History and study of the Jats/Chapter 4

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History and study of the Jats

Prof. B.S. Dhillon

ISBN-10: 1895603021 or ISBN-13: 978-1895603026

Chapter 4: History and Study of the Jat Sikhs

History and Study of the Jat Sikhs

Captain Falcon [1] wrote, in 1896 "The back-bone of the Sikh people is the great Jat caste, divided and sub-divided into numerous clans--. The Jats are thoroughly independent in character, and assert personal and individual freedom, as against communal or tribal control, more strongly than any other people". As far the origin of the Jat Sikhs or in that matter other Jats, Major Barstow [2] remarked in 1928, "It is from these Scythian immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly descended. They thus colonized the Punjab, Northern Rajputana (modern Indian state of Rajasthan), and the western half of the Gangetic Doab (western part of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pardesh in northern India), and a considerable proportion of the inhabitants of these countries are undoubtly of Scythian origin".

In regard to the characteristics of the Jat Sikhs Captain Bingley [3] quoted Thomason in 1899, "they are manly without false pride; undemonstrative; independent without insolence; reserved in manner, but good-natured, light-hearted, and industrious. No one could be associated with them for any time without conceiving both respect and liking for them".

Approximately one third of Jats in South Asia follow Sikhism. They make up the majority of Sikhs. Even though there are no up to date accurate available statistics, some people say their number is as high as 85%. As per the A.D. 1888 census returns [4,5] figure for the total number of baptised Sikhs in India was 1,706,909 and the Jats accounted for 66%. Their association with Sikhism is deep rooted. For example, two of the well known followers of Guru Nanak (born in A.D. 1469), the founder of Sikhism, were Jats: Bala (a Sandhu Jat [6]) and Buddha (a Randhawa Jat).

Furthermore, Latif [7] said, "This vast delta (area surrounding the birthplace of Guru Nanak in Punjab called "Richna Doab"), during the period immediately preceding the establishment of the Sikh religion, was inhabited by the Jats and Bhattis (to the best of my knowledge Bhatti is also the clan name of some Jats). In addition, the world reknown Professor Ellsworth Huntington [8] of the Yale University remarked, "the Sikhs are the only one of these that has experienced any appreciable selection. That as important religious selection took place among them in early days seems clear. People do not accept a new faith unless there is something in their temperament, which responds to that faith. Most of the original Sikhs were Jats". Professor Huntington's assertion of the original Sikhs belonging to the Jat background is supported by several European eyewitness account writers of the eighteenth century:

Colonel A.L.H. Polier (died in A.D. 1795) [9] wrote, "Originally and in general the Siques (Sikhs) are zemindars (landowners) or cultivators of land, and of that tribe called

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Jatts (Jats) which, in this part of India, are reckoned the best and most laborious tillers, though at the same time they are also noted for being of an unquiet and turbulent disposition. This tribe of Jatts (Jats) is very numerous and dispersed in all the country from the Sind (presently, a province of Pakistan or river Indus) to the southward far beyond Agra (a city in northern India). In another document Polier [9] said, "But what is more to be admitted is that those Seik (Sikh) Sirdars (Chiefs), whose territories border on the King's were but very lately of the Jauts (Jats) and of their caste and tribe they have put on their iron bracelet, fifty of them are enough to keep at bay a whole battalion of the king's forces, such as they are".

Griffiths, J. (his document dated February 17, 1794 A.D.) [10] said, "The Jaats (Jats) are said to observe some institutions similar to the Seiks (Sikhs), wear their hair and beards in the same manner, and are part of the same people, who under Swrudge Mul (Suraj Mal consult Chapter 5 for more information on this powerful king of the Jats), etc., formerly possessed many of the countries in the North India".

