Solanki

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Solanki (सोलंकी)[1] [2] Solankhi (सोलंखी)[3] (also called Chalukya, Chaluk, Chlokia) Solgi (सोलगी)[4]/ Sulika (सुलीका)/Chulik (चुलिक)/Chalukya (चालुक्य)[5] is gotra of Jats found in Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Rajasthan[6] and Madhya Pradesh. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentionedChalukya as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. [7] They are known as Solgi in Gujarat.. Sorout (सौरोत) and Solanki (सौळंक़ी) gotras are same gotra and they don't marry each other. James Tod places it in the list of Thirty Six Royal Races.[8]

History

Ram Sarup Joon [9] writes that ... Ahlawat and Joon gotras belong to that branch of Solanki which ruled over Kaliani and Watapi (Vatapi) in South India from 5th to 12th century AD. They had a staunch enemy i.e. Raja Rajendra Chol. He attacked them with an army of one hundred thousand strong during the reign of seventh Raja Satish Raj Solanki and seized a major part of the kingdom.

In 1052 AD a new ruler of this dynasty came forth to redeem the old loss. His name was Ahumal and was titles Sameshwar I and Raj Raja. He attacked the Chol kingdom with a large army, conquered it and married Umang Devi daughter of the Chol king. He made Bangi his new capital. This kingdom existed astride the Tunga Bhadra River. Ahumal died in 1068 AD. His dynasty is called Ahlawat.


History of the Jats, End of Page-69


After several generations Bisaldev of this dynasty migrated towards north and settled down in village Nanhakhera (Seria) near Dighal in district Rohtak. He had four sons Olha, Ahlawat, Birmhan and Pehlawat An ancient pond (Birmala) named after Birmhan (Brebhan) is still famous for its sanctity in village Seria (Rohtak). Four new gotras (clans) originated after their names and are found settled in 30 villages around Dighal. Todd and Tarikhe Gujran have recorded this event in "Gazetteer of Rohtak" by Abdul Malik.


Ram Swarup Joon[10] writes that about Solanki, Chalukya, Chaluk, Chaluc, Chlokya: They have also been called Chalukyas. The founder of the Solanki Rajput gotra is said to have born out of the Agnikund. A Chalukya king is also said to have offered presents in the Rajsuya Yagya of the Pandavas.

The Solanki also claim to be Suryavanshi Rajputs. But according to the inscription found in the Vir Narayana temple in village Gadar of district Dharwar, their ancestor was a Chandravanshi who ruled from 1029 to 1063 AD. In 'Indians in Cauvery' part 14 pages 308 and 309, the Solankis have been called Chandravanshi; According to another inscription found in Barnagar Gujrat they belong to Bhadra gotra. They founded Barnagar.


Ram Sarup Joon[11] writes that The Solanki Rajputs ware originally called Chalukya and had their kingdom in Southern India. Raja Chol was their bitter enemy. They had matrimonial relations with Harsh Vardhan, the Bhatti Jats, and the Virk Jats of Malwa.


Solankis had rule over Soron, Ayodhya, Gujarat, Delhi, Rajasthan and Maharashtra. They were Chalukyas, Chandravanshi Jats, who became Solanki Rajputs after consecration at Mount Abu.[12]

Bhim Singh Dahiya writtes about the Solgi/ Solanki/ Sulika / Chulika clan. According to him they are mentioned in the Puranas as Sulikas and Chulikas. The Matsya Purana says that they were the people through whose country flowed the river Chaksu. [13] Pargitar suggests that Chakshu may perhaps be taken for Vaksu which is the Oxus, and says that in that case the Sulikas may be the people on the Oxus river in Turkistan. [14] The Brihat Samhita connects these people with the Gandhars and Vokkanas, (occupying modern Wakhan). According to a Buddhist historian of Tibet, Tara Nath, The Kingdom of Sulik was located beyond Togara which may be further identified with the country of the Tokharas, [15] according to some Togara may be identified with modern Ter in the south, which does not seem to be correct. P.C. Bagchi in, “India and Central Asia” says that the Sulikas are originally from Sogdiana In Central Asia, and came to settle in India. [16] According to him the Sulki Rajputs of Shahpur District, the Solgi and Solakhi Jats of Multan region and the Sud of Amritsar Ludhiana in the Punjab, the Chalukyas of the Deccan, and the Solankis of Gujarat in ancient times, appear to be the remnants of the Sogdians. According to Buddha Prakash, the word Chulika is Variant of Sulika, which represents the Chinese Suli. [17] The Markandeya Purana Mentions them as two different people, both in the north. [18] [19]


