Chandravarman

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Chandravarman (4th century AD) (चन्द्रवर्मा) was a ruler in 4th century of Pakhanna in Bankura district in West Bengal. Pakhanna is considered to be the same as Pushkarana, once the capital of Chandravarman, son of Simhavarman, the extent of whose dominions may have been more or less coterminous with ancient Rarh region or south-west Bengal. It is the place mentioned in the Susunia inscription and dates back to 4th century AD.[1][2]

Defeated by Samudragupta

According to the inscription on the Allahabad pillar Chandravarman was defeated by Samudragupta and the area became a part of the Gupta Empire.[3]

Tejram Sharma[4] gives details about the King Chandravarman as One of the kings of Aryavarta defeated by Samudragupta.

Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta mentions about King Chandravarman in Line 21 which says:

"(L. 21.)- Who abounded in majesty that had been increased by violently exterminating Rudradeva, Matila, Nāgadatta, Chandravarman, Ganapatināga, Nāgasena,Achyutanandin, Balavarman, and many other kings of (the land of) Āryāvarta;-who made all the kings of the forest countries to become (his) servants;"[5]

History

Thakur Deshraj[6] writes that at the time of Gupta rulers in Malwa there is mention of one more dynasty of rulers in Malwa. Sinhavarma was contemporary of Samudragupta (335-375 AD). Singhavarma had two sons namely Chandravarman and Naravarman. Chandravarma moved from Malwa and established kingdom in Pushkarana (Bankura, West Bengal). Narvarma remained ruler in Malwa. Narvarma had two sons namely Bandhu Varma and Bhim Varma. Guptas had increased their powers in Malwa and Bandhuvarma accepted subjection of Gupta rulers. Bhimvarma became samant of Skandgupta Vikramaditya (455-467), son of Kumaragupta I. He was probably samant of Kaushambi.[7]

Bhangupta Baladitya became ruler of Malwa after 40 years period of Skandagupta. Baladitya has been mentioned along with Jat ruler Yasodharman in defeating the Huns. If we add name of Vishnuvardhan after Bandhuvarma the chronology of these rulers becomes as under:

Susunia inscription of Chandravarman dated 4th century AD

The Indian Archaeology Blogspot[9] provides us following information about Susunia inscriptions of 4th Century A D From Ancient History of Bengal, vol. I, on Susunia inscriptions:

The Susunia Rock inscription,the earliest reference to the cult of Vaishnavism, is a short Sanskrit inscription in three lines engraved in Brahmi script on Susunia hill, recording the installation of an image of Vishnu during the reign of Chandravarman.

The first two lines of it incised below a big wheel (chakra) with flaming rib and hub, refer to it as the work of the illustrious Maharaja Chandravarman, the lord of Pushkarna....

The third line is incised to the right of the wheel, but its reading and consequently its meaning is not very clear. It certainly refers to the dedication (of the cave) to Chakrasvamin, which literally means the 'wielder of the discuss, i.e., Vishnu...It may be reasonably inferred that the excavated cave, on the wall of which the inscription was incised, was intended to be a temple of Vishnu. Suniti Chattapadhaya "holds that Puskarana mentioned in Susuniya inscription is the modern Pokarnya or Pakharna situated in Bankura District of which Candravarma was the king." (Prachin Vanger Puskarna-janapad - in Vangasri, 1339-40 B.S., 1932-33 A.D., pt. 1, p. 135-136).

On the rock face another script is visible, which is "Sankha Lipi (script)" from a period between 8th to 10th Century A.D. Till date this Sankha Lipi can not be deciphered. Many observe this not as script but symbols.

