Raipur Chhatisgarh

From Jatland Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Note - Please click → Raipur for details of similarly named villages at other places.



Map of Raipur district

Raipur (रायपुर) is a city and district in Chhattisgarh. It was formerly a part of Madhya Pradesh before the state of Chhattisgarh was formed on 1 November 2000.

Variants

Location

It occupies the south eastern part of the upper Mahanadi River valley and the bordering hills in the south and the east. Thus, the district is divided into two major physical divisions: the Chhattisgarh plains and the hilly areas.

To the north is Bilaspur District. To the south is Dhamtari District and Gariaband District. To the east is Mahasamund District and to the west is Durg District. The Mahanadi River is the principal river of this district.

Tahsils in Raipur district

Raipur district is administratively divided into 4 Tehsils:

Villages in Raipur Tahsil

History

The earliest archaeological evidence from old sites and ruins of fort indicate the existence of Raipur since the 9th century. However, there are enough literary evidences which define the history of Raipur since the time of the Maurya Empire. Raipur district was once part of Southern Kosala and considered to be under the Maurya Empire. Raipur had later been the capital of the Haihaya Kings, controlling the traditional forts of Chhattisgarh for a long time. Satawahana Kings ruled this part till the 2nd-3rd century AD. Samudragupta had conquered this region in the fourth century, but the region came under the sway of Sarabhapura Kings and then Nala Kings in 5th and 6th centuries. Later on Somavanshi kings had taken the control over this region and ruled with Sirpur as their capital city. The Kalchuri Kings of Tumman ruled this part for a long time making Ratanpur as capital. It is believed that the King Ramachandra of this dynasty established the city of Raipur and subsequently made it the capital of his kingdom.[1]

Another story about Raipur is that King Ramachandra's son Brahmdeo Rai had established Raipur. His capital was Khalwatika (now Khallari). The newly constructed city was named after Brahmdeo Rai as ‘Raipur’. It was during his time in 1402 A.D. that the temple of Hatkeshwar Mahadev was constructed on the banks of the river Kharun which still remains one of the oldest landmarks in Raipur. After the death of king Amarsingh Deo, this region had become the domain of Bhonsle Kings of Nagpur. With the death of Raghuji the III, the territory was assumed by the British government from Bhonsle's and Chhattisgarh was declared a separate Commission with its headquarters at Raipur in 1854. After independence, Raipur district was included in the Central Provinces and Berar. Raipur district became a part of Madhya Pradesh on 1 November 1956 and subsequently became a part of Chhattisgarh on 1 November 2000 with Raipur becoming the capital of the new state.[2]

Historical Villages in Raipur

रायपुर

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[3] ने लेख किया है ..... 1. रायपुर (p.794): रायपुर छत्तीसगढ़ राज्य की राजधानी है. रायपुर शहर छत्तीसगढ़ (प्राचीन दक्षिण कोसल) के क्षेत्र का मुख्य नगर है। इसकी स्थापना 14 वीं शताब्दी के अंतिम चरण में हुई थी। खलारी के कलचुरी नरेश राजा सिंहा ने प्रथम बार यहाँ अपनी राजधानी बनाई।

