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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Allahabad District Map

Allahabad (इलाहाबाद, Urdu: اللہآباد), or City of God, also known as Prayag (प्रयाग, Urdu: پریاگ), is a city in Uttar Pradesh. The ancient name of the city is Aggra (Sanskrit for "place of sacrifice") and is believed to be the spot where Brahma offered his first sacrifice after creating the world. It is one of four sites of the mass Hindi pilgrimage Kumbh Mela, the others being Haridwar, Ujjain and Nashik.


It has a position of importance in Hindu scriptures for it is situated at the confluence, known as Triveni Sangam, of the holy rivers Ganges and Yamuna, and Hindu belief says that the invisible Sarasvati River also joins here. Ancient Prayaga is the modern Allahabad, at the confluence of the Yamuna and Ganges, the capital of the Prasii of Megasthenes[1].


The name is derived from the one given to the city by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1583. The name in Indian languages generally is Ilāhābād; ilah being Arabic for "(a) god" (in this context from Din-i-Ilahi, the religion founded by Akbar), and "-ābād" is Persian for "to construct or to create", which explains the meaning of the name Illahabad as "God's creation" or "City of God".

Migration of Yadus

James Tod[2] writes that the tide of Yadu migration during the lapse of thirty centuries, traces them, from Indraprastha, Surapura, Mathura, Prayaga, Dwarica, Jadu Ka Dang (the mountains of Jud), Behera, Ghazni in Zabulistan ; and again refluent into India, at Salivahanpura or Salpura in the Punjab. Tannot, Derawal, Lodorva in the desert, and finally Jaisalmer, founded in S. 1212, or A.D. 1156.


The city was originally known as Prayaga (place of the confluences) - a name that is still often used. Excavations have revealed Iron Age Northern Black Polished ware in Allahabad. That it is an ancient town is also illustrated by references in the Vedas (the most ancient of Hindu sacred texts) to Allahabad. It is believed to be the where Brahma, the Hindu Creator of the Universe, attended a sacrificial ritual.

The Puranas, another important group of religious texts, record that Yayati left Allahabad and conquered the region of Sapta Sindhu.[3] His five sons Yadu, Druhyu, Puru, Anu and Turvashas became the main tribes of the Rigveda. When the Aryans first settled in what they termed the Aryavarta, Allahabad and the district of Kaushambi were important parts of their territory. The Vatsa (a branch of the early Indo-Aryans) were rulers of Hastinapur (near present day Delhi). When Hastinapur was destroyed by floods, they established the town of Kaushambi near present day Allahabad as their new capital. Many people from south India had also migrated and permanently settled in this ancient Prayaga thousands of years ago.

In the times of the Ramayana, Allahabad was made up of a few rishi's huts at the confluence of the sacred rivers, and much of the countryside was continuous jungle. Lord Rama, the main protagonist in the Ramayana, spent some time here, at the Ashram of Sage Bharadwaj, before proceeding to nearby Chitrakoot.

The Doab region, including Allahabad, was controlled by several empires and dynasties in the ages to come. It became a part of the Mauryan and Gupta empires of the east and the Kushan empire of the west before becoming part of the Kannauj empire. Objects unearthed in Allahabad indicate that it was part of the Kushana empire in the 1st century AD.

In his memoirs on India, Huien Tsang, the Chinese chronicler who travelled through India during Harshavardhana's reign (A.D. 607-647), writes that he visited Allahabad in A.D. 643.

In Mahabharata

Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 85 mentions the sacred asylums, tirthas. mountans and regions of eastern country:

"In that quarter, is the sacred confluence of Ganga and Yamuna which is celebrated over the world. Holy and sin-destroying, that tirtha is much regarded by the Rishis. It is there that the soul of all things, the Grandsire, had, in olden days, performed his sacrifice, and it is for this, that the place hath come to be called Prayaga (प्रयाग) (III.85.14)."