Francklin, W. (Documented during A.D. 1798-1803) [11] wrote, "Considerable similarity in their (Sikhs) general customs may be traced with those of the Jauts (Jats); though these, in some districts, apparently vary, the difference is not material, and their (Sikhs) permitting an interchange of marriages with the Jauts (Jats) of the Doab and Harrianah (probably same as the modern Haryana state of India) amounts almost to a conclusive proof of their affinity of origin.

The Seiks (Sikhs) allow foreigners of every description to join their standard, to sit in their company, and to shave their beards, but excepting in the instances of the Jauts (Jats), they will not consent to intermarriages. If indeed some regulations which are in their (Sikhs) nature purely military be excepted, it will be found, that the Seiks (Sikhs) are neither more or less than Jauts (Jats) in their primitive state".

Browne, J. (Major and who written the first book in English on Sikhs "History of the Origin and Progress of the Sikhs" in A.D. 1788) [12] said, "The people known by the name of Sicks (Sikhs), were originally the common inhabitants of the provinces of Lahore and Multan (now both in Pakistan), and mostly of the Jaut (Jat) tribe".

Francklin, W. (documented during A.D. 1798-1803) [11] wrote, "The Seiks (Sikhs), in their person, are tall, and of a manly erect deportment; their aspect is ferocious, their eyes piercing and animated; and in tracing their features a striking resemblance is observable to the Arabs who inhabit the banks of the Euphrates (river in modern Iraq)". This is an interesting observation on and appears to have some historical connection because General Sir Sykes [13] says in his book that a large number of Jats from the Indus Valley were taken to the marches of the Tigris (river in modern Iraq) in eighth century A.D. For more information on this topic the reader is directed to Chapter 3.

Regarding the founding of Khalsa (baptised Sikhs or saint soldiers in A.D. 1699) by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth and the last Guru of the Sikhs, Lt. General Sir MacMunn

[14] wrote, "The Jats of the Punjab, sturdy and quarrelsome, flocked to the new

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brotherhood (Khalsa), and he (Guru Gobind Singh) soon had a force which enabled him to try conclusions with the forces at Delhi (Emperor of India's). A strong religious sense did animate these warlike, muscular Jats. The Jat tribes about the Sutlej and the Ravi rivers hastened to join the faith. No longer would they turn the cheek to their persecutor, and they began to group themselves by tribes and confederacies known as Misals".

In the eighteenth century Sikhs were very successful in establishing twelve principalities or confederacies called Misals (Misal is a Arabic word means alike or equal [4]). At least nine of these Misals were founded by the Jats. The history of each of the Misals founded in the eighteenth century by the Jats is briefly described below [6, 7, 15-17].

4.1 Bhangi Misal

Bhim Singh of the Jat background founded this powerful Misal of the Sikhs. The name "Bhangi" is derived from the members of the confederacy who made use of Bhang, an intoxicating drug manufactured from hemp [7, 16]. Bhim Singh was succeeded by his nephew named Hari Singh belonging to the Dhillon clan of the Jats. Hari Singh's sons, Jhanda Singh and Ganda Singh played an instrumental role in strengthening the Misl. Also, they are credited for constructing the Bhangi fort at Amritsar (the holy city of the Sikhs in Punjab) and enlarging and beautifying the town with many noble edifices [7] in the later part of the eighteenth century.

4.2 Kanhya Misal

The first chief of this Misal was Jai Singh, a Jat of the Sandhu clan belonging to a village named Kanah, fifteen miles from Lahore (now in Pakistan) [7, 16]. The name of the Misal is derived from the name of Jai Singh's village and one time the Misal was the strongest of the Sikh confederacies north of the river Sutlej in Punjab [7].

4.3 Nakai Misal

The chief of this Misal was Hira Singh, a Jat of the Sandhu clan [7, 16]. The area lying between Lahore and Gogaira (now both in Pakistan) was called Naka country and during the middle of the eighteenth century A.D., Hira Singh took possession of it; thus the Misal became known as Nakai Misal.