In the sixth century A.D. the Sulikas are mentioned in the Haraha inscription of Isanavarman Maukhari, who is supposed to have defeated them. Dr. Roy Chaudhuri, suggests that the Sulikas should be identified with the Chalukyas who are mentioned in the Mahakuta Pillar Inscription [20] [21]


Thus the Solanki and the Chalukas of the later period are the same. The original word may be Sulik which was found similar to Chulik, meaning the palm, by the Brahman Priest at the Mount Abu fire sacrifice. Therefore, it was given out that the Chalukyas were born from the Palm (Chuluk) of Brahma. A grant of a Dharasen II of Vallabhi, mentions the Saulkikas, along with Pratisarakas, and Churoddharanikas. The last two words may be the forerunners of Pratihara and Chaudhari (Two titles) respectively. This inscription edited By J.F. Fleet is dated in the 252 of Gupta era. (?) [22] Upendar Thakur, rightly identifies them with the Hunas of whom they were a part . [23] The people called Chulik are still found in Central Asia. [24]

Soharot gotra has originated from branch of Solankis. [25] Saur (सौर) was name of a King of Solankis whose descendants adopted Gotra Soharot (सोहरौत). [26]

Sub divisions of Solanki

Nodal were in the list of Jat clans who were supporters of the Solankis when they gained political ascendancy. The following clans supported the ascendant clan Chauhan and become part of a political confederacy:

Ahlawat, Choyal, Nodal, Saur, Soharot,

Agnikula theory

Agnikula is one of Kshatriya types, who claim descent from Agni. According to Agni Purana these Kshatriyas were born from the fire which resides in Mount Abu in Northwestern India after the "destruction of ancient Kshatriyas".

Agnivanshi Kshatriyas were four in number:


Historically it was the process of returning back to Hindu fold of the Kshatriyas who had adopted Buddhism and left the vedic traditions.

Rajasthan was ruled by large number of small democratic republics of various Jat clans and other tribes. These republics were there till the rule of Harshavardhana. After the fall Harsha in 647 AD, the Jat republics weakened due to invasions by Mugals, Turks, Muslims and Yavanas. In the sixth and seventh century when new Agnikula clan of Kshatriya was created in Mount Abu, many of the Jat clans merged in them. Some Jat Gotras joined or merged with the Pratihara Confederation. But Majority of Jat Clans merged with Chauhans. Though these Jat clans existed earlier but the newly created system of recording their ancestry i.e. Badwas, Bhats, Jagas etc. started recording their ancestry from the point of creation of Agnikula Kshatriyas. Later on they credited the origin of these Jat clans from the respective Agnikula Kshatriya which is wrong and distorted fact.

James Tod on Solanki

James Todd[27] writes on Chalukya or Solanki:

[p.116]: Though we cannot trace the history of this branch of the Agnikulas to such periods of antiquity as the Pramara or Chauhan, it is from the deficiency of materials, rather than any want of celebrity, that we are unable to place it, in this respect, on a level with them. The tradition of the bard makes the Solankis important as princes of Sura on the Ganges, ere the Rathors obtained Kanauj.1 The genealogical test2 claims Lohkot, said to be the ancient Lahore, as a residence, which makes them of the same Sakha (Madhwani) as the Chauhans. Certain it is, that in the eighth century we find the Langahas3 and Togras inhabiting Multan and the surrounding country, the chief opponents of the Bhattis on their establishment in the desert. They were princes of Kalyan, on the Malabar coast,4 which city still exhibits vestiges of ancient grandeur. It was from Kalyan that a scion of the Solanki tree was taken, and engrafted on the royal stem of the Chawaras of Anhilwara Patan.

