Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VII (i)

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Kings of Kashmira

Being A Translation of the Sanskrit Work

Rajatarangini of Kalhana Pandita: Vol 1

By Jogesh Chunder Dutt


London: Trubner & Co.

Book VII (i)

Massacre of Damaras

[p.262]: The Damaras became riotous, and he ordered the lord of Mandala to massacre them. The Damaras inhabiting Madava and Lohara were first attacked and murdered like birds in the nests. Even the Brahmanas who dwelt at Madava were not spared by the destroyer of the Lavanyas (Damaras). Poles were fixed on the place where the Damaras were executed. One wife of a Lavanya was impaled, the rest were terrified, and fled on all sides. Some fled to the country of the Mlechchhas and lived on beef, others took to working wheels at wells. The lord of Mandala sent to the fierce king many garlands made of the heads of the Lavanyas. The gates of the palace was seen filled with Damara heads. Gold, cloth, and other valuable things were kept at the palace-gate, and whoever brought a Damara head obtained one of them from the door as his reward. And the birds lingered at the king's gate to feed on human heads. Wherever the king stopped, the gates were adorned with garlands of Damara heads. The bad smell which arose, and the cry of jackals, made the place appear like the spot assigned for the burning of the dead. From the tank at Valeraka to Lokapunya, the lord of Mandala erected a row of the impaled Damaras. After having quite depopulated — Madava of the Damaras, the lord of Mandala intended to do the same with Kramarajya, and marched towards it. In despair the Damaras of this place collected an army at Loulaha. They fought a fierce battle, and the lord of Mandala was for a time baffled. But the king, like a

[p.263]: Rakshasa, was bent on destroying this beautiful kingdom. Some wise men of the time have said that the king was fond of revelry in the night, and sleep in the day ; that he was fond of cruelty and tumult, disregarded duty and liked bad works. These are the peculiar vices of Rakshasas.

Rise of Uchchala and Sussala sons of Malla

In the meantime the younger and youthful son of Malla, became the delight of the wife of Lakshmidhara. The lady was enamoured of the prince Sussala, who lived in her neighbourhood, and disliked her husband, whose form was like that of a monkey. Now Lakshmidhara, urged by anger and jealousy, asked the king why, after murdering innumerable kinsmen, he had spared the two brothers, Uchchala and Sussala, who might be kings hereafter.

The king had never felt any regret for the massacre of his kinsmen. But in the present instance, when Lakshmidhara repeatedly urged the same thing to the king, and caused it to be repeated by others, the king remembered the high spirit of the brothers, and was afraid to kill them. And forgetting the love which kinsmen bear to one another, he consulted his ministers, and came to the determination to murder them. Thakkana, a prostitute who had heard the consultation, informed the youths of the king's evil design. The fact was confirmed by their friend Darshanapala, and they fled that very night with two or three attendants.

In the Kashmrian era 76, in the month of Agrahiyana, the two brothers fled, and reached the seat of the

[p.264]:Damaras. One of tho Lavanyas, named Prasnastaraja, intending to rise against the king, sent his younger brother Sillaraja, and invited the youths to his territory. But the elder Uchchala went to Rajapuri in the kingdom of Kahla, and the younger went to the king of Kalingjara. None ever thought at that time that these exiles would one day be kings. Only the king, who understood business and saw the state of things, became alarmed. Through Lakshmidhara, the king promised wealth to Sanggramapala if he would murder Uchchala. But when the son of Malla (Uchchala) went to Sanggramapala, the latter became afraid of him, and welcomed him and praised him. Even the enemy and the envious wore led by fate to honor him who was destined to rise to fortune. The people of Rajapuri were the natural enemies of the people of Kashmira, and were prepared to do anything against the latter when instigated and helped by influential enemies of Kashmira. Uchchala had frequent interviews with some of the Damaras who went to him. The oppressed Damaras were thus greatly encouraged, and sent messengers with many presents to bring Uchchala back into Kashmira. Janaka, son of Suryavarnachandra, sent him a diplomatic messenger and thereby encouraged him. Seeing so many messengers of the Damaras, Sanggramapala was relieved of his fear of the king, and now openly honored Uchchala. When Sanggramapala was on the point of placing camphor on the head of Uchchala as a pledge of not harming

