balharas, Banka tank in the name of Banka Balhara and Lalani tank in name of Lalaji. [41]


ठाकुर देशराज[42] ने लिखा है ....बलऊदा गोत्र के संबंध में लोकोक्ति है कि ये बादशाही जमाने में किन्ही कारणों से दिल्ली के इलाके को छोड़कर सांभर झील की तरफ आकर आबाद हो गए। सांभर से ये डाबड़ी और खुड़िया (जो शेखावाटी में छोटे-छोटे गांव हैं) होते हुए यहां आकर झाडोदा गांव झाड़ू जाट ने आबाद किया जो अब तक इसी नाम से पुकारा जाता है।


Bhukar is a Sanskrit word comprising of 'Bhu' (land) and 'Kar' (tax), which means land-tax. Bhukars were initially settled at Sambhar in Rajasthan. They were the rulers in this area and their ruling method was that of 'Bhomia-chor'. Later on they started collecting tax on land.

A group of Chahuman descendents came to Sambhar in 9th century. The newly formed Chauhans forced them to move away from this area. Earlier Bhukars and Chauhans were same prior to their consecration of new Hindu religion at Mount Abu. Bhukar people came to Sambhar under the leadership of two brothers Khem Singh and Som Singh. Khem Singh founded the town named 'Hiras' and started increasing his influence in the area. Som Singh went to Jangladesh and founded town named 'Bhukaredi'. After many generations some of these people moved towards Panipat in Haryana.

After the fall of Chauhans at Ajmer and Delhi one of Bhukar warriors named Uday Singh was appointed as 'Bakshi'. Uday Singh was expert in land-tax collection. Uday Singh's son Kaula Singh was appointed Tehsildar of Ajmer.


Dudi Jats had ruled in Rajasthan. The Dudis are considered to be originated from Pushkar in Ajmer and ruled Didwana, Sambhar Lake, Nagaur area for 30 generations before the rule of Muslims and Rajputs. Raja Dharmpal Dudi ruled Didwana 25 generations ago in Dudi Nagavansh. Dudis founded the town Didwana in Nagaur district of Rajasthan and it was their capital. Dudis also founded Dhundhar and Dudiya Khera towns in Jaipur region. There are number of villages of Dudis in Nagaur, Bikaner, Barmer, Jaisalmer, Hanumangarh and Chittorgarh in Rajasthan. After the Jat kingdom of Rajasthan was taken over by the Rajputs, Some Dudis moved to Haryana and settled in villages around Bhiwani, Jhajjar and Hisar districts.

Some Dudi Jats came to village Kusumdesar, according to local tradition, from Garh Sambhar. Their kuldevi is at the Randesar Pahadi. Dudi families spread from this village to villages Sitsar (200), Maihnsar (1), Chhabri Meethi (1), Hukasar (1), Rajiasar (2), Bahmani (7), Ratangarh (2), Khadyalo, Shehla (1) and Surjansar in Churu district and Bhodesar (10) in Sikar district in Rajasthan.


Seria (सेरिया) known as the Dada gaam of Ahlawat Gotra and established by Dada Shera. This Village is situated in District Jhajjar (Haryana) at a Distance of 14 km from Jhajjar city and 28 km from Rohtak city. Dada Shera were 4 brothers and he is the eldest one in all. The Village was established 1100 years back when some of the families from Dadrela (Jaisalmer – Rajasthan) came here by following the path of Gadkot (Sambhar Lake) to Kala Bad Aala (Bhiwani – Rajasthan) to Seria. They all came from the "Dadrela" village in "Jangladesh" near Sambhar Lake near Tonk District of Rajasthan...


Sambharwal (साम्भरवाल) Sanbharwal (सांभरवाल) gotra of Jats originated from place name Sambhar (सांभर) lake in Rajasthan. [43] They were branch of Chauhans.


Jhanjhar Jats have been associated with jat folk-deity Tejaji. Tejaji was married in Jhanjhar gotra jats of Paner (पनेर) village in Ajmer district in Rajasthan. Tejaji was married to Pemal, daughter of Raimal of Jhanjhar (झांझर) gotra of Paner. Raimal was the chieftain of this village and popularly known as Mehtaji or Muthaji. The historical Paner village is now abondoned and the present Paner village is situated 1 km south of it.

There is a temple of Tejaji at Paner in which three statues are placed. People believe that a statue of Tejaji came out from the ground on its own at site of Raimal's house. The magical powers of Tejaji had spread all around. Maharaja Abhay Singh of Jodhpur wanted to shift this statue to to his state Jodhpur. He got it dug out the statue for many days but could not take out this. It is believed that Maharaja Jodhpur at last saw Tejaji in dream who guided him that statue can not be taken out from here but it can be installed at boarder of Nagaur district. Later Jodhpur Maharaja got constructed a temple of Tejaji at Parbatsar and installed a statue of Tejaji here. The temple of Paner bears inscription of samvat 1885 and name of Pithaji. The pooja of this temple is done by a kumhar and not by brahman. This temple is situated near famous Sambhar lake. There is a big pond here built by Jhanjhar gotra Jats known as Jinjardab or Jhanjhardab.