It was in S. 987 (A.D. 931) that Bhojraj, the last of the Chawaras, and the Salic law of India were both set aside, to make way for the young Solanki, Mulraj,5 who ruled Anhilwara for the space of fifty-eight years. During the reign of his son and successor, Chamund Rae,6 Mahmud of Ghazni carried his desolatiag arms into the kingdom of Anhilwara. With its wealth he raised those [98] magnificent trophies of his conquest, among which the 'Celestial


1 [The Chalukya is a Gurjara tribe, the name being the Sanskritized form of the old dynastic title, Chalkya, of the Deccan dynasty (a.d. 552—973) ; and of this Solanki is a dialectical variant (IA, xi. 24 ; BG, i. Part i. 156, Part ii. 336).]
2 Solanki Gotracharya is thus: Madhwani Sakha — Bharadwaja Gotra — Garh Lohkot nikas — Sarasvati Nadi (river) — Sama Veda — Kapaliswar Deva — Karduman Rikheswar — Tin Parwar Zunar (zone of three threads) - Keonj Devi — Mahipal Putra (one of the Penates)." (Lohkot is Lohara in Kashmir (Stein, Rajatarangini, i. Introd. 108, ii. 293 ff.))
3 Called Malkhani, being the sons of Mal Khan, the first apostate from his faith to Islamism. Whether these branches of the Solankis were compelled to quit their religion, or did it voluntarily, we know not.
4 Near Bombay. [In Thana District, not Malabar coast.]
5 Son of Jai Singh Solanki, the emigrant prince of Kalyan, who married the daughter of Bhojraj. These particulars are taken from a valuable little geographical and historical treatise, incomplete and without title.[Mularaja Chaulukya, a.d. 961—96, was son of Bhubhata : Chamunda, a.d. 997- 1010 ; it was in the reign of Bhima I. (1022-64) that Mahmud's invasion in A.D. 1024 occurred (BG, i. Part i. 156 ff. 164).]
6 Called Chamund by Muhammadan historians.

[p.117]: Bride ' might have vied with anything ever erected by man as a monument of folly .1 The wealth abstracted, as reported in the history of the conquerors, by this scourge of India, though deemed incredible, would obtain belief, if the commercial riches of Anhilwara could be appreciated. It was to India what Venice was to Europe, the entrepot of the products of both the eastern and western hemispheres. It fully recovered the shock given by Mahmud and the desultory wars of his successors ; and we find Siddharaja Jayasingha,2 the seventh from the founder, at the head of the richest, if not the most warlike, kingdom of India. Two-and-twenty principalities at one time owned his power, from the Carnatic to the base of the Himalaya Mountains ; but his unwise successor drew upon himself the vengeance of the Chauhan, Prithviraja, a slip of which race was engrafted, in the person of Kumarapala, on the genealogical tree of the Solankis ;3 and it is a curious fact that this dynasty of the Balakaraes alone gives us two examples of the Salic law of India being violated. Kumarapala, installed on the throne of Anhilwara, ' tied round his head the turban of the Solanki.' He became of the tribe into which he was adopted. Kumarapala, as well as Siddharaja, was the patron of Buddhism ;4 and the monuments erected under them and their successors claim our admiration, from their magnificence and the perfection of the arts ; for at no period were they more cultivated than at the courts of Anhilwara.

The lieutenants of Shihabu-d-din disturbed the close of Kumarapal's reign ; and his successor, Balo Muldeo, closed this dynasty in S. 1284 (a.d. 1228), when a new dynasty, called the Vaghela (descendants of Siddharaja) under Bisaldeo, succeeded.5 The dilapidations from religious persecution were repaired ; Somnath, renowned as Delphos of old, rose from its ruins, and the kingdom


1 Ferishta i. 61.
2 He ruled from S. 1150 to 1201 [A.D. 1094-1143]. It was his court that was visited by El Edrisi, commonly called the Nubian geographer, who particularly describes this prince as following the tenets of Buddha. [He was probably not a Jain (BG, i. Part i. 179).]
3 [The Gujarat account of the campaign is different (BG, i. Part i. 184 f.).]
4 [Kumarapala made many benefactions to the Jains (Ibid. i. Part i. 190 f.).]
5 [Ajayapala succeeded Kumarapala. Bhima II.(A.D. 1179-1242), called Bholo, ' the simpleton,' was the last of the Chaulukya dynasty, which was succeeded by that of the Vaghelas (1219-1304). Visaladeva reigned a.d.

1243-61. See a full account. Ibid. 194 ff.]