4.4 Singhpuria Misal

This is also known as the Fyzulpuria Misal after a village near Amritsar (Punjab) called Fyzullapur. The Misal was founded by a Jat landlord named Kapur Singh who later on was popularly known as the Nawab (Chief) Kapur Singh [7]. He died at Amritsar in A.D. 1753.

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4.5 Krora Singhia Misal

Sometimes it is also known as the Panjgarhia Misal, from the village of its first chief, Karora Singh. Karora Singh belonged to the Jat background [7] and the Misal was popularly known after his name.

4.6 Nishanwala Misal

Two Jats named Sangat Singh and Mohar Singh were the founder of this Misal [7]. These two warriors were the standard-bearers of the assembled Khalsa (baptized Sikh or pure) army, hence, the name Nishanwala was given to this Misal.

4.7 Sukerchakia Misal

This Misal was founded by Charat Singh, a Jat of the Sansi clan and grandfather of the Maharaja (great King) Ranjit Singh, the ruler of the Sikh empire of the nineteenth century [7]. The Misal is named after the native village of Charat Singh, called Sukerchak in Amritsar district of Punjab or Manjha country [15].

4.8 Phulkia Misal

As per Latif [7], the chief of this Misal was a Jat named Phul of the Sandhu (Sidhu) clan; thus the Misal is known by his name. Phul had seven sons who became the ancestors of the royal families of Patiala, Nabha, and Jhind States (now in modern Punjab).

4.9 Ramgarhia Misal

Latif [7] wrote, "The founder of the Misal was Khoshal Singh, a Jat of Mouza Guga near Amritsar, Punjab. After his death he was succeeded by Nodh Singh of Sahangi also near Amritsar. Three most daring brothers named Jassa Singh, Mali Singh, and Tara Singh of Tarkhan (carpenter) background and belonging to Mouza Sarsang in the Lahore district (now in Pakistan) became devout followers of Nodh Singh. After the death of Nodh Singh, Jassa Singh became the chief of the Misal. The Misal seized the fort of Ram Raouni (Fortalice of God) and then renamed it as Ramgarh (Fort of the Lord [17])". Later on the Misal was popularly known as the Ramgarhia Misal.

4.10 Maharaja (Great King) Ranjit Singh -Sukerchakia Misal

Maharaja (Great King) Ranjit Singh (born in the 1880's), a Jat of Sansi clan and of the Sukerchakia Misal integrated all the Misals and ultimately established the Sikh empire in the North-West India, which ended with the British takeover in 1849. One time the Sikh empire embraced the whole of the undivided Punjab (prior to the creation of Pakistan), Kashmir, and a part of Tibet. Even though Maharaja Ranjit Singh was a Jat and a Sikh, during his rule he treated every individual and community very fairly which won him the admiration of people inside and outside his empire.

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Members of his government belonged to the different communities of his empire. For example, his Foreign Minister was a Muslim and the Treasurer, a Hindu. Commanders of his army were Sikhs and Jat Sikhs, Muslims, Hindus, French, Italian, and Americans. French and Italian Generals of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh's army fought in the battle of Waterloo alongside Napoleon and later on they joined the Sikh army. These Generals were Allard, Court, and Ventura [6]. Two of his famous Punjabi Generals were Hari Singh Nalwa and Sham Singh Attariwala (a Jat of the Sidhu clan [16]). Maharaja Ranjit Singh also employed several Western medical doctors and artists.

According to Cunningham [6] in 1844 the estimated revenue of the Sikh Kingdom was

32.475 million in 1844 rupees and breakdown for the army was:

• Infantry (92,000)

• Cavalry (31,800)

• Field Artillery (384 Guns)

Ranjit Singh was the only ruler in South Asia who could have opposed British rule in India but he had befriended the British with which he entered into peace treaties. He died on June 27, 1839 and was succeeded by his son Kharak Singh. A year later on November 5, 1840 Kharak Singh also passed away and on the same day his son Naunihal Singh became the king, on the very same day he was dazzled with a crown, he was also deprived of life. Eventually Kharak Singh's brother Sher Singh was proclaimed King of the Sikh Kingdom and was assassinated a few years later.