Radhakumud Mookerji[10] writes that Susunia Rock inscription describes Chandravarma as ruler of Pushakarana (village near Susunia hill in Bankura district). The Susunia inscription describes Chandravarma as son of Simhavarma. Mandsaur inscription of Malwa year 461 = AD 404 also mentions Simhavarma,son of Jayavarma and father of Naravarma. The Gangdhar inscription of Malwa year 480 = AD 423 mentions Vishvavarma as son of Naravarma. The Mandsaur inscription of Malwa year 493 = AD 436 and 529 = AD 472 refers to Gopta Nripa Vishvavarma and his son nripa Bandhuvarma as feudatories at Dashapur under Kumaragupta I. Thus these three inscriptions testify to the following line of Malwa Kings:

SimhavarmaNaravarma (AD 404) → Vishvavarma (AD 423) → Bandhuvarma (AD 426)

The Simhavarma of this list is counted by H P Sastri as identical with Simhavarma, with his son Chandravarma, as mentioned in the Susunia inscription, in which case Chandravarma becomes a brother of Naravarma.

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज

ठाकुर देशराज[11] के अनुसार सिंहवर्मा समुद्रगुप्त का समकालीन था। समुद्रगुप्त गुप्त-वंश का परम प्रतापी राजा हुआ है जिसका कि शासन ईसवी सन् 335 से 385 तक बताया


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-709


जाता है। सिंहवर्मा के दो पुत्र चन्द्रवर्मा और नरवर्मा हुए। चन्द्रवर्मा ने मालवा से हटकर पुष्करन (मारवाड़?) में राज्य स्थापित किया और नरवर्मा मालव-राज बने रहे। नरवर्मा के पुत्र हुए, बंधुवर्मा और भीमवर्मा। गुप्तों का प्रभाव बढ़ गया था इसलिए बंधुवर्मा को उज्जैन के गुप्त राजाओं की अधीनता स्वीकार करनी पड़ी। भीमवर्मा ने कुमारगुप्त प्रथम के पुत्र स्कंदगुप्त विक्रमादित्य के यहां सामन्त के स्थान पर रहना स्वीकार कर लिया और वह सम्भवतः कौशाम्बी का सामन्त बनाया गया। स्कन्दगुप्त का समय ईसवी सन् 455 से 467 तक का है।1

गुप्त-वंश के स्कंधगुप्त विक्रमादित्य के चालीस वर्ष पश्चात् उज्जैन की राजगद्दी पर भानुगुप्त बालादित्य बैठता है। जाट नरेश यशोधर्मा के साथ हूणों को हराने में इसी बालदित्य का नाम आता है।2 यदि बंधुवर्मा के बाद विष्णुवर्द्धन का नाम जोड़ दें तो यह वंश-सूची इस प्रकार बन जाती है -


1. यह वंश-सूची जयशंकर ‘प्रसाद’ के ‘स्कंदगुप्त विक्रमादित्य’ नामक नाटक के परिशिष्ट में भी दी हुई है।
2. भारत के प्राचीन राजवंश, भाग 2
? पुष्करन मारवाड़ में स्थित न होकर बांकुरा जिला पश्चिम बंगाल में है। Laxman Burdak (talk) 07:04, 19 September 2015 (EDT)

References

  1. Ghosh, Binoy, Paschim Banger Sanskriti, (in Bengali), part I, 1976 edition, p. 408-409, Prakash Bhaban
  2. Majumdar, R.C., History of Ancient Bengal, pp. 32, 444, Tulshi Prakashani.
  3. Sengupta, Nitish, History of the Bengali-speaking People, p.21, UBS Publishers’ Distributors Pvt. Ltd.
  4. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of Feudatory Kings and High Officers, p.47
  5. 21. रुद्रदेव-मतिल-नागदत्त-चन्द्रवर्मा-गणपतिनाग-नागसेनाच्युत-नन्दि-बल-वर्म्मा-द्यनेकार्य्यावर्त्त- राज-प्रसभोद्धरणोद्धृत-प्रभाव-महत: परिचारकीकृत-सर्व्वाटविक-राजस्य
  6. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter XI,pp.709-710
  7. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter XI,pp.709-710
  8. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter XI,pp.709-710
  9. Indian Archaeology Blogspot
  10. The Gupta Empire,p.9
  11. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter XI,pp.709-710

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