Malli

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Malli (मल्ली)/Mall (मल्ल)[1] [2] Mall (माल्ल)/Malli (माल्ली)[3] is a Jat Gotra. Malhi (मल्ही) clan is found in Punjab region of India and Pakistan. They have been mentioned as Mallians by Arrian[4], the historian of Alexander the Great. They are same as Mali Jats in India.

Origin

Variants of name

Villages founded by Malli clan

History

Indus and its tributaries

Arrian[7] describes Alexander's Voyage down the Hydaspes (Ravi River) into the Acesines (Chenab River)....Then he sailed rapidly towards the country of the Mallians and Oxydracians, ascertaining that these tribes were the most numerous and the most warlike of the Indians in that region; and having been informed that they had put their wives and children for safety into their strongest cities, with the resolution of fighting a battle with him, he made the voyage with the greater speed with the express design of attacking them before they had arranged their plans....on the fifth day he reached the junction of the Hydaspes and Acesines.


Arrian[8] describes Campaign of Alexander against the Mallians...marched through a tract of country destitute of water against the Mallians, a tribe of the independent Indians...he at daybreak reached the city into which many of the Mallians had fled for refuge. Most of them were outside the city and unarmed...He therefore fell upon them unexpectedly, and killed most of them without their even turning to defend themselves, since they were unarmed. ...He came to another city of the Mallians, whither many of the Indians of that region had fled for refuge....the citadel was taken by storm, and all the men who had fled into it for refuge were killed, to the number of 2,000.


Arrian[9] describes the Defeat of the Mallians at the river Hydraotes (Ravi River).... He advanced on the morrow against the other Mallians. He found the cities abandoned, and ascertained that the men had fled into the desert. ...He himself led his forces against the largest city of the Mallians, whither he was informed many from the other cities had taken refuge. But this also the Indians abandoned when they heard that Alexander was marching against it. Crossing the river Hydraotes, they remained with their forces drawn up upon its bank, because it was high, with the intention of obstructing Alexander’s passage. When he heard this, he took all the cavalry which he had with him, and went to the part of the river where he was informed that the Mallians had drawn themselves up for battle....the Indians now wheeled round again and began to flee with headlong speed into the strongest of their adjacent cities; but Alexander followed them and slew many, while those who escaped into the city were cooped up within it.


V S Agarwal [10] writes names of some important tribes in the Ganapatha, which deserve to be mentioned as being of considerable importance. We are indebted to the Greek historians of Alexander for the information that most of these were republics. These tribes include - Mālava – (Greek: Malloi). According to the Greek writers both these communities were settled in the region where the Ravi River joins the Chenab. They are said to have offered the stoutest resistance to the Greek invaders.


Dr Pema Ram writes that after the invasion of Alexander in 326 BC, the Jats of Sindh and Punjab migrated to Rajasthan. They built tanks, wells and Bawadis near their habitations. The tribes migrated were: Shivis, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Madras etc. The Shivi tribe which came from Ravi and Beas Rivers founded towns like Sheo, Sojat, Siwana, Shergarh, Shivganj etc. This area was adjoining to Sindh and mainly inhabited by Jats. The descendants of Malavas are: Mal, Madra, Mandal, Male, Malloi etc. [11]


Ram Swarup Joon[12] writes In the Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48, while describing various Kings who attended a ceremony in the Durbar (court) of Maharaja Yudhisthira, seventeen names are mentioned which are today found as Jat gotras. These are Malhia, Mylaw, Sindhar, Gandhar, Mahity, Mahe, Savi, Bath, Dharan, Virk, Dard, Shaly, Matash, Kukar (Khokar) Kak, Takshak, Sand, Bahik (Bathi) Bije (Bijenia), Andhra, Sorashtra (Rathi) Mann, Ar, Sohat, Kukat, Othiwal (Othval).