Finally, the youngest son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Dalip Singh, became the ruler of the Sikh Kingdom and in A.D. 1849 his Kingdom became a part of the British Empire. The young Dalip Singh was taken to England by the British authorities and became a close friend of the Queen Victoria's family . Interestingly, General Sir MacMunn [14] wrote, "Then was the Punjab annexed and the boy, Dalip Singh, eventually sent to be brought up in England with ample revenues. To him his friend, Colonel Sleeman, the famous Indian political officer, wrote, "I see you are going to live in Kent (district in South-East England). You will be among your own people there, for you are a Jat and the men of Kent are Jats from Jutland", and no doubt he was speaking ethnological truth". Dalip Singh died in Paris on October 22, 1893 [18].

The factors such as discussed above may have influenced the Western and other authors to say the following: "Sikhism which drew its adherents from all classes, each of which possessed distinctive manners and customs; the social and numerical preponderance of the Jats, however, carried such weight in the formation of the national character, that the customs of the Sikh, whatever his origin, may now be considered as practically identical with those of the Punjab Jat". (Major Barstow, A.E., [2], pp. 151)

"the virtues of the Jats are identical with those of the Sikhs". (Captain Bingley, A.H. [3], pp. 93)

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"The virtues of the Jats are identical with those of the Sikhs, who have come out of this caste (race), and the new creed has added a more military spirit, which is the principal tradition of the creed". (Captain Falcon, R.W. [1], pp. 65).

"If indeed some regulations which are in their (Sikhs) nature purely military be excepted, it will be found, that the Seiks (Sikhs) are neither more or less than Jauts (Jats) in their primitive state ". (Francklin, W. [11], pp. 240-241)

"The Jaats (Jats) are said to observe some institutions similar to the Seiks (Sikhs), wear their hair and beards in the same manner, and are part of the same people". (Griffiths, J. [10], pp. 224-225)

"Gobind (Guru Gobind Singh, the last guru of the Sikhs) added religious fervour to warlike temper, and his design of founding a kingdom of Jats upon the waning glories of Aurangzeb's (Mughal Emperor of India in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries A.D.) dominion does not appear to have been idly conceived or rashly undertaken. The emperor perhaps thought that the leader (Guru Gobind Singh) of insurrectionary Jats". (Cunningham, J.D. [6], pp. 69, 72).

"Possessed themselves (Jats) of the Punjab; and strange to say, have again risen to power, for the Sikhs of Nanuk (Guru Nanak, founder of the Sikhism) are almost all of Jit (Jat) origin. The present Jit (Jat) prince of Lahore (Maharaja Ranjit Singh during the time of Col. Tod), whose successor, if he be endued with similar energy, may, on the reflux of population, find himself seated in their original haunts of Central Asia, to which they have already considerably advanced". (Lt. Col. Tod, J. [19], pp. 623 (Vol, I), 138 (Vol. II))

"Uncut hair was a Jat custom". (Professor Pettigrew, J. [20], pp. 25)

"They (Jats) brought with them certain institutions, the most important being the pancayat (panchayat), an elected body of five elders, to which they pledged their allegiance. Every Jat village was a small republic". (A well known Sikh scholar Khushwant Singh [21], pp. 14-15).

4.11 Description of the Jats Sikhs by British Military Officers

During British rule in India, the government periodically assigned the task, of producing handbooks to new recruit Sikhs for military service, to various military officers: Captain Falcon, R.W. [1] (A.D. 1896), Captain Bingley, A.H. [3] (A.D. 1899), and Major Barstow, A.E. [2] (A.D. 1928). Some of the descriptions of the Jat Sikhs given in the these Military documents are as follows:

"The Sikh Jat is generally tall and muscular, with well shaped limbs, erect carriage, and strongly marked and handsome features. The Jat Sikhs have always been famous for their fine physique and are surpassed by no race in India for high-bred looks, smartness, and soldier by bearing. They make admirable soldiers, when well led, inferior to no

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native race in India, with more dogged courage than dash, steady in the field, and trustworthy in difficult circumstances. The mass of Jat Sikh population may fairly be said to be contented and law-abiding [2]".