रायपुर में एक मध्ययुगीन दुर्ग भी है। जिसके अन्दर कई प्राचीन मन्दिर हैं। रायपुर का सर्वश्रेष्ठ मन्दिर दूधाधारी महाराज के नाम से प्रसिद्ध है। इसमें बहुत से भाग श्रीपुर या सिरपुर के कलावशेषों से निर्मित किए गए हैं। इनमें मुख्य पत्थर के स्तम्भ हैं, जिन पर हिन्दू देवी-देवताओं की अनेक मूर्तियाँ खुदी हुई हैं। मन्दिर के शिखर के निचले भाग में रामायण की कथा के कुछ सुन्दर दृश्य उत्कीर्ण हैं। जो अधिक प्राचीन नहीं हैं। प्रदक्षिणापथ के गवाक्ष में नृसिंहावतार की मूर्ति तथा अन्य मूर्तियाँ स्थापित हैं। ये सिरपुर से लाई गई थीं। ये उच्चकोटि की मूर्तिकला के उदाहरण हैं। इस मन्दिर तथा संलग्न मठ का निर्माण दूधाधारी महाराज के द्वारा भौंसले राजाओं के समय में किया गया था। इससे पहले छत्तीसगढ़ में तांत्रिक सम्प्रदाय का बहुत ज़ोर था। दूधाधारी महाराज ने प्रान्त की नवीन सांस्कृतिक चेतना के उदबोधन में प्रमुख भाग लिया और तांत्रिक सम्प्रदाय की भ्रष्ट परम्पराओं को वैष्णव मत की सुरुचि सम्पन्न मान्यताओं द्वारा परिष्कृत करने में महत्त्वपूर्ण योग दिया था। रायपुर से राजा महासौदेवराज का सरभपुर नामक ग्राम से प्रचलित किया गया एक ताम्रदानपट्ट प्राप्त हुआ है। जिसके अभिलेख से यह गुप्तकालीन सिद्ध होता है। इसमें सौदेवराज द्वारा पूर्वराष्ट्र में स्थित श्रीसाहिक नामक ग्राम को दो ब्राह्मणों को दान में दिए जाने का उल्लेख है।

2. जिला सुल्तानपुर उत्तर प्रदेश अमेठी के पास स्थित इस ग्राम में अनेक बौद्ध कालीन अवशेष प्राप्त हुए हैं.

कुशावती

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[4] ने लेख किया है ...1. कुशावती (AS, p.213): वाल्मीकि रामायण, उत्तरकाण्ड 108,4 से विदित होता है कि स्वर्गारोहण के पूर्व रामचंद्र जी ने अपने ज्येष्ठ पुत्र को कुशावती नगरी का राजा बनाया था-- 'कुशस्य नगरी रम्या विंध्यपर्वत रोधसि, कुशावतीति नाम्ना साकृता रामेण धीमता'. उत्तरकांड 107, 17 से यह भी सूचित होता है कि, 'कोसलेषु कुशं वीरमुत्तरेषु तथा लवम्' अर्थात रामचंद्र जी ने दक्षिण कौशल में कुश और उत्तर कौशल में लव का राज्याभिषेक किया था. कुशावती विंध्यपर्वत के अंचल में बसी हुई थी और दक्षिण कोसल या वर्तमान रायपुर (बिलासपुर क्षेत्र छत्तीसगढ़) में स्थित होगी. जैसा की उपयुक्त उत्तर कांड 108,4 सेवा से सूचित होता है

स्वयं रामचंद्र जी ने यह नगरी कुश के लिए बनाई थी. कालिदास ने भी रघुवंश 15,97 में कुश का, कुशावती का राजा बनाए जाने का उल्लेख किया है--'स निवेश कुशावत्यां रिपुनागांकुशं कुशम्'. रघुवंश सर्ग 16 से ज्ञात होता है कि कुश ने कुशावती में कुछ समय पर्यंत राज करने के पश्चात अयोध्या की इष्ट देवी के स्वप्न में आदेश देने के फलस्वरूप उजाड़ अयोध्या को पुनः बसाकर वहां अपनी राजधानी बनाई थी. कुशावती से ससैन्य अयोध्या आते समय कुश को विंध्याचल पार करना पड़ा था-- 'व्यलंङघयद्विन्ध्यमुपायनानि पश्यन्पुलिंदैरूपपादितानि' रघुवंश 16,32. विंध्य के पश्चात कुश की सेना ने गंगा को भी हाथियों के सेतु द्वारा पार किया था, 'तीर्थे तदीये गजसेतुबंधात्प्रतीपगामुत्तर-तोअस्य गंगाम, अयत्नबालव्यजनीबभूवुर्हंसानभोलंघनलोलपक्षा:...' रघुवंश 16,33 अर्थात जिस समय कुश, पश्चिम वाहिनी गंगा को गज सेतु द्वारा पार कर रहे थे, आकाश में उड़ते हुए चंचल पक्षों वाले हंसों की श्रेणियां उन (कुश) के [p.214]: ऊपर डोलती हुई चंवर के समान जान पड़ती थीं. यह स्थान जहां कुश ने गंगा को पार किया था चुनार (जिला मिर्जापुर उत्तर प्रदेश) के निकट हो सकता है क्योंकि इस स्थान पर वास्तव में गंगा एकाएक उत्तर पश्चिम की ओर मुड़ कर बहती है और काशी में पहुंचकर फिर से सीधी बहने लगती है.