Ram Sarup Joon[13] writes that ....There is a story in Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 23 of the Mahabharata that when Dron Acharya was killed in action, Karna was appointed Commander in Chief of Kaurava Army. He chose Raja Shalya of Sialkot as his charioteer. He was a Madrak Jat and a brother of Madri, mother of the Pandavas. When they were driving to the battle field Karan said, “0, Shalya, there is none equal to me in archery in the Pandava army. They will flee before my arrows”. Shalya was frank and said “No, my people don’t acknowledge your prowess with the bow and arrow as being superior to that of Arjuna.” Karan felt offended and remarked caustically’ “0 Shalya, what do you Jartikas living in the land of five rivers, know about archery and bravery. All your people, Arh, Gandhar, Darad, Chima, Tusar, Malhia, Madrak, Sindhaw, Reshtri, Kukat, Bahik and Kekay eat onion and garlic..... The gotras mentioned above are all Jats and are not found in any other community. However ungraceful the remark, it does prove the existence of Jats in that period and that people of Punjab were called Jatika or Jartika.


Ram Swarup Joon[14] writes about Malha, Malo or Malli: The Malhi and Malo republics and clans have been mentioned in the accounts of Alexander's invasion.

The Rock inscription of Malha Jats of the period of Panini (6th century BCE) refers to their four kingdoms Kashnara, Pava, Multan and Varansi.

A rock inscription of Nagaragram in Jaipur speaks of Jaimalo.

The area of Malwa comes to be known as such after their name.

A large number of Malha Jats is in Malwa today.

Muslim and Sikh Malhi Jats is found in large numbers in Jhang, Multan and Sialkot. In Sialkot they have 25 villages in a compact area.


From a historical standpoint, the Malhi clan is most famous for its association with the death of Alexander the Great. It is believed that Alexander the great died from a spear thrown by the Malhi clan as he tried to invade their fortress during his retreat from Northern India.

The ancient writers such as Diodorus , Arrian , and Strabo , tell us that during Alexander's invasion of Punjab, the area around Multan, an ancient city now in Pakistan,was occupied by Malli (Malhi) people. Thus, as per Professor McCrindle , "The Malloi (Malli or Malhi) occupied the district situated between the lower Akesines (modern Chenab river), and the Hydraotes (modern Sutlej river), which in Alexander's time joined the former river below Multan-a city which owes its name to the Malloi (Malli)". Even today Malli or Malhi Jats exist in Punjab. The present Member of Canadian Parliament, G.S. Malhi, also belongs to this Jat clan.

"Multan" is the shorter version of the word "Malli-stan". The word "Stan" or "Sthan" in Sanskrit (ancient language of the Hindus) means place. Thus, Mallistan or Multan means a place where Malli live. The very same analogy is applicable for the Hindi (national language of India) word "Hindustan" for India. This word is composed of two words Hindu and Stan or Sthan, thus the word Hindustan means a place where Hindus live. James Tod[15] quotes the bard's picture of Chohan dominion :

From 'the seat of government,' (Rajasthan) Macaouti, the oath of allegiance (an) resounded in fifty-two castles. The land of Thatha, Lahore, Multan, Peshawar. The Mahomedan writers confirm the account of Peshawar, for in their earliest recorded invasion, in A.H. 143, the princes of Lahore and Ajmer, said to be of the same family, are the great opponents of Islam, and combated its advance in fields west of the Indus. We know beyond doubt that Ajmer was then the chief seat of Chohan power. the Chohan in his might arose around


[p.409]: conquered even to the hills of Bhadri. The infidels (asuras) fled, and allegiance was proclaimed in Dehli and Kabul, while the country of Nepal he bestowed on the Mallani. Crowned with the blessing of the gods, he returned to Maheshwar.

James Tod[16] writes that The Mallani is (or rather was) one of the Chohan branch and may be the Malli who exposed Alexander at the confluent arms of the Indus. The tribe extinct and was so little known even five centuries ago, that a prince of Bundi, of the Hara tribe, intermarried with a Mallani, the book of genealogical affinities not indicating her being within the prohibited canon. A more skilful bard pointed out the incestuous connection, when divorce and expiation ensued. Vide page 270.

Malli Jats and Alexander's invasion

After reducing Aornos, Alexander crossed the Indus and fought and is believed to have won an epic battle against a local ruler Porus (original Indian name Raja Puru), who ruled a region in the Punjab, in the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC.

After the battle, Alexander was greatly impressed by Porus for his bravery in battle, and therefore made an alliance with him and appointed him as satrap of his own kingdom, even adding some land he did not own before. Alexander then named one of the two new cities that he founded, Bucephala, in honor of the horse who had brought him to India, who had died during the Battle of Hydaspes. Alexander continued on to conquer all the headwaters of the Indus River.