"The Jats of the Punjab proper (in modern Punjab almost all of them belong to the Sikh faith) have been truly described as the backbone of the province by character and physique, as well as by numbers and locality. They are stalwart sturdy yeomen, of great independence, industry, and agricultural skill, and collectively form perhaps the finest peasantry in India.

Sturdy independence, and patient vigorous labour, are perhaps the strongest characteristics of the Jat Sikhs. The typical Jat Sikh is faithful and true to his employer, seldom shows insubordination, and with a good deal of self-esteem has higher standard of honour than is common among most Orientals [3] "tribes (clans) of the Jats from whom sprang the Sikh, these are typical Jats of the Punjab, which include those great Sikh Jat tribes (clans), who have made the race so renowned in recent history, occupying great Sikh states of the eastern plains [1]".

4.12 Participation of Jat Sikh soldiers in World Wars

A large number of Sikh soldiers fought on the side of Great Britain during both the First and Second World Wars. The recruitment policy concerning the Sikh soldiers into the British India Army appears to have been heavily biased towards the Jat Sikhs. For example, three handbooks [1-3] produced for the British India Government basically covered material concerning the Jat Sikhs and explicitly made statements such as follows:

Captain Falcon, R.W. [1], pp. 81, 106:

"if military service is made the exclusive right of Jat Sikhs and a few outcasts, still the

Jat must ever be the main source for recruits, as he far and sway outnumbers the other castes, and possesses as a class qualities which no other caste can claim. If, too, a Sikh belonging to a good Sikh tehsil (sub-district), does not give the name of a well known Jat Sikh tribe (clan) as his, he is pretty sure not to be a Jat".

Captain Bingley, A.H. [3], pp. 111:

"a man will say he is a zamindar (landlord) or Jat and that he ploughs, to which fact the

horniness of the palms of his hands will certify, he may be claiming to be a Jat".

Major Barstow, A.E. [2], pp. 180-181 and 2:

"Jat Sikhs sent a very high percentage of their eligible men to army. Units whose

standard prewar (World War I) were 5 feet 9 inc with proportionate chest development were through force of circumstances obliged to take men at 5 feet 3 inc and moreover instead of maintaining a Jat Sikh standard were required to open their ranks to every kind of. Out of ten Punjabis, nine live in villages and; it is from these plains, from the great tribe of Jats, that our recruits are obtained".

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Professor Joyce Pettigrew [20] added, "the army (British India Army) had recruited only Jats (Jat Sikhs) and had ben closed as an occupation to". Furthermore, Philip Mason [22] says "Most Sikhs-particularly in the army-are descended from Hindus who were Jats by caste before their conversion (to Sikhism). They make good soldiers".

British military officers appear to have regularly used the term "Jat Sikhs", for example, General Sir MacMunn [14] on page 4 of his book wrote regarding the arrival of the British Indian Army in France during World War I, "The martial races shall stride across the stage as they swung through Marseilles (France) with half the girls of France on their arms that Marseilles that went beside itself to see the smoke stacks and masts of the mighty. Armada that brought the Army of India. The Jat Sikhs mighty and curled of bears, kin perhaps of the men of Kent (a district in England), the Jutes from Jutland".

4.13 Books on Jat Sikhs

There are at least four books which are fully or partially devoted to the subject of Jat Sikhs. All of those books were written by western authors: Captain Falcon [1] (A.D. 1896), Captain Bingley [3] (A.D. 1899), Major Barstow [2] (A.D. 1928), and Professor Pettigrew [20] (A.D. 1975).