[p.265]: him, there came one Kalasharaja, a principal Thakkura of Rajapuri, who was bribed by king Harsha ; and he said the following words to Sanggramapala in private : — " You have not done what would please king Harsha, and have come to serve Uchchala. Consider duly the power of the king of Kashmira, and that of this beggar. Serve the king and so save yourself. Confine this man within the castle of Rajagiri, and then the king will give you what you desire; and out of fear (for having Uchchala in your hold) he will ever be thy friend." The king of the Khashas, when thus addressed, became frightened and consented to the proposal, and replied, — " I cannot capture this spirited man, but I shall send him to you on some pretence, and then you can bind him." Thus saying he sent Kalasharaja to his house, and told Uchchala to go to Kalasharaja on the morning. " He is the principal minister here," said Sanggramapala to Uchchala, " and when you become his friend, we shall march with you and your followers to destroy your enemies." On the next day, when Uchchala was going to the minister's house, he saw ill omens, and was then told by his men about the purpose of the minister ; and he fled from Rajapuri.

On the other hand, when the king of the Khashas heard that, owing to the discovery of the plan, his victim had fled, he set out with his army. On hearing of his approach, the great warrior Uchchala, with his followers, intended to meet him in battle. But when the battle

[p.266]: was about to commence, the king, of the Khashas prevented the engagement, and brought Uchchala together, with Kalasharaja into his court. Disregarding the advice of his followers and burning with anger, Uchchala entered the court of this king. There was none who could now look the spirited and angry warrior in the face.

Genealogy of Uchchala

Uchchala thus addressed to the king and his ministers with harsh and angry words :

Genealogy of Nara, King of Darvabhisara
" Formerly at Darvvabhisara there lived a king named Nara of the Gotra of Bharadvaja, who had a son named Naravahana, and Naravahana had a son named Phulla. Phulla had a son named Sarthavahana, his son was Chandana, and Chandana had two sons, Gopala and Sinharaja, Sinharaja had several children, his daughter Didda was married to Kshemagupta. Didda made Sanggramaraja (son of her brother Udayaraja) king. She had another brother, Kantiraja, and he had a son named Jassaraja, Sanggramaraja had a son named Ananta, while of Jassaraja were born Tanvangga and Gungga. Ananta's son was Kalasharaja, and of Gungga was born Malla. Kalasha's son is king Harshadeva, and we are Malla's sons !* Why then do the wicked enquire who we are? But so long as the earth is for the enjoyment of the powerful, wherein is the necessity for genealogy ? And who is the friend of the powerful, but his own arms. Fortunately the

* Genealogy according to the speech of Uchchala at the court of Khasha.

[p.267]: kings or Kashmira have ruled by their valor, not by the favor of their subordinates, and you will now see my valor."

When he had said this, he went out for battle followed by one hundred foot soldiers. One man brought a dead hare before him, which he considered a good omen.

Vattadeva and other Damaras joined Uchchala

[p.268]: Now Vattadeva and other Damaras left their work at wheels and joined him. Uchchala left Sangramapala and his army and arrived at Rajapuri, where the queens assisted him. He took his meals there, and when in the evening he was going to his residence, the army of Kalasharaja attacked him outside the palace. The gates of the palace too were closed by the queens after he had gone out. In this affray, Uchchala lost Loshtavata and others. And when the principal men of the place intervened and stopped the combat, Uchchala'a small army became smaller.

He was reduced to much difficulty on the day of full moon in the month of chaitra, but on the fifth day of the dark moon he fearlessly set out for battle. He allowed Vattadeva and others to take their own course that they might create confusion in the kingdom. He intended to enter Kashmira by the way which led through Kramarajya. Kapila, grandson of Kshema, whom the king had placed at Lohara after Udayasiha, fled as Uchchala entered the place. Uchchala moved before his army with sword and shield, and arrived at Parnotsa, and there compelled the royal army to fly. He captured Sujjaka, Lord of Dvara, who was reposing at ease and apprehended no danger, and soon entered Kashmira. Some of the Damaras and the people of Khasha, who inhabited the mountains and who were enemies of the king, now joined Uchchala.