East of Porus' kingdom, near the Ganges River (original Indian name Ganga), was the powerful empire of Magadha ruled by the Nanda dynasty. Fearing the prospects of facing another powerful Indian army and exhausted by years of campaigning, his army mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern Beas River) refusing to march further east. This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander's conquests:

As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants. For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand fighting elephants.

[17]


Alexander, after the meeting with his officer Coenus, was convinced that it was better to return. Alexander was forced to turn south. Along the way his army ran into the Malli clans (in modern day Multan). The Malli were the most warlike clans in South Asia during that period. Alexander's army challenged the Malli, and the ensuing battle led them to the Malli citadel. During the assault, Alexander himself was wounded seriously by a Mallian arrow.[18].[19] His forces, believing their king dead, took the citadel and unleashed their fury on the Malli who had taken refuge within it,perpetrating a massacre,sparing neither man,woman nor child.[20] Following this, the surviving Malli surrendered to Alexander's forces, and his beleaguered army moved on.He sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern Iran) with his general Craterus, and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus, while he led the rest of his forces back to Persia by the southern route through the Gedrosian Desert (now part of southern Iran and Makran now part of Pakistan).

Alexander left forces in India however. In the territory of the Indus, he nominated his officer Peithon as a satrap, a position he would hold for the next ten years until 316 BC, and in the Punjab he left Eudemus in charge of the army, at the side of the satrap Porus and Taxiles. Eudemus became ruler of a part of the Punjab after their death. Both rulers returned to the West in 316 BC with their armies. In 321 BCE, Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya Empire in India and overthrew the Greek satraps.


About 28 miles (45 km) west of Sahiwal, at Kamalia, is the site of a Malli city captured by Alexander the Great during 325 bc. Pop. (1998) city, 207,388.


Hukam Singh Pawar (Pauria)[21] states: The companion princes of Harshavardhana, i.e. Kumaragupta III and Madhavagupta belonged to the Mallava tribe (Malloi) and Bhandi was a Poni 104. Mahasenagupta, the mother of Prabhakarvardhana, the grand-mother of Harsha, was a princess of the Gupta (Dharana) lineage105 . King Grahavarman, husband of Rajyashri was a Maukhari 106. The Jats have among them the Kuntals, Mall or Malli; Poni or Punia or Paunyas, Dharanas as well as Mukharis or Mokharias. This does not seem to be a mere coincidence.


Ram Sarup Joon[22] writes that ....Alexander invaded India in 326 BC and came upto the River Beas. After crossing the River Indus at Attock, he had to fight with a series of Jat Kingdoms. Alexander's historian Arrian writes that Jats were the bravest people he had to contest with in India......Names of tribes described above by Arrian as having fought Alexander viz., Maliha, Madrak, Malak, Kath, Yodha and Jatrak exist today as Jat gotras.