Sambharia village

Sambharia (सांभारिया) is a village in Bassi tahsil in Jaipur district in Rajasthan. The Jat Gotras in the village are: Bhadala (1), Bhuri (1), Punia (3).

Sambhar Inscription of 12-13 th century

वसुनंदनिन्धौवर्षे (998 ) व्यतीते विक्रमार्कत:
मूलदेव नरेश्स्तु (चूडाम)णि रभूद्भुवि ।।9।।
चौलक्य नामानि प्रसन्न: सुकृती लोक: कूपादे: कृत्यकारक:
नारागुणै: विष्णवे रतोनित्यं दानीसत्पात्रपोशक: ।।14।।
Sambhar Inscription of 12-13 th century [44]

डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा [45] इस शिलालेख के बारे में लिखते हैं कि यह लेख सांभर में 'शाह का कुवा' नामक कुवे पर लगा हुआ था. अब यह जोधपुर संग्रहालय में रखा है. इसमें २८ श्लोकबद्ध पंक्तियाँ हैं जिनमें से कुछ नष्ट हो गयी हैं. इसका समय अज्ञात है परन्तु जयसिंह के समय से अनुमान किया जाता है कि यह 12 वीं शताब्दी के अंतिम चरण अथवा 13 वीं शताब्दी ई. के प्रथम चरण का हो सकता है. इस लेख से सोलंकी मूलराज द्वारा अन्हिलवाडा राज्य के संस्थापना का पता चलता है. इससे मूलराज का समय वि. 998 (941 ई.) तक चला जाता है. लेख में प्रारंभ में सरस्वती तथा अन्य देवताओं की स्तुति की गयी है. और उसके पश्चात् तीन पद्यों में चालुक्य वंश की प्रशंसा की गयी है. इसमें 8वें पद्य से 11वें पद्य तक मूलदेव, चामुंडराज, वल्लभराज, दुर्लभराज, भीमदेव, कर्णदेव एवं जयसिंह का परिचय मिलता है. इसमें शाकम्भरी, डूंगरसीह, नगराजपुत्र आदि नामों का उल्लेख मिलाता है. इसका कुछ अंश साथ के बाक्स में हैं :

Sambhar Salt Lake

Sambhar Lake View courtesy Bhaskar.25.07.2023, ancient Dadudwara is seen in the middle

Sambhar Salt Lake, India's largest salt lake, sits 96 km south west of the city of Jaipur (Northwest India) and 64 km north east of Ajmer along the National highway 8 in Rajasthan.

The lake is actually an extensive saline wetland, with water depths fluctuating from just a few centimeters as 60 cm (1 inch = 2.54 centimeters) during the dry season to about 3 meters (10 ft) after the monsoon season. It occupies an area of 190 to 230 square kilometers, based on the season. It is an elliptically shaped lake 35.5 km long with a breadth varying between 3 km and 11 km. It is located in Nagaur and Jaipur districts and it also borders the Ajmer district. The circumference of the lake is 96 km, surrounded on all sides by the Aravali hiils.

The Sambhar lake basin is divided by a 5.1 km long dam made of sand stone. After salt water reaches a certain concentration, it will be released from the west side to the eastern side by lifting dam gates. To the east of the dam are salt evaporation ponds where salt has been farmed for a thousand years. This eastern area is 80 km². and comprises salt reservoirs, canals and salt pans separated by narrow widges. To the east of the dam is a railroad, built by the British (before India’s independence) to provide access from Sambhar Lake City to the salt works.

Nearest airport is Sanganer and nearest railway station is Sambhar. The water is fed to lake from streams from rivers Mendha, Runpangarh, Khandel and Karian. Mendha and Rupangarh are main streams. Mendha flows from south to north and Rupangarh flows from north to south.

Temperature reaches 40 Celsius in summer and stays about 11 Celsius in winter.

Economical importance

It is India's largest saline lake and made the Rajasthan, the third largest salt producing state in India. It produces 196,000 tonnes of clean Salt every year, which equals 8.7% of India's Salt production. Its salt production is done by evaporation process of brine and is majorly managed by Shambar Salts Ltd.(SSL), a joint venture of the Hindustan Salts Ltd. and the state government. SSL owns 3% of the eastern lake.

There are 38 clusters of villages surrounding the lake and the major settlements are Sambhar, Gudha, Jabdinagar, Nawa, Jhak, Korsina, Jhapok, Kanseda, Kuni, Tyoda, Govindi, Nandha, Sinodiya, Arwik ki Dhani, Khanadja, Khakharki, Kerwa ki Dhani, Rajas, Jalwali ki Dhani, Devaji ki Dhani, Aau, Dudna and Ulana.

Ecological importance

Sambhar has been designated as a Ramsar site (recognized wetland of international importance) because the wetland is a key wintering area for tens of thousands of flamingos and other birds that migrate from northern Asia. The specialized algae and bacteria growing in the lake provide striking water colours and support the lake ecology that, in turn, sustains the migrating waterfowl.