[p.269]: King Harsha trembled to hear that the enemy was so near him, all unexpected, and as if he had fallen from the sky or risen from the ground. He was at a loss to think as to how to prevent Uchchala from entering Kramarajya and killing the Lord of Mandala. Dandanayaka, who had collected an army, being delayed, the king sent Patta with a large force. But whether it was the will of the gods, or because he was seized with a desire to rise in rebellion, Patta avoided the enemy and loitered in the way. Tilakaraja and others, whom the king had sent, joined Patta, but did not advance on the enemy. Dandanayaka and others were also puzzled, so that Uchchala gained firm footing.

When Uchchala was entering Varahamula, a good-omened mare came to him from the enemy's side, and the garland fell from the neck of the Great Varaha (an incarnation of Vishnu) on his head, as if crowning him king of the world. Kaka and other warriors, born of Vaidya caste, opposed Uchchala, so that he left Hushkapura and turned towards Kramarajya. Hearing of his approach, the Damaras became excited and rebelled against the Lord of Mandala. They killed Yasharaja and other good warriors, and defeated the Lord of Mandala and crippled his power. The Lord of Mandala slowly retreated to Taramulaka, and the Damaras, led by Uchchala, followed him there. The Lord of Mandala was at the head of his army and could not for a long time be captured. A great battle was fought between, the two

[p.270]: armies. On the other hand A'nanda, maternal uncle of Uchchala, assisted by a great number of Damaras, effected a rising at Madava. At the time of rebellion the Damaras came from all sides by thousands, like the black bees from the caves of the Himalayas -when the winter is over. The unfortunate king had under him Sahela the great at Kampana, who was useless to him, like the,Lord of Dvara. He was attacked by A'nanda, and after fighting many battles fled from Madava.

On the other hand, Uchchala surrounded the Lord of Mandala and captured him with his army. Who can describe the feeling of tho soldiers when they know that, armed and protected by mail as they were, they had been made captives. Though captured, the Lord of Mandala still remained loyal, wishing well of his king ; for honorable persona, even when in extreme danger, do not forget their fidelity to their masters. He advised the conqueror immediately to enter the town, (capital ?) inducing him to believe that he would not have another similar opportunity. He thought that Uchchala's army would be busy in plundering the villages and city when Uchchala would be entering the capital, and so there would be a diversion. Uchchala was accordingly induced immediately to enter Parihasapura, whence exit was difficult on account of the water on all sides. The Lord of Mandala then urged his own men to set fire at night to the house in which he and Uchchala lodged; but his men refused to do so and thus saved his life. If his body

[p.271]: had been as strong as his mind was vigorous, what would not he have effected who did not care for his own life. Fie to Fate, who is partial to the low, and makes heroes weak in body, while neuters receive full development. The hide of the tortoise which lives in water is impenetrable, while the skin of the lion, who braves battles, is left without the hard cover. The Lord of Mandala sent a message to the king that he had induced the fox (Uchchala) into that place, and had thrown him before the lion (the king), and asked him to come out and kill the fox. The king marched with his soldiers, all determined either to conquer or to die. The royal army reached the bridge of Bharata, and by some contrivance killed the enemy's soldiers and crossed the bridge. The Lord of Mandala, who was at tho enemy's post, now joined the king's army, and attacked the enemy and killed many of them. When Uchcbala'a army was broken, some of the Jāngdhikas fled, and some of the Damaras -took shelter within the Rajavihara. One Damara named Trillasena entered the Vihara, the royalists mistook him for Uchchala, and burnt the building. Uchchala and Somapala fought for a long time in the midst of the royal cavalry, but were at last dissuaded by Janakachandra and others from the unequal fight, and were so rescued from the jaws of death.