पवित्रम ऋषिभिर जुष्टं पुण्यं पावनम उत्तमम
गङ्गायमुनयॊर वीर संगमं लॊकविश्रुतम (III.85.13)
यत्रायजत भूतात्मा पूर्वम एव पिता महः
प्रयागम इति विख्यातं तस्माद भरतसत्तम (III.85.14)

Visit by Xuanzang in 636 AD

Alexander Cunningham[4] writes that From Hayamukha the pilgrim Xuanzang proceeded 700 li, or 116 miles, to the south-east to Prayaga, the well-known place of pilgrimage at the junction of the Ganges and Jumna, where Akbar, many centuries later, built his fort of Ilahabus, or Allahabad, as it was afterwards called by Shah Jehan. The distance and bearing given by Hwen Thsang agree almost exactly with those of Prayaga from Daundiakhera. The distance is 104 miles by the nearest road to the south of the Ganges ; but as the pilgrim followed the northern road, the distance must have been increased to 115 or 120 miles. According to him[5] the city was situated at the confluence of the two rivers, and to the west of a large sandy plain. In the midst of the city there was a Brahmanical temple, to which the presentation

[p.389]: of a single piece of money procured as much merit as that of one thousand pieces elsewhere. Before the principal room of the temple there was a large tree with wide-spreading branches, which was said to be the abode of a man-eating demon. The tree was surrounded with human bones, the remains of pilgrims who had sacrificed their lives before the temple, a practice which had been observed from time immemorial.

I think there can be little doubt that the famous tree here described by the pilgrim is the well-known Akshay Bat, or " undecaying Banian tree," which is still an object of worship at Allahabad. This tree is now situated underground, at one side of a pillared court, which would appear to have been open formerly, and which is, I believe, the remains of the temple described by Hwen Thsang. The temple is situated inside the fort of Allahabad, to the east of the Ellenborough Barracks, and due north from the Stone Pillar of Asoka and Samudra Gupta. Here, then, must have been the site of the city in the seventh century, and this agrees with the sunken position of the tree, for originally both tree and temple must have been on the natural ground level ; but from the constant accumulation of rubbish, they have been gradually earthed up, until the whole of the lower portion of the temple has disappeared underground. The upper portion has long ago been removed, and the only access to the Akshay Bat now available is by a flight of steps which leads down to a square pillared courtyard. This court has apparently once been open to the sky ; but it is now completely closed overhead, to secure darkness and mystery for the holy fig-tree.

[p.390]:The Ahshay-bat is next mentioned by Rashid-ud-din in the Jamiu-t-tawarikh, where he states that the "tree of Prag" is situated at the confluence of Jumna and Ganges. As most of his information was derived from Abu Rihan, the date of this notice may with great probability be referred to the time of Mahmud of Ghazni. In the seventh century a great sandy plain, 2 miles in circuit, lay between the city and the confluence of the rivers, and as the tree was in the midst of the city, it must have been at least one mile from the confluence. But nine centuries later, in the beginning of Akbar's reign, Abdul Kadir speaks of the " tree from which people cast themselves into the river."[6] From this statement I infer that during the long period that intervened between the time of Hwen Thsang and that of Akbar, the two rivers had gradually carried away the whole of the great sandy plain, and had so far encroached upon the city, as to place the holy tree on the very brink of the water. Long before this time the old city had no doubt been deserted, for we know that the fort of Ilahabas was founded on its site in the twenty-first year of Akbar's reign, that is, in a.h. 982, or A.D. 1572. Indeed the way in which Abu Rihan speaks of the "tree" instead of the city of Prag, leads me to believe that the city itself had already been deserted before his time. As far as I am aware, it is not once mentioned in any Muhammadan history until it was refounded by Akbar.[7]

According to the common tradition of the people,

[p.391]: the name of Prayag was derived from a Brahman who lived during the reign of Akbar. The story is, that when the emperor was building the fort, the walls on the river face repeatedly fell down, in spite of all the precautions taken by the architect. On consulting some wise men, Akbar was informed that the foundations could only be secured by being laid in human blood. A proclamation was then made, when a Brahman named Prayaga voluntarily offered his life, on the condition that the fort should bear his name. This idle story, which is diligently related to the pilgrims who now visit the Akshay Bat, may at least serve one useful purpose in warning us not to place too much faith in these local traditions. The name of Prayaga is recorded by Hwen Thsang in the seventh century, and is in all probability as old as the reign of Asoka, who set up the stone pillar about B.C. 236, while the fort was not built until the end of the sixteenth century. Hwen Thsang makes the district of Prayaga about 5000 li, or 833 miles, in circuit; but as it was closely surrounded on all sides by other districts, I am satisfied that we should read 500 li, or 83 miles, and limit the district to the small tract in the fork of the Doab, immediately above the junction of the Ganges and Jumna.

Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta

Allahabad stone pillar inscription of Samudragupta

Ashoka Pillar: The 10.6 metre high, polished sandstone shaft dates from 232 BC and was found lying on the ground in the fort in 1837 and set up at its present location. Inscribed on the column are Ashoka's edicts and a later inscription eulogising the victories of Samudragupta (335-375 AD). This is the first record of the events in this Gupta ruler's life.

A detailed record of the reign of Samudragupta is preserved in the shape of an inscription--a prasasti, or panegyric, composed by the poet Harisena and engraved on the same pillar on which Emperor Asoka, centuries before, had had an edict carved. The two inscriptions make a contrasting reading: Asoka's, written in simple Pali, speaks of peace and righteousness; Samudragupta's, written in elegant and classical Sanskrit, glorifies war.

But for the Allahabad prasasti of Samudragupta, we would not have known the political conditions prevalent at that time. This inscription gives an exhaustive account of political career of Samudragupta and the kingdoms conquered by him. Inscriptions also give glimpses regarding the social conditions of the ages to which they belong.

Allahabad Stone Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta (A.D. 335-76)

Sanskrit Text
समुद्रगुप्त का प्रयाग स्तम्भ अभिलेख

स्थान: इलाहाबद (यह मूलत: कौशाम्बी में था जहां से लाकर इलाहाबद किले में स्थापित किया गया)

भाषा: संस्कृत, लिपी: ब्राह्मी, काल: समुद्रगुप्त (३३५-७६ ई.)

विषय:समुद्रगुप्त का जीवन चरित तथा उपलब्धियों का विवरण

मूल पाठ

१. यह:....कुल्यै: (?)....स्वै....ातस....

२. [यस्य ?] ....(॥) [१]

३. ---मुं (?) व....

४. [स्फ़ु]रद्वं (?) ....क्ष:स्फ़ुटोद्ध [ ]सित....प्रवितत....(॥) [२]

५. यस्य प्र[ज्ञानु]षङ्कोचित-सुख-मनस: शास्त्र-त[त्व]ार्त्थ-भर्त्तु:

---स्तब्धो---नि*****---नौच्छृ--- (।)

६. [स]त्काव्य-श्री-विरोधाबन्धु-गुणित-गुणाज्ञाहतानेव कृत्वा

[वि]द्वल्लोके(S)वि[ना][शि(] स्फ़ुटबहु-कविता-कीर्ति-राज्यं भुनक्ति (॥) [३]

७. [आ][र्य्यो]]हीत्युपगुह्य भाव-पिशुनैरुत्कीर्णीण्तै रोमभि:

सभ्येषूच्छृसितेषु तुल्य-कुलज-म्लालाननोद्वीक्षि[त]: (।)

८. [स्ने]ह-व्यालुलितेन बाष्प-गुरुणा तत्वेक्षिणा चक्षुषा

य पित्राभिहितो नि[रीक्ष्य]निखि[लां] [पाह्येव] [मुर्वी]]मिति (॥) [४]

९. [दृ]ष्ट्रवा कर्माण्यनेकान्यमनुज-सदृशान्य[द्भु]तोद्भिन्न-हर्षा

भा[ा]वैरस्वादय [न्त:]*****--- ---[के]चित (।)

१०. वीर्योत्तप्ताश्च केचिच्छरणमुपगता यस्य वृत्ते(S)प्रणामे-

()प्य[र्ति?]-ग्रस्तेषु--- --- --- --- (।) [५]

११. संग्रामेषु स्व-भुज-विजिता नित्यमुच्चापकारा:

श्व:-श्वो मान-प्र --- --- ---- ---- ---- ---- (।)

१२. तोषोतुङ्गै: स्फ़ुट-बहु-रस-स्नेह-फ़ुल्लैर्म्मनोभि:

पश्चात्तापं व --- --- ---- ---- ---- ---- म[?]स्य[ ]द्वसन्त[म?] (।) [६]

१३. उद्वेलोदित-बाहु-वीर्य्य-रभसादेकेन येन क्षणा-

दुन्मूल्याचुत-नागसेन-ग1 --- --- ---- ---- ---- (---)

१४ दण्डैर्गाहयतैव कोतकुलजं पुष्पाह्वये क्रीडता2

सूर्य्ये (?) नित्य (?) --- --- तट --- --- --- (॥) [७]