As of 2001 India census, Sambhar had a population of 22,293. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Sambhar has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 74%, and female literacy is 53%. In Sambhar, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Notable persons

External links


  1. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Sambhar
  2. Encyclopaedia of Jainism, Volume-1 By Indo-European Jain Research Foundation p.5539
  3. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 78
  4. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 80
  5. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 80
  6. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races,pp.111
  7. Dharma Dhiraj, father of Bisaladeva, must have been the defender on this occasion.
  8. The Ancient Geography of India/Taki,pp. 157-158
  9. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1955, p.401-409
  10. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.893
  11. महाभारत, वनपर्व 84,13
  12. महाभारत, वनपर्व 84,14-15-16
  13. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.798
  14. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.235
  15. Raghunath Bhakhar: 'Rulyana Mali' (Jhankata Ateet), Bhaskar Prakashan Sikar, 2022. ISBN: 978-93-5607-079-0, p.55
  16. Raghunath Bhakhar: 'Rulyana Mali' (Jhankata Ateet), Bhaskar Prakashan Sikar, 2022. ISBN: 978-93-5607-079-0, p.55
  17. Raghunath Bhakhar: 'Rulyana Mali' (Jhankata Ateet), Bhaskar Prakashan Sikar, 2022. ISBN: 978-93-5607-079-0, p.55
  18. Raghunath Bhakhar: 'Rulyana Mali' (Jhankata Ateet), Bhaskar Prakashan Sikar, 2022. ISBN: 978-93-5607-079-0, p.56
  19. Raghunath Bhakhar: 'Rulyana Mali' (Jhankata Ateet), Bhaskar Prakashan Sikar, 2022. ISBN: 978-93-5607-079-0, p.56
  20. Raghunath Bhakhar: 'Rulyana Mali' (Jhankata Ateet), Bhaskar Prakashan Sikar, 2022. ISBN: 978-93-5607-079-0, p.56
  21. Raghunath Bhakhar: 'Rulyana Mali' (Jhankata Ateet), Bhaskar Prakashan Sikar, 2022. ISBN: 978-93-5607-079-0, p.56
  22. Raghunath Bhakhar: 'Rulyana Mali' (Jhankata Ateet), Bhaskar Prakashan Sikar, 2022. ISBN: 978-93-5607-079-0, p.72
  23. Raghunath Bhakhar: 'Rulyana Mali' (Jhankata Ateet), Bhaskar Prakashan Sikar, 2022. ISBN: 978-93-5607-079-0, p.322
  24. Raghunath Bhakhar: 'Rulyana Mali' (Jhankata Ateet), Bhaskar Prakashan Sikar, 2022. ISBN: 978-93-5607-079-0, p.323
  25. ततॊ गच्छेत राजेन्द्र देव्याः सथानं सुदुर्लभम, शाकम्भरीति विख्याता तरिषु लॊकेषु विश्रुता (III.82.11); दिव्यं वर्षसहस्रं हि शाकेन किल सुव्रत, आहारं सा कृतवती मासि मासि नराधिप (III.82.12), ऋषयॊ ऽभयागतास तत्र देव्या भक्त्या तपॊधनाः, आतिथ्यं च कृतं तेषां शाकेन किल भारत, ततः शाकम्भरीत्य एव नाम तस्याः परतिष्ठितम (III.82.13); शाकम्भरीं समासाद्य बरह्म चारी समाहितः, तरिरात्रम उषितः शाकं भक्षयेन नियतः शुचिः (III.82.14); शाकाहारस्य यत सम्यग वर्षैर दवादशभिः फलम, तत फलं तस्य भवति देव्याश छन्देन भारत (III.82.15)
  26. Sambhar Lake (Sambhar)
  27. Dalip Singh Ahlawat: Yadu athawa Jadu, Jadau vansh, Jat Samaj, July 1995, p. 11
  28. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992.
  29. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihasa (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992.
  30. Dasharatha Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties", Ch. XI, pp. 123-124.
  31. विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर: ऐतिहासिक स्थानावली, वैज्ञानिक तथा तकनीकी शब्दावली आयोग, राजस्थान हिन्दी ग्रन्थ अकादमी, जयपुर , p. 893
  32. शाकम्भरीराजनि जनीव ततोपि विष्णो: Here Vishnu=Vasudeva
  33. Chapter 1, Early Chauan Dynasties by Dasharath Sharma
  34. "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, pp. 11-13
  35. Verse-12
  36. See Chapter-1
  37. Verse 12
  38. EI, XXVI, p.97 12
  39. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.39
  40. K.Devi Singh Mandawa:Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan,2007, pp.52-53
  41. Kishori Lal Faujdar: Rajasthan ke Madhyakalin Jat-vansh, Jat Samaj, Agra, June 2001.
  42. Thakur Deshraj:Jat Jan Sewak, 1949, p.413
  43. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 282
  44. डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ.120
  45. डॉ गोपीनाथ शर्मा: 'राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्त्रोत', 1983, पृ. 120
  46. Thakur Deshraj:Jat Jan Sewak, 1949, p.488-489

Back to Jat Villages