Ch-6.4: Voyage down the Hydaspes into the Acesines

Arrian[23] writes.... SAILING thus, he stopped on the third day at the spot where he had instructed Hephaestion and Craterus to encamp on opposite banks of the river at the same place. Here he remained two days, until Philip with the rest of the army came up with him. He then sent this general with the men he brought with him to the river Acesines, with orders to march along the bank of that river. He also sent Craterus and Hephaestion off again with instructions how they were to conduct the march. But he himself continued his voyage down the river Hydaspes, the channel of which is nowhere less than twenty stades broad. Wherever he happened to moor his vessels near the banks, he received some of the Indians dwelling near into allegiance by surrender on terms of agreement, while he reduced by force those who came into a trial of strength with him. Then he sailed rapidly towards the country of the Mallians and Oxydracians, ascertaining that these tribes were the most numerous and the most warlike of the Indians in that region; and having been informed that they had put their wives and children for safety into their strongest cities, with the resolution of fighting a battle with him, he made the voyage with the greater speed with the express design of attacking them before they had arranged their plans, and while there was still lack of preparation and a state of confusion among them. Thence he made his second start, and on the fifth day reached the junction of the Hydaspes and Acesines. Where these rivers unite, one very narrow river is formed out of the two; and on account of its narrowness the current is swift. There are also prodigious eddies in the whirling stream, and the water rises in waves and piashes exceedingly, so that the noise of the swell of waters is distinctly heard by people while they are still far off. These things had previously been reported to Alexander by the natives, and he had told his soldiers; and yet, when his army approached the junction of the rivers, the noise made by the stream produced so great an impression upon them that the sailors stopped rowing, not from any word of command, but because the very boatswains who gave the time to the rowers became silent from astonishment and stood aghast at the noise, the vigorous rowing overcome the whirlings of the water, being of a round form, the merchant vessels which happened to be whirled round by the current received no damage from the eddy, but the men who were on board were thrown into disorder and fright. For being kept upright by the force of the stream itself, these vessels settled again into the onward course. But the ships of war, being long, did not emerge so scatheless from the whirling current, not being raised aloft in the same way as the others upon the plashing swell of water. Those ships which had two ranks of oars on each side, had the lower oars only a little out of the water; and the oars of these getting athwart in the eddies were snapped asunder, at any rate those which were caught by the water, the workers of which did not raise them in time. Thus many of the ships were damaged; two indeed fell foul of each other and were destroyed, and many of those sailing in them perished.’ But when the river widened out, there the current was no longer so rapid, and the eddies did not whirl round with so much violence. Alexander therefore moored his fleet on the right bank, where there was a protection from the force of the stream and a roadstead for the ships. A certain promontory also in the river jutted out conveniently for collecting the wrecks. He preserved the lives of the men who were still being conveyed upon them; and when he had repaired the damaged ships, he ordered Nearchus to sail down the river until he reached the confines of the nation called Mallians. He himself made an inroad into the territories of the barbarians who would not yield to him, and after preventing them from succouring the Mallians, he again formed a junction with the naval armament. Hephaestion, Craterus, and Philip had already united their forces here. Alexander then transported the elephants, the brigade of Polysperchon, the horse-archers, and Philip with his army, across the river Hydaspes, and instructed Craterus to lead them. He sent Nearchus with the fleet with orders to set sail three days before the army started. He divided the rest of his army into three parts, and ordered Hephaestion to go five days in advance, so that if any should flee before the men under his own command and go rapidly forward they might fall in with Hephaestion’s brigade and thus be captured. He also gave a part of the army to Ptolemy, son of Lagus, with orders to follow him after the lapse of three days, so that all those who fled from him and turned back again might fall in with Ptolemy’s brigade. He ordered those in advance to wait, when they arrived at the confluence of the rivers Acesines and Hydraotes, until he himself came up; and he instructed Craterus and Ptolemy also to form a junction with him at the same place.

p.321-322

Ch-6.6: Campaign against the Mallians

Arrian[24] writes.... HE then took the shield-bearing guards, the bowmen, the Agrianians, Peithon’s brigade of men, from those who were called foot Companions, all the horse bowmen and half the cavalry Companions, and marched through a tract of country destitute of water against the Mallians, a tribe of the independent Indians1. On the first day he encamped near a small piece of water which was about too stades distant from the river Acesines (Chenab). Having dined there and caused his army to rest a short time, he ordered every man to fill whatever vessel he had with water. After travelling the remaining part of that day and all the ensuing night a distance of about 400 stades, he at daybreak reached the city into which many of the Mallians had fled for refuge. Most of them were outside the city and unarmed, supposing that Alexander would never come against them through the waterless country. It was evident that he led his army by this route for this very reason, because it was difficult to lead an army this way, and consequently it appeared incredible to the enemy that he would lead his forces in this direction. He therefore fell upon them unexpectedly, and killed most of them without their even turning to defend themselves, since they were unarmed. He cooped the rest up in the city, and posted his cavalry all round the wall, because the phalanx of infantry had not yet 2 come up with him. He thus made use of his cavalry in place of a stockade. As soon as the infantry arrived, he sent Perdiccas with his own cavalry regiment and that of Clitus, as well as the Agrianians, against another city of the Mallians, whither many of the Indians of that region had fled for refuge. He ordered Perdiccas to blockade the men in the city, but not to commence the action until he himself should arrive, so that none might escape from this city and carry news to the rest of the barbarians that Alexander was already approaching. He then began to assault the wall; but the barbarians abandoned it, finding that they were no longer able to defend it, since many had been killed in the capture, and others had been rendered unfit for fighting on account of their wounds. Fleeing for refuge into the citadel, they defended themselves for some time from a position commanding from its height and difficult of access. But as the Macedonians pressed on vigorously from all sides, and Alexander himself appeared now in this part of the action and now in that, the citadel was taken by storm, and all the men who had fled into it for refuge were killed, to the number of 2,000. Perdiccas also reached the city to which he had been dispatched and found it deserted; but learning that the inhabitants had fled from it not long before, he made a forced march on the track of the fugitives. The light armed troops followed him as quickly as they could on foot, so that he took and massacred as many of the fugitives as could not outstrip him and flee for safety into the river-marshes.