१५. धर्म्म-प्राचीर-बन्ध: शशि-कर-शुचय: कीर्तय: स-प्रताना

वैदुष्यं तत्त्व-भेदि प्रशम् ---- ---- ---, कु---यमु(सु?) --- तार्त्थम् (?) (।)

१६. [अद्धयेय:]सूक्त्तमार्ग्ग: कवि-मति-विभवोतसारणं चापि काव्यं

को नु स्याद्यो (अ)स्य न स्यादगुण-मति-[वि]दुषां ध्यानपात्रं य एक: (॥) [८]

१७. तस्य विविध-समर शतावतरण-दक्षस्य स्वभुज-बल-पराक्क्रमैकबन्धो: पराक्क्रामांकस्य परशु


१८. भिन्दिपाल-न[ा]राच-वैतस्तिकाद्यनेक-प्रहरण-विरुढाकुल-व्रण-शतांक-शोभा-समुदयो-पचित-


१९. कोसलमहेन्द्र-माह[ा]कान्तारकव्याघ्रराज-कौरालकमण्टराज-पैष्टपुरक-महेन्द्रगिरि-कौट्टूरक


२०. नीलराज वैङ्गेयकहस्तिवर्म्म-पाल्लकोग्रसेन-दैवराष्ट्रकुबेर-कौस्थलपुरक-धनञ्जय-प्रभृति-


२१. रुद्रदेव-मतिल-नागदत्त-चन्द्रवर्मा-गणपतिनाग-नागसेनाच्युत-नन्दि-बल-वर्म्मा-द्यनेकार्य्यावर्त्त-

राज-प्रसभोद्धरणोद्धृत-प्रभाव-महत:4 परिचारकीकृत-सर्व्वाटविक-राजस्य

२२. समतट-डवाक-कामरूप-नेपाल-कर्त्तृपुरादि-प्रत्यन्त-नृपतिभिर्म्मालवार्जुनायन-यौधेय-माद्रकाभीर-प्रार्जुन-सनकानीक-काक-खरपरिकादिभिश्च5 सर्व्व-कर -दानाज्ञाकरण-प्रणामागमन-

23. परितोषित-प्रचंड-शासनस्य ...... देवपुत्रषाहीषाहनुषाहि-शकमुरुंडै:सैंहलकादिभिश्च

24. सर्व्वद्वीप वासिभिरात्मनिवेदन-कन्योपायन-दान-गुरुत्मदंक स्वविषयभूक्तिशासन (या ) चनाद्यु-पाय-सेवाकृत ....



31. पुनाति भुवन-त्रयं पशुपतेर्ज्जटान्तर्गुह-निरोध-परोमोक्ष-शीघ्रमिव पाण्डु गाङ्ग (पय:)।।....

1. संभवत: यह गणपति का पहला अक्षर है।

2. कोत परिवार अपनी सेना द्वारा बंदी बनाया गया जब वह पाटलिपुत्र में खेल रहा था ।

3. कोशल = दक्षिणी कोशल (रायपुर, संभलपुर, बिलासपुर), माहाकान्तार = जंगली क्षेत्र, व्याघ्रराज = व्याघ्रदेव, कोरालक = कुणाल जल (कोलार ताल ऐलोरा के पास), पैष्टिपुर == पीठापुरम, महेन्द्रगिरि = महेन्द्र पर्वत, कौट्टूर = कोठूर महेन्द्रगिरि के पास, काञ्चेय == काञ्जीवराम, अवमुक्त्त == अभी अज्ञात, वेंगी == आधुनिक वेंगी, पल्लक = पल्लकड, दैवराष्ट्र = देवराठे गाँव खानपुर तालुका, कुस्थलपुर = कुशस्थलयु (द्वारका),

4. रुद्रदेव = रुद्रसेन वाकाटक या रुद्रसेन III (शुंग वंश का पश्चिम भारत का शासक), मतिल == बुलंदशहर का, चन्द्रवर्मा = सुसनिया पर्वत का चन्द्रवर्म, गणपतिनाग, नागसेन = नाग शासक पद्मावती के, अच्युत = बरेकी के नन्दिन को अच्युत के साथ जोड़कर समस अच्युतनन्दिन बना है.