Under the orders from the British India Government, Captain Falcon [1] prepared his handbook on Sikhs for the use of regimental officers.

This is a 142 page book and is divided into six chapters: Introductory and explanatory (Chapter 1), The Sikh religion (Chapter 2), on Caste as affecting Sikhs (Chapter 3), Manners and Customs (Chapter 4), Districts (Areas), Castes, and Tribes, with relation to their value for military purposes (Chapter 5), and Notes on recruiting (Chapter 6). All the chapters of the book cover substantial amount of material on Jat Sikhs and in particular Chapter 5 encompassing about one third of the book, is devoted to Jat Sikhs and provides information on Jats in all the districts of Punjab. The information covers Jat clan names and their location, population, a number of villages belonging to specific clans, and so on.

In 1899 Captain Bingley [3] compiled, under the orders of the Government of India, another handbook for the Indian Army on Sikhs. The book is made up of 121 pages and is divided into five chapters plus an appendix: History and origin (Chapter 1), classification and geographical distribution (Chapter 2), Religion customs, sects, festivals, and fairs (Chapter 3), Characteristics (Chapter 4), Recruiting (Chapter 5), and List of districts and tehsils (sub-districts) with their relative value as recruiting grounds and the principal tribes (Jat clans) found there in (Appendix A), and List of the principal fairs held in the Sikh recruiting area (Appendix B).

Throughout the book, the emphasis is on Jats and also traces the history of the Jats from their forefathers, the Scythians of the Central Asia. Also the book provides information on over thirty principal Jat clans (Gill, Mann, Her, Bains, Dhillon, Virk, Bhullar, Bal, Bath, Chima, Chahil, Deol, Dhaliwal, Grewal, Chaman, Goraya, Hinjra, Hundal, Khaira,

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Kang, Malhi, Khosa, Pannun, Randhawa, Sahi, Sahota, Sohal, Sansi or Sindhanwalia, Sidhu, Sandhu, Tarar, Varaich, Chung, Bajwa, and Aulak) and names of Punjab districts occupied by various Jat clans.

In 1928, Major Barstow [2] revised the handbook on Sikhs by Captain Bingley [3] upon the request of the Government of British India.

Major Barstow's book is composed of ten chapters plus an appendix divided into six parts. This is certainly a comprehensive book on Sikhs and again its emphasis is on Jat Sikhs.

The chapters of the book are entitled Introductory (Chapter 1), Origin of Sikhism and its history (Chapter 2), Distribution of Sikhs: ethnological and ethnographic glossary of castes (Chapter 3), Salient features of the lives of the Gurus (founders of the Sikhism) (Chapter 4), The Sikh religion (Chapter 5), Sikh sects and sub-divisions of the Jat Sikhs (Chapter 6), Customs (Chapter 7), Characteristics and Matters pertaining to village life (Chapter 8), Agricultural (Chapter 9), and Recruiting (Chapter 10). Similarly, the appendices are entitled List of districts, etc., showing relative value of Sikh recruiting grounds (Appendix 1), Description of the "Adi Granth" (Sikh holy book) and "Daswen Padshah ka Granth" (holy book written by the tenth Guru of the Sikhs) (Appendix 2), Rites of initiation in Sikhism (Appendix 3), The Sikh Gurdwara (Church) Act, 1925 (Appendix 4), The Caste System (Appendix 5), and The Tankha Nama, or letter of fines or restrictions on Sikhs (Appendix 6).

The book covers briefly the history of the Jats from their Scythian origin, Jat clans of various districts of Punjab and their population in each district as per the Census returns of A.D. 1911, Jat characteristics, etc. The districts covered are Ludhiana, Ambala, Patiala state, Nabha state, Ferozepore, Faridkot State, Hissar, Amritsar, Lahore, Sialkot, Gurdaspur, Gurjarnwala, Jullundur, Kapurthala State, Hoshiarpur, and Jind State.