1. The chief city of the Mallians is the modern Mooltan.

2. Μήπω. In later writers μή is often used where the Attic writers would use ου.

p.324-326

Ch-6.8: Defeat of the Mallians at the river Hydraotes

HAVING remained there one day to give his army rest, he advanced on the morrow against the other Mallians. He found the cities abandoned, and ascertained that the men had fled into the desert. There he again gave the army one day’s rest, and on the next day sent Peithon and Demetrius the cavalry general back to the river, in command of their own troops, giving them in addition as many battalions of the light-armed infantry as were sufficient for the enterprise. Their instructions were to go along the bank of the river, and if they met any of those who had fled for safety into the woods, of which there were many near the river’s bank, to kill all who refused to surrender. Peithon and Demetrius captured many of these in the woods and killed them.

He himself led his forces against the largest city of the Mallians, whither he was informed many from the other cities had taken refuge. But this also the Indians abandoned when they heard that Alexander was marching against it. Crossing the river Hydraotes, they remained with their forces drawn up upon its bank, because it was high, with the intention of obstructing Alexander’s passage. When he heard this, he took all the cavalry which he had with him, and went to the part of the river where he was informed that the Mallians had drawn themselves up for battle; and the infantry was ordered to follow. When he reached the river and beheld the enemy drawn out on the opposite bank, he made no delay, but instantly, without resting from the journey, plunged into the ford with the cavalry alone. When they saw that he was now in the middle of the river, though they were drawn up ready for battle, they withdrew from the bank with all speed; and Alexander followed them with his cavalry alone. But when the Indians perceived only cavalry, they wheeled round and fought with desperate valour, being about 50,000 in number. When Alexander perceived that their phalanx was densely conipact, as his own infantry was absent, he rode right round their army and made charges upon them, but did not come to close fighting with them. Meanwhile the archers, the Agrianians and the other select battalions of light-armed infantry, which he was leading with him, arrived, and his phalanx of infantry was seen not far off. As all kinds of danger were threatening them at once, the Indians now wheeled round again and began to flee with headlong speed into the strongest of their adjacent cities; but Alexander followed them and slew many, while those who escaped into the city were cooped up within it. At first indeed he surrounded the city with the horse-soldiers as they came up from the march; but when the infantry arrived, he encamped all round the wall for this day, because not much of it was left for making the assault, and his army had been exhausted, the infantry by the long march, and the horses by the uninterrupted pursuit, and especially by the passage of the river.


p.328-329

सिकन्दर की वापसी में जाट राजाओं से सामना

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[25] के अनुसार व्यास नदी के तट पर पहुंचने पर सिकन्दर के सैनिकों ने आगे बढ़ने से इन्कार कर दिया। इसका कारण यह था कि व्यास से आगे शक्तिशाली यौधेय गोत्र के जाटों के गणराज्य थे। ये लोग एक विशाल प्रदेश के स्वामी थे। पूर्व में सहारनपुर से लेकर पश्चिम में बहावलपुर तक और उत्तर-पश्चिम में लुधियाना से लेकर दक्षिण-पूर्व में दिल्ली, मथुरा, आगरा तक इनका राज्य फैला हुआ था। इनका प्रजातन्त्र गणराज्य था जिस पर कोई सम्राट् नहीं होता था। समय के अनुकूल ये लोग अपना सेनापति योग्यता के आधार पर नियुक्त करते थे। ये लोग अत्यन्त वीर और युद्धप्रिय थे। ये लोग अजेय थे तथा रणक्षेत्र से पीछे हटने वाले नहीं थे। इनकी महान् वीरता तथा शक्ति के विषय में सुनकर यूनानियों का साहस टूट गया और उन्होंने आगे बढ़ने से इन्कार कर दिया। इनके राज्य के पूर्व में नन्द वंश[26] (नांदल जाटवंश) के सम्राट् महापद्म नन्द का मगध पर शासन था जिसकी राजधानी पाटलिपुत्र थी। यह बड़ा शक्तिशाली सम्राट् था। यूनानी लेखकों के अनुसार इसकी सेना में 20,000 घोड़े, 4000 हाथी, 2000 रथ और 2,00,000 पैदल सैनिक थे। सिकन्दर को ऐसी परिस्थिति में व्यास नदी से ही वापिस लौटना पड़ा। [27]