[p. 118]: of the Balakaraes was attaining its pristine magnificence, when, under the fourth prince, Karandeva, the angel of destruction appeared in the shape of Alau-d-din, and the kingdom of Anhilwara was annihilated. The lieutenants of the Tatar despot of Delhi let loose the spirit of intolerance and avarice on the rich cities and fertile plains of Gujarat and Saurashtra. In contempt of their faith, the altar of an Islamite Darvesh was placed in contact with the shrine of Adinath, on the [99] most accessible of their sacred mounts :1 the statues of Buddha [the Jain Tirthankaras] were thrown down, and the books containing the mysteries of their faith suffered the same fate as the Alexandrian library. The walls of Anhilwara were demolished ; its foundations excavated, and again filled up with the fragments of their ancient temples.2

The remnants of the Solanki dynasty were scattered over the land, and this portion of India remained for upwards of a century without any paramount head, until, by a singular dispensation of Providence, its splendour was renovated, and its foundations rebuilt, by an adventurer of the same race from which the Agnikulas were originally converts, though Saharan the Tak hid his name and his tribe under his new epithet of Zafar Khan, and as Muzaffar ascended the throne of Gujarat, which he left to his son. This son was Ahmad, who founded Ahmadabad, whose most splendid edifices were built from the ancient cities around it.3


Baghels. — Though the stem of the Solankis was thus uprooted, yet was it not before many of its branches (Sakha), like their own indigenous bar-tree, had fixed themselves in other soils. The most conspicuous of these is the Baghela4 family, which gave its


1 Satranjaya. [IGI, xix. 361 ff.]
2 In 1822 I made a journey to explore the remains of antiquity in Saurashtra. I discovered a ruined suburb of the ancient Patan still bearing the name of Anhilwara, the Nahrwara, which D'Anville had "fort a cceur de retrouver." I meditate a separate account of this kingdom, and the dynasties which governed it.
2 [Zafar Khan, son of Saharan of the Tank tribe of Rajputs, embraced Islam, and became viceroy of Gujarat. According to Ferishta, he threw off his allegiance to Delhi in 1396, or rather maintained a nominal allegiance till 1403. Ahmad was grandson, not son, of Muzaffar. (Ferishta iv. 2 f. ; Bayley, Dynasties of Gujarat, 67 ff. ; BG, i. Part i. 232 f.).]
3 The name of this subdivision is from Bagh Rao, the son of Siddharaja ; though the bards have another tradition for its origin. [They take their name from the village Vaghela near Anhilwara (BG, i. Part i. 198).]

[p.119]: name to an entire division of Hindustan ; and Baghelkhand has now been ruled for many centuries by the descendants of Siddharaja.

Besides Bandhugarh, there are minor chieftainships still in Gujarat of the Baghela tribe. Of these, Pethapur and Tharad are the most conspicuous. One of the chieftains of the second class in Mewar is a Solanki, and traces his line immediately from Siddharaja : this is the chief of Rupnagar,1 whose stronghold commands one of the passes leading to Marwar, and whose family annals would furnish a fine picture of the state of border-feuds. Few of them, till of late years, have died natural deaths.

The Solanki is divided into sixteen branches [100].

1. Baghela — Raja of Baghelkhand (capital Bandhugarh), Raos of Pitapur, Tharad, and Adalaj, etc.
2. Birpura — Rao of Lunawara.
3. BahalaKalyanpur in Mewar, styled Rao, but serving the chief of Salumbar.
4. Bhurta 2 - In Baru, Tekra and Chahir in Jaisalmer
5. Kalacha2- In Baru, Tekra and Chahir in Jaisalmer
6. Langaha — Muslims about Multan.
7. Togra — Muslims in the Panjnad.
8. Brika — do
9. Surki — In Deccan.
10. Sarwaria3Girnar in Saurashtra.
11. RakaToda in Jaipur.
12. RanakiaDesuri in Mewar.
13. KhararaAlota and Jawara, in Malwa.
14. TantiaChandbhar Sakanbari.4
15. Almecha — No land.
16. KalamorGujarat.5

1 I knew this chieftain well, and a very good specimen he is of the race. He is in possession of the famous war-shell of Jai Singh, which is an heirloom.
2 Famous robbers in the deserts, known as the Malduts.
3 Celebrated in traditional history.
4 Desperate robbers. I saw this place fired and levelled in 1807, when the noted Karim Pindari was made prisoner by Sindhia. It afterwards cost some British blood in 1817.
5 [For another list see Census Report, Rajputana, 1911, i. 256.]