The book by Professor Pettigrew [20] published in 1975 is totally devoted to Jat Sikhs. It contains 272 pages in seventeen chapters, and an appendix divided into eight sections. The chapters are grouped into three parts: Part I: The environment (Chapter 1), Part II: Sikh Jats (Chapters, 2-5, and Part III: Factionalism (Chapters 6-17).

The titles of the chapters are Introduction (Chapter 1), Perspective on community studies (Chapter 2), Significant events in Jat history (Chapter 3), Patterns of allegiance I (Chapter 4), Patterns of allegiance II-Sikh Jat families (Chapter 5), The Structure of coalitions-factions at all levels (Chapter 6), Vertical links of a state leader with a national leader (chapter 7), The relationships of the Chief Minister (of Punjab) at state level (Chapter 8), The Kairon-Rarewala (two powerful Jat politicians) rivalries (Chapter 9), The general nature of factional rivalries in rural areas (Chapter 10), Factional participants in the local area (Chapter 11), Vertical links between leaders of the faction in the local area and those at state level (Chapter 12), The factional attachments of village participants (Chapter 13), Relationships between village participants and local

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area leaders (Chapter 14), Factions in competition (Chapter 15), Assessment (Chapter 16), and Personal postscript: real people and images (Chapter 17).

4.14 Historical and Political Figures of the Jat Sikhs in Punjab Some of the well-known Jat Sikhs of the Sikh history are Baba Deep Singh (a Sandhu Jat), Bhai Bala (a Sandhu Jat), Baba Buddha (a Randhawa Jat), Bhai Dharam Singh (a Jat), Bhai Mani Singh (a Jat) and Mehtab Singh (a Bhangu Jat). Two of the well known Jat Sikhs of the early part of the twentieth century were Shahid Bhagat Singh (a Sandhu Jat), Colonel Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon (a Dhillon Jat) and General Mohan Singh of the Indian National Army (INA).

All but one or two Chief Ministers or Premiers of the Punjab state have been Jat Sikhs: Partap Singh Kairon (a Dhillon Jat), Gurnam Singh (a Grewal Jat), Lachhman Singh Gill (a Gill Jat), P.S. Badal (a Dhillon Jat) and etc. Examples of the Jat Sikhs who held important portfolios in the federal government of India are Baldev Singh (first defense minister of the independent India), Sawarn Singh (a Purewal Jat and served as Foreign and Defense Minister of India), Dr G.S. Dhillon (a Dhillon Jat and served as speaker and Transportation Minister of India).

4.15 Jat Sikhs in Western Countries

Over the last hundred years, many Jat Sikhs have settled in various Western countries: Canada, the United States, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, etc. In fact, at least 80 per cent of the Sikhs settled in these countries belong to the Jat ethnic background. Some of the Politicians belonging to the Jat Sikh background in Canada and the United States are Moe Sihota (a Cabinet Minister of British Columbia), H. Dhaliwal (Parliamentary Secretary for Fisheries and Member of Parliament of Canada), G.S. Mahli (Member of Parliament of Canada), Dr. G.S. Cheema (former member of the Manitoba Legislative Assembly), U.S. Dosanjh (Member of the British Columbia Legislative Assembly), H.S. Lalli (Member of the British Columbia Legislative Assembly), H.S. Sohal (Member of the Alberta Legislative Assembly), and I.S. Dhillon (former Assistant Secretary of Transportation of the United States and now a candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives).

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4.16 References: Chapter 4 -History and Study of the Jat Sikhs

[1]. Falcon, R.W. (Captain, 4th Sikh Infantry, Punjab Frontier Force), Handbook on Sikhs: for the use of Regimental Officers, Printed at the Pioneer Press, Allahabad, India, 1896, pp. 64-65.

[2]. Barstow, A.E., (Major, 2/11th Sikh Regiment-Late 15th Ludhiana Sikhs), The Sikhs: An Ethnology (revised at the request of the Government of India), reprinted by B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India, 1985, pp. 62-63, first published in 1928.