सिकन्दर की सेना जेहलम नदी तक उसी रास्ते से वापिस गई जिससे वह आयी थी। फिर जेहलम नदी से सिन्ध प्रान्त और बलोचिस्तान के रास्ते से उसके सैनिक गये। परन्तु वापिसी का मार्ग सरल नहीं था। सिकन्दर की सेना से पग-पग पर जाटों ने डटकर युद्ध किए। उस समय दक्षिणी पंजाब में मालव (मल्लोई), शिवि, मद्र और क्षुद्रक गोत्र के जाटों ने सिकन्दर की सेनाओं से सख्त युद्ध किया तथा सिकन्दर को घायल कर दिया। कई स्थानों पर तो जाटों ने अपने बच्चों को आग में फेंककर यूनानियों से पूरी शक्ति लगाकर भयंकर युद्ध किया।

मालव-मल्ल जाटों के साथ युद्ध में सिकन्दर को पता चला कि भारतवर्ष को जीतना कोई सरल खेल नहीं है। मालव जाटों के विषय में यूनानी लेखकों ने लिखा है कि “वे असंख्यक थे और अन्य सब भारतीय जातियों से अधिक शूरवीर थे[28]।”

सिन्ध प्रान्त में उस समय जाट राजा मूसकसेन का शासन था जिसकी राजधानी अलोर थी। जब सिकन्दर इसके राज्य में से गुजरने लगा तो इसने यूनानी सेना से जमकर युद्ध किया। इससे आगे एक और जाटराज्य था। वहां के जाटों ने भी यूनानियों से लोहा लिया[29]

सिकन्दर की सेना जब सिंध प्रान्त से सिंधु नदी पर पहुंची थी तो इसी राजा मूसकसेन (मुशिकन) ने अपने समुद्री जहाजों द्वारा उसे नदी पार कराई थी[30]

जब सिकन्दर अपनी सेना सहित बलोचिस्तान पहुंचा तो वहां के जाट राजा चित्रवर्मा ने जिसकी राजधानी कलात ([[Kuluta|कुलूत) थी, सिकन्दर से युद्ध किया[31]


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-363


अलग-अलग स्थानों पर हुए युद्ध में जाटों ने सिकन्दर को कई बार घायल किया। वह बलोचिस्तान से अपने देश को जा रहा था परन्तु घावों के कारण रास्ते में ही बैबीलोन (इराक़ में दजला नदी पर है) के स्थान पर 323 ई० पू० में उसका देहान्त हो गया[32]। उस समय उसकी आयु 33 वर्ष की थी।

भारत से लौटते समय सिकन्दर ने अपने जीते हुए राज्य पोरस और आम्भी में बांट दिये थे और सिन्ध प्रान्त का राज्यपाल फिलिप्स को बनाया। परन्तु 6 वर्ष में ही, ई० पू० 317 में भारत से यूनानियों के राज्य को समाप्त कर दिया गया और मौर्य-मौर जाटों का शासन शुरु हुआ। इसका वर्णन अध्याय पांच में किया गया है।

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Villages in Hapur District

Lalpur,

Distribution in Punjab

Villages in Hoshiarpur District

Pandori Malhian,

Distribution in Pakistan

Malhi clan people are found in Punjab region of India and Pakistan. Earlier based in the region around Sialkot (now in West Punjab, Pakistan), the Malhis were mostly rich landlords. One of the earliest Jat clans, the majority of Malhis migrated to Punjab (India) during the Partition of India in 1947. It is believed that there were twelve villages of the Malhi clan in Punjab (British India) during 1850-60. One such village is Kotli Soorat Malhi, a village in Gurdaspur district.