सोलंकी गोत्र का इतिहास

भलेराम बेनीवाल [28] के अनुसार यह जाटों का प्रमुख गोत्र है. जाट इतिहास के लेखक ठाकुर देशराज ने लिखा है कि चौल से चालुक्य और उसके बाद सोलंकी शब्द बना. ये लोग सौर राजा के नाम पर सोलंकी से सोहरौत कहे गए. ये लोग सन 700 के आस-पास इधर-उधर चले गए. सौर का वर्णन कर्नल टाड ने भी किया है. उत्तर प्रदेश के मेरठ में सोहरोत की जगह सोलंकी कहे जाने लगे. इनका मूल स्थान दक्षिण भारत है. जाट प्राचीन इतिहास में भीम सिंह दहिया पुराणों के हवाले से इनको सुलिकोंचुलिकों के रूप में लिखा है. उत्तर भारत में सोलंकी व चालुक्य एक हैं. 'मानव जाती के पूर्वज गोत्र प्रवर द्वारा' पाण्डुलिपि के लेखक ॐ प्रकाश शिवाय लिखते हैं कि सोलंकी क्षेत्रियों के नाम पर सोलंका शहर रूस के एक प्रान्त याकुस्टक में है. सोलन शहर हिमाचल में है. सोलनिया नदी सोवियत संघ रूस में है. सोलन शहर चीन व मंगोलिया दोनों में एक ही नाम से बसे हैं. सोलन शहर तुर्की में भी है. इनको मुसलमानों से अनेक बार युद्ध करना पड़ा. इनके प्रमुख गाँव उत्तर प्रदेश के आगरा जनपद में हैं १. बडौदा २. कागारौल ३. मिढाकुर इनके गोत्र के प्रमुख गाँव हैं. इन लोगों ने स्वतंत्रता संग्राम में बढ़-चढ़ कर भाग लिया था. चौधरी राम करण सोलंकी गाँव पालम दिल्ली इस गोत्र के प्रमुख व्यक्ति हैं.


ठाकुर देसराज लिखते हैं - जैसा कि हम पहले कह चुके हैं, चौल से चालक्य और फिर सोलंकी शब्द बना है। आगरे सूबे में यह लोग सोहरौत भी कहे जाते हैं। सौर नाम के राजा के नाम पर सोलंकी से सोहरौत कहलाने लग गये। सौर का वर्णन कर्नल टाड ने भी किया है। दक्षिण भारत से उत्तर भारत में ये लोग ईसवी सन् 700 के इधर-उधर आए होंगे ऐसा अनुमान किया जाता है। सूरौठ में इनकी आरम्भिक गढ़ियां थीं। मेरठ जिले में साहरौत की अपेक्षा सोलंकी नाम से ही मशहूर हैं। मुसलमान हाकिमों से मेरठ के सोलंकियों को कई बाद युद्ध करना पड़ा था। भाट लोग कहते हैं कि गंगा किनारे का सोरों नामक स्थान सौर राजा का बसाया हुआ है।[29]

Solanka is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Srokowo, within Kętrzyn County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland, close to the border with the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia. It lies approximately 4 kilometres (2 mi) south of Srokowo, 15 km (9 mi) north-east of Kętrzyn, and 80 km (50 mi) north-east of the regional capital Olsztyn. Before 1945 the area was part of Germany (East Prussia).[30]

Jhadsa Palam Khap

Jhadsa Palam Khap is also known by the name Solanki Khap. It has its area surrounding Delhi. Palam village is its head village. This khap has 365 villages. In this khap are villages from Delhi province namely, Mahrauli, Mahipalpur, Khanpur, Ghitorni, Palam, Munirka, Baprola' Lado Sarai, Nim Sarai, and Ghatwaria. Villages of Gurgaon janapada of Sehrawat Jats Sukhrali, Jhadsa, and Kataria. Villages of Ahirs are Bajipur, Kabupur, and Ladauli. Jhadsa Palam Khap played very important role in the freedom movement of 1857 in which Ch Bakhtawar Singh of village Jhadsa was hanged to death by the British government. [31]

Solanki Khap

Solanki Khap has 28 villages in Agra district in Uttar Pradesh. Main villages are:Badauda (बडौदा) , Midhakur ( मिढाकुर), Kagaraul (कागारौल) . Ch. Phool Singh of this khap had a great fight with British. [32]

Distribution in Rajasthan

Solanki Khap has 11 villages in Bharatpur district. [33]