[3]. Bingley, A.H. (Captain, 7th-Duke of Connaught's own Bengal Infantry, Handbook for the Indian Army: Sikhs, Compiled under the orders of the Government of India, Printed at the Government Central Printing Office, Simla, India, 1899, pp. 90-91, 11, 92.

[4]. Census of India, Vol. 1, Book 1, Lahore (now in Pakistan), 1883, pp. 100-108.

[5]. McLeod, W.H., The Evolution of the Sikh Community, Oxford University Press, London, 1976, pp. 93.

[6]. Cunningham, J.D., History of the Sikhs, reprinted by S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1985, pp. 36, 96, 387, 388, first published in 1848.

[7]. Latif, S.M., History of the Punjab, reprinted by the Progressive Books, Lahore, Pakistan, 1984, pp. 240, 297-298, 309, 313, 332-323, 334-345, 325-334, 306-309, first published in Calcutta, India, in 1891.

[8]. Huntington, E., Mainsprings of Civilization, A Mentor Book Published by the New American Library, Inc., New York, 1962, pp. 436-437.

[9]. Polier, A.L.H., (Colonel and died in A.D. 1795), An Account of the Sikhs, in Early European Accounts of the Sikhs edited by Dr. Ganda Singh, Published by Today & Tommorrow's Printers & Publishers, New Delhi, India, 1974, pp. 192-193.

[10]. Griffiths, J., A Memorandum on the Punjab and Kandahar, February 17, 1794, in Early European Accounts of the Sikhs edited by Dr. Ganda Singh, Published by Today & Tomorrow's Printers & Publishers, New Delhi, India, 1974, pp. 224-225.

[11]. Francklin, W., The Sikhs and Their Country, 1798-1803, in Early European Accounts of the Sikhs edited by Dr. Ganda Singh, Published by Today & Tomarrow's Printers & Publishers, New Delhi, India, 1974, pp. 240-241, 236.

[12]. Browne, J. (Major), History of the Origin and Progress of the Sikhs, 1788, in Early European Accounts of the Sikhs edited by Dr. Ganda Singh, Published by Today & Tomarrow's Printers & Publishers, New Delhi, India, 1974, pp. 553-554.

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[13]. Sykes, P. (Sir and Brig. Gen.), A History of Persia, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, reprinted in 1958, first published in 1915, pp. 10-11 (Vol. II).

[14]. MacMunn, G. (Lt. Gen. and Sir), The Martial Races of India, reprinted by Mittal Publications, Delhi, India, 1979, pp. 123, 126, first published in 1932.

[15]. Griffin, L.H. (Sir), The Punjab Chiefs, Vol. II, Civil and Military Gazette Press, Lahore, Pakistan, 1890.

[16]. Griffin, L.H. (Sir), The Punjab Chiefs, Vol. I, Civil and Military Gazette Press, Lahore, 1890, pp. 331-346, 157, 69, 237.

[17]. M'Gregor, W.L., History of the Sikhs, Vol. I, reprinted by the Languages Department Punjab, Patiala, Punjab, India, 1970, pp. 113-150, first published in 1848.

[18]. Lafont, J.M., Maharaja Duleep Singh and France, Journal of Sikh Studies, Vol. VIII, No. 1-2, Feb. Aug. 1981, pp. 88-101.

[19]. Tod, J. (Lt. Col.), Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1972 (reprint), pp. 623 (Vol. I), 138 (Vol. II), first published in 1829.

[20]. Pettigrew, J., Robber Noblemen: A Study of the Political System of the Sikh Jats, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1975, pp. 42.

[21]. Singh, Khushwant, A History of the Sikhs, Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, Delhi, India, 1977, pp. 14-15.

[22]. Mason, P., A Matter of Honour, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1974, pp. 352-353.

History and study of the Jats End of Page 76

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