5. समतट = उत्तरी पूर्वी बंगाल आधुनिक बाद-कान्त जिला तियेरा, डवाक = डबोक (नवगांव, आसाम), कामरूप = गौहाटी (आसाम), कर्त्तृपुर = करतारपुर (जालंधर), कटोरिया = गढ़वाल, मालव = राजस्थान का दक्षिणी भाग और मालवा के वासी, आर्जुनायन = मथुरा के पास से प्राप्त मुद्राएँ, यौधेय = जोहियावार वासी, प्रार्जुन = नरसिंहपुर मध्य प्रदेश के वासी, सनकानीक == पूर्वी मालवा, काक = ककनादबोट साँची मध्य प्रदेश, मद्रक = शाकल वासी (आधुनिक स्याल कोट, पाकिस्तान), आभीर = अपनत (उत्तरी कोंकण वासी) परितोषित-प्रचंड-शासनस्य

समुद्रगुप्त का प्रयाग स्तम्भ अभिलेख[8]

Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta

  • (Line 2g.)-This lofty column (is) as it were an arm of the earth, proclaiming the fame,-which, having pervaded the entire surface of the earth with (its) development that was caused by (his) conquest of the whole world, (has departed) hence (and now) experiences the sweet happiness attained by (his) having gone to the abode of (Indra) the lord of the gods,-of the Mahārājādhirāja, the glorious Samudragupta,
  • (L. 1.)-[Who] . . . . . by his own kinsmen . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .;-whose . . . . . . . . . . .;-
  • (L. 3.)-[Who] . . . . twanging (of the bow-string) . . . . . . . . . . burst open and scattered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dishevelled . . . . . . . . . . .;
  • (L. 5.)-Whose happy mind was accustomed to associate with learned people; who was the supporter of the real truth of the scriptures; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . firmly fixed . . . . . . .;-who, having overwhelmed, with the (force of the) commands of the collective merits of (his) learned men, those things which obstruct the beauty of excellent poetry, (still) enjoys,in the world of the wise, the sovereignty of the fame (produced) by much poetry, . . . . . . and of clear meaning;-
  • (L 7.)-Who, being looked at (with envy) by the faces, melancholy (through the rejection of themselves), of others of equal birth, while the attendants of the court breathed forth deep sighs (of happiness), was bidden by (his) father,--who, exclaiming "Verily (he is) worthy," embraced (him) with the hairs of (his) body standing erect (through pleasure) (and thus)indicative of (his) sentiments, and scanned (him) with an eye turning round and round in affection, (and) laden with tears (of joy), (and) perceptive of (his noble) nature,-[to govern of a surety] the whole world;
  • (L. 9.)-Whose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . some people (were accustomed to) taste with affection, displaying exceeding great joy when they beheld (his) many actions that resembled nothing of a mortal nature; (and) whose protection other people, afflicted by (his) prowess, sought, performing obeisance, . . . . . . . . .. . . . .;--.
  • (L. 11.)-[Whose] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . doers of great wrong, always conquered by his arm in battle, . . . . . . tomorrow and to-morrow . . . . . . . . . . . . pride . . . . . .. . . . . . . repentance, with minds filled with contentment (and) expanding with much clearly displayed pleasure and affection, . . . . . . . . . the spring (?);-
  • (L. 13.)-By whom,-having, unassisted, with the force of the prowess of (his) arm that rose up so as to pass all bounds,uprooted Achyuta and Nāgasena . . .;-
  • (L. 14.)-(by whom), causing him who was born in the family of the Kotas to be captured by (his) armies, (and) taking his pleasure at(the city) that had the name of Pushpa, while the sun . . . . . the banks . . . . . .;-
  • (L. 15.)-(Of whom it used to be said),- "The building of the pale of religion; fame as white as the rays of the moon, (and) spreading far and wide; wisdom that pierced the essential nature of things; . . . . . calmness . . . . . . . .; the path of the sacred hymns, that is worthy to be studied; and even poetry, which gives free vent to the power of the mind of poets; (all these are his); (in short) what (virtue) is there that does not belong to him, who alone is a worthy subject of contemplation for those who can recognise merit and intellect ?;"-
  • (L. 17.)-Who was skilful in engaging in a hundred battles of various kinds;-whose only ally was the prowess of the strength of his own arm;-who was noted for prowess;-whose most charming body was covered over with all the beauty of the marks of a hundred confused wounds, caused by the blows of battle-ayes, arrows, spears, pikes, barbed darts, swords, lances, javelinsfor throwing, iron arrows, vaitastikas, and many other (weapons);-