Locations in Jaipur city

Amer, Gandhi Nagar, Imliwala Phatak, JP Colony, Lal Kothi, Mahavir Nagar I, Mahesh Nagar, Malviy Nagar, Mansarowar Colony, Queens Road, Shastri Nagar,

Villages in Bharatpur district

Bachhamandi, Bedham, Bharatpur, Kasot , Nadbai, Nagla Gopal, Purabai Khera, Surauta,

Villages in Hanumangarh district

Sangaria,

Villages in Sawai Madhopur district

Shekpur

Villages in Karauli district

Mahoo Dalalpur (महू दलालपुर),Mahoo Ibrahimpur(महू इब्राहिमपुर),Mahoo Khas(महू खास)

Distribution in Delhi

Villages belonging to Solanki Jat Gotra in Delhi are: Palam, Nasirpur, Matiala, Asalatpur, Baprola, Shabad Mohmadpur, Pooth Kalan, Bindapur, Bagdola, Luharheri, Mirzapur, Toganpur, Pehladpur, Dabri

Distribution in Madhya Pradesh

Villages in Bhopal District

Beragarh, Bhopal,

Villages in Khargone District

Khargone,

Villages in Morena District

Ambah

Villages in Gwalior district

Lashkar (Gwalior),

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Solanki Khap has 28 villages in Mathura district, and 21 in Agra district. [34]

Villages in Bagpat district

Jivana Guliyan,

Villages in Mathura district

Dhana Teja, Gudera, Nagla Sahtiya, Pavesara, Nagaura Nunera,

Villages in Agra district

Agra, Tikari (1), Anguthi (अंगूठी), Midhakur (मिढाकुर), Sahai (सहाई), Sakatpura (सकतपुरा), Badauda (बडौदा), Sahara (सहारा), Kagarol,

Villages in Firozabad district

Chulhawali, Nagla Tulsi (Tundla),

Notable persons

  • Ch. Phool Singh Solanki - Freedom fighter
  • M.S.Solanki - IFS (1957), Madhya Pradesh cadre, DOB:12-8-1927.
  • D.S.Solanki (Late) - IFS 1979, Madhya Pradesh. From Bharatpur, Rajasthan. He died of accident at place called Charama at very young age while he was DFO Bhanupratappur, Bastar in 1984.
  • Rajan Solanki - IRS Uttar Pradesh
  • Balram Solanki - former adviser to governor of Himachal Pradesh
  • Dharam Dev Solanki - MLA from Palam
  • Guru Dutt Solanki - former MLA from Uttar Pradesh.
  • Pushpendra Singh Solanki - DY. SP RPS , Date of Birth : 25-February-1976, Vill. Nai Gujar, Po.- Chichana, Teh. & Distt. - Bharatpur, Rajasthan, Mob: 9414026611
  • Ch. Ram Karan Solanki - From Palam. His father was pradhan of Palam 360 for 30 years
  • Mahendra K S Solanki -RJS

References

  1. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.243, s.n.225
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. स-40
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. स-150
  4. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 10
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. स-56
  6. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter IX,s.n.85,p-695
  7. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.342
  8. James Todd, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I,: Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races, pp. 116-119
  9. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p.69-70, S.No.2
  10. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p. 103
  11. History of the Jats/ChapterVIII,p. 136
  12. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas,
  13. Chapter XX 45-46
  14. Markandeya Purana, p, 342 note
  15. 159-See also Indian Antiquary , IV, 364
  16. 160-op.cit.p.146
  17. Studies in Indian History and Civilization bu Buddha Prakash, p. 258
  18. Quoted by. B.C. Law, op, cit.,p.384
  19. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 270-271
  20. 163-ibid
  21. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, 1980, p. 271
  22. Indian Antiquary, January 1886, p. 187
  23. The Hunas in India, pp. 191-194
  24. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 271
  25. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p.283
  26. भलेराम बेनीवाल:जाट योद्धाओं का इतिहास द्वितीय संस्करण 2011, p.
  27. James Todd Annals/Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races
  28. भलेराम बेनीवाल:जाट योद्धाओं का इतिहास द्वितीय संस्करण 2011, p. 885
  29. जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृ.561-562
  30. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solanka,_Warmian-Masurian_Voivodeship
  31. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania, Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, Agra, 2004, p. 16
  32. Dr Ompal Singh Tugania, Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p. 22
  33. Jat Bandhu, Agra, April 1991
  34. Jat Bandhu, Agra, April 1991

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