This clan is mostly found around Baddomalhi, in the Raya tehsil. They trace their descent from Rama of Suryavanshi family. In loyalty they are reported upon as second to none. The people of this clan are also found in 12 or 13 villages round about Badiana, a village midway between Pasrur and Sialkot. One of the rising families in this tract is that of Risaldar Pal Singh of Bathe, of the late 25th Cavalry.

Notable persons

  • Chaudhry Naseer Ahmad Malhi, Pakistani politician - born the second son of Chaudhry Ghulam Haider Malhi, in 1913, in the town of Baddomalhi, in Sialkot district, Pakistan. His father was the leading aristocrat of the district, one of the elite of Punjab, was noted for his philanthropy, and was decorated by the British Governor for his services to the community. Malhi's great-grandfather, Chaudhry Ali Gohar Malhi, served as Governor of Punjab during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
  • Harinder Malhi, Canadian politician of Indian ancestry, Her father, Gurbax Singh Malhi, was a Liberal federal Member of Parliament between 1993 and 2011, representing the riding of Bramalea—Gore—Malton.
  • Gurbax Singh Malhi, (born 12 October 1949) is an Indian Canadian politician. A Liberal, he was first elected as the Member of Parliament for Bramalea—Gore—Malton in 1993, and served as its representative in the House of Commons for 18 consecutive years. In the 2011 election, he was defeated by Conservative candidate Bal Gosal.[33]
  • Samarjit Malhi: Bronze Medal, Asian Wrestling Championship 2017

External links

Further reading

Extract From the book Handbook on Sikhs, by Major A. E. Barstow, 2/11 Sikh Regiment (late 15th Ludhiana Sikhs ). Written in 1899 and later revised at the request of the Govt of India in 1928.

References

  1. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.240, s.n.138
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. म-49
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. म-18
  4. Arrian (The Anabasis of Alexander, Ch-5.22,6.4,6.5,6.6,6.7,6.8,6.9,6.11,6.12,6.14)
  5. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p.277
  6. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 7, Prof. B.S. Dhillon, p.104
  7. Arrian: The Anabasis of Alexander/6a, Ch.4
  8. Arrian: The Anabasis of Alexander/6a, Ch.6
  9. Arrian: The Anabasis of Alexander/6a, Ch.8
  10. V S Agarwal, India as Known to Panini,p.453
  11. Dr Pema Ram:Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.14
  12. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter II,p. 32-33
  13. History of the Jats/Chapter II,p.33-34
  14. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 94
  15. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati,p. 408-409
  16. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati,p. 409 fn-1
  17. Plutarch,Vita Alexandri,62
  18. Plutarch, Alexander 63.5
  19. The Baldwin Project: The Story of Greece by Mary Macgregor
  20. History of Ancient India by Rama Shankar Tripathi[1]
  21. The Jats: Their Origin, Antiquity and Migration, p. 136
  22. History of the Jats/Chapter IV,p. 49-50
  23. Arrian: The Anabasis of Alexander/6a, Ch.4
  24. Arrian: The Anabasis of Alexander/6a, Ch.6
  25. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.363-364
  26. जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट रूलर्ज, लेखक बी० एस० दहिया ने पृ० 256 पर लिखा है कि यह कहना उचित है कि नन्द जाट आज नांदल/नांदेर कहे जाते हैं।
  27. भारत का इतिहास, पृ० 47, हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड भिवानी; हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 161-162)
  28. हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 162 भारत का इतिहास पृ० 47 हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड, भिवानी।
  29. जाट इतिहास क्रमशः पृ० 695, 192, 695 लेखक ठा० देशराज।
  30. जाट इतिहास क्रमशः पृ० 695, 192, 695 लेखक ठा० देशराज।
  31. जाट इतिहास क्रमशः पृ० 695, 192, 695 लेखक ठा० देशराज।
  32. भारत का इतिहास पृ० 47, हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड भिवानी; हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 162।
  33. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 7, Prof. B.S. Dhillon, p.104

Back to Jat Gotras

Back to Jat Gotras