  • (L. 23.)-Whose tranquil fame, pervading the whole world, was generated by establishing (again) many royal families, fallen and deprived of sovereignty;-whose binding together of the (whole) world, by means of the amplitude of the vigour of (his) arm, was effected by the acts of respectful service, such as offering themselves as sacrifices, bringing presents of maidens (giving) Garuda-tokens, (surrendering) the enjoyment of their own territories, soliciting (his) commands, &c., (rendered) by the Daivaputras, Shahis, Shahanushahis, Sakas, and Murundas, and by the people of Simhala and all (other) dwellers in islands;-who had no antagonist (of equal power) in the world;-who, by the overflow of the multitude of (his) various virtues adorned by a hundred good actions, rubbed out the fame of other kings with the soles of (his) feet;-who, being incomprehensible, was the spirit that was the cause of the production of good and the destruction of evil;-who, being full of compassion, had a tender heart that could be won over simply by devotion and obeisance;-who was the giver of many hundreds of thousands of cows;-
  • (L. 26.)-Whose mind busied itself with the support and the initiation, &c., of the miserable, the poor, the helpless, and the afflicted;--who was the glorified personification of kindness to mankind;-who was equal to (the gods) Dhanada and Varuna and Indra and Antaka;-whose officers were always employed in restoring the wealth of the various kings who had been conquered by the strength of his arms;-
  • (L. 27.)-Who put to shame (Kashyapa) the preceptor of (Indra) the lord of the gods, and Tumburu, and Nārada, and others, by (his) sharp and polished intellect and choral skill and musical accomplishments;- who established (his) title of 'king of poets' by various poetical compositions that were fit to be the means of subsistence of learned people;-whose many wonderful and noble deeds are worthy to be praised for a very long time;-
  • (L. 28.)-Who was a mortal only in celebrating the rites of the observances of mankind, (but was otherwise) a god, dwelling on the earth;-who was the son of the son's son of the Mahārāja, the illustrious Gupta;- who was the son's son of the Mahārāja, the illustrious Ghatotkacha;--who vas the son of the Mahārājādhirāja, the glorious Chandragupta (I.), (and)- the daughter's son of Lichchhavi, begotten on the Mahādevī Kumāradevī;-
  • (L. 30.) -(And) chose fame,-ever heaped up higher and higher by the development of (his) liberality and prowess of arm and composure and (study of ) the precepts of the scriptures,- --travelling by many paths, purifies the three worlds, as if it were the pale yellow water of (the river) Gangā, flowing quickly on being liberated from confinement in the thickets of the matted hair (जटा) of (the god) Pashupati.
  • (L. 31.) -And this poetical composition,- (the work) of the Khādyatapākika, the son of the Mahādandanāyaka Dhruvabhūti, the Samdhivigrahika and Kumāramatya, the Mahādandanāyaka Harishena,who is the slave of these same feet of the Bhattāraka, (and) whose mind is expanded by the favour of constantly walking about in (his) presence,-let it be for the welfare and happiness of all existing beings!
  • (L. 33.)-And the accomplishment of the matter has been effected by the Mahādandanāyaka Tilabhaṭṭaka, who meditates on the feet of the Paramabhattāraka.
  • Source - From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 10-17.

Bhim Singh Dahiya on tribes in inscription

Bhim Singh Dahiya writes that the Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta mentions the Malavas, Arjunayanas, the Yaudheyas, the Madras, the Madras, the Abhiras, the Prarjuna, the Sankanikas, the Kaks and the Kharaparikas etc. He further explains that the inscription of Dharan Jat emperor, names the other Jat clans.[9][10]


  1. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.195,fn.1
  2. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.194-195
  3. Talageri 1993, 2000; Elst 1999
  4. The Ancient Geography of India/Prayaga, p.388-391
  5. Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang," ii. 276.
  6. Elliot's ' Muhammadan Historians of India,' p. 243.
  7. Reinaud, ' Fragments Arabes,' etc., p. 103. Sir H. Elliot's ' Muhammadan Historians of India,' edited by Dowson, i. 55.
  8. भारतीय पुरालेखों का अध्ययन: द्वारा शिव स्वरुप सहाय, प. २४६-२४७
  9. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. III, No.1
  10. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats - The Ancient Rulers, p. 234-235

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