Raipur Copper-plate Inscription of the Raja MahaSudevaraja

The Seal.
A charter of the illustrious Sudevaraja, -who verily has a gracious heart; (and) who has overcome (his) enemies by (his) prowess,-(is) a charter for (the observance of even his) enemies!
The Plates.

Ôm! Hail! From the town of Sharabhapura, the illustrious Mahâ-Sudêvarâja, whose two feet are purified by the waters which are the flowing forth of the radiance of the jewels in the locks of hair (wound) in the tiaras of the chieftains, (bowing down before him), who have been subjugated by (his) prowess; who is the cause of the tearing out of the parted hair of the women of (his) enemies; who is the giver of treasure and land and cows; who is a most devout worshipper of the Divine One, (and) who meditates on the feet of (his) parents,-issues a command to the cultivators residing at (the village of) Shrîhâhikâ in the Eastern Country;-

(Line 5.)-"Be it known to you, that this village, the source (by this grant of it) of (Our) ensuring the happiness of (attaining) the abode of (Indra) the lord of the gods, which has been conveyed by a copper-charter to Nâgavatsasvâmin and Bandhuvatsasvâmin, of the Aupamanyava (shâkhâ) and the Vatsa gôtra, who, by the gift in marriage of his daughters, are the sons-in-law of Savitrisvâmin of the Kaundinya gôtra and the Vâjasanêya (shâkhâ); to be enjoyed as long as the world endures, having the terrible darkness dispelled by the rays of the sun and the moon and the stars; together with (its) hidden treasures and deposits; not to be entered by the irregular or the regular troops; (and) exempted from all taxes,-has, at the time of the sun’s commencement of his progress to the north, been assented to by Us indeed, for the increase of the religious merit of (Our) parents and of Ourself.

(L. 13.)-"Being aware of this, you should be obedient to their commands, and should dwell in happiness, rendering in manner proper (their) share of the enjoyment."

(L. I5.)-And he enjoins upon future kings,-"The ancients, whose minds are fixed upon religion, say that the virtue that arises from the preservation (of a grant) is greater than (that which arises from) making a grant; therefore your mind should verily incline to preserve land that has been given to a Brâhman of very pure family and holy learning. Therefore this gift should be preserved by you also."

(L. 18.)-And they cite on this point the verses that were sung by Vyâsa;-Gold is the first offspring of fire; the earth belongs to (the god) Vishnu; and cows are the daughters of the sun; therefore the three worlds are given by him who gees gold, and a cow, and land! The giver of land enjoys happiness in heaven for sixty thousand years; (but) the confiscator (of a grant), and he who assents (to an act of confiscation), shall dwell for the same number of years in hell! Land has been given by many kings, commencing with Sagara; whosoever at any time possesses the earth, to him belongs, at that time, the reward (of this grant that is now made, if he continue it). O Yudhishthira, best of kings, carefully preserve land that has been given, whether by thyself, or by another; (verily) the preservation (of a grant) (is) more meritorious than making a grant!

(L. 25.)-In this same village, the irrigation-well called Shrîvâpikâ, constructed within the mound on the land that skirts the eastern tank (and) extending up to the road is given to Nâgavatsasvâmin, in excess of (his exact) half of the village, because he is the elder.

(L. 27.)-At the command of (Mahâ-Sudêvarâja’s) own mouth, (in) mouth, (in) the year 10 of increasing victory, (in) (the month) Mâgha, (on the day) 9, (this charter) has been engraved by Drônasingha.

From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 199-200.

Notable persons

External links

See also

  • Raipur Sultanpur (रायपुर-2) = रायपुर सुल्तानपुर (AS, p.795)

References


Back to Chhattisgarh