Uchchala then went out of Parihasapura. At Gourikavala, he crossed the Vitasta on horse back, and returned to Taramuluka with the Damaras. Flushed

[p.272]:even as gamblers become with a little success, the king praised himself and returned to his capital. He did not pursue his enemies, a circumstance which encouraged the Damaras, notwithstanding their defeat. In the month of Jaishtha the prudent Uchchala determined to re-assemble his men who had fled. This undaunted man, although defeated, had full reliance on his own strength, and made extraordinary preparations in the midst of a famine.* When Uchchala had got possession of Parihasakeshava he had preserved the image, but the king, on obtaining possession of the town, uprooted it, and from that time to the time of the king's decapitation, the sky remained pervaded with an ash color. This part of the country had formerly been dark, even in day time lighted only by Rupikā (a kind of plant), but had become lighted, as the people say, since the image of the god had been set up. Now it became dark again.

The king, now that the enemies were a little checked, became inflated. Sussala now appeared towards Shurapura. He was the younger brother of Uchchala, and had lived at Avanāha, where he was roused from his lethargy by his father's rebuke and order to join his elder brother. The king of Kalpa assisted him with a few horsemen, and it was long before he could part from his benefactor, and hence his delay. The brothers, who had hitherto manifested a bitter hostility to the enemy, now employed milder means in order to deceive the

* See page 261.

[p.273]:enemy. Sussala gained a victory over the king's commander Manikya, and won not only reputation, but wealth also from the battle-field of Shurapura. Thus the opening of his career was brilliant. The king disregarded Uchchala and sent the Lord of Mandala, Patta and others, to fight with Sussala, who was rapidly advancing. Susaala broke the army at Shurapura, and many of the king's soldiers were drowned and perished in the water of the Vaitarani. In this battle the rebellious and powerful Darshanapala was defeated. The survivors of the king's broken army fled on the next day to Sahela, who lived at Dokapunya. Sahela fearing an attack from Sussala, took shelter with the remnant of that broken army within the city. Thus the king was brought to straits by Sussala. His brother Uchchala, who was at Taramula, gained ascendance.

Uchchala was led by the Damaras, who were mostly foot soldiers, and who terrified the cavalry and once more passed through the difficult mountain path which led to Lohara. The king too again made Udayaraja Lord of of Dvara, and sent the Lord of Mandala to Lohara to subdue Uchchala. The maternal uncle of Uchchala and Sussala now arrived at Padmapura, and none of the king's ministers ventured to accept from the king the governorship of Kampana. And the king asked, with a sigh, " who is there for me? On which Chandraraja took from the king's hand the garland of investment to the lordship of Kampana. This man acted as befitted the

[p.274]: line of Jinduraja, &c., who slept with death. Thus he was made the Commander-in-Chief in the last hour of danger, just as the son of Drona was made by Duryodhana. He marched out, and drove the enemy from Padmapura. In the month of Bhadra, on the ninth bright lunar day, the usurper of Kampana (the maternal uncle of the rebel brothers) was killed at Avantipura by Chandraraja, who was slowly going on in his march of conquest. His death happened in .this wise. Leaving his army to fight near Gobarddhanadhara, he was hearing songs, attended only by few persons, when he was surprised and killed by his enemy's cavalry which went by the way along the Vitasta. Where do the careless prosper? The king saw his head which Chandraraja had sent to him, and thought that fortune was yet in his favor, and hoped for victory. Fortune, when she deserts, sometimes turns back, even as a lion turns back when retreating. Chandraraja, thus strengthened, slowly entered Vijayakshetra, dividing his army into eight or ten divisions.

Like the weighman, Fortune would not keep the two scales unadjusted. On the third day, the Lord of Mandala's army were put to great trouble at Lohara by un- timely rain. The soldiers, oppressed by the cold wind, and drowned in the mud of the paddy-fields, soon left their horses, swords, mails, &c. Though the kind hearted Uchchala protected the Lord of Mandala,he was found out and killed by Ganakachandra and others. Harsha's

[p.275]: officers were mostly rebellious, but this man won fame by sacrificing himself. Like Devasharmma's, this man's high virtues are adorable ; for had they been otherwise, some one or other at least would have spoken ill of him.

Coronation of Uchchala

About this time Uchchala, who had been, to Hiranyapura, was coronated by Brahmanas there. Harsha heard this and became disheartened, and was advised by many ministers who were with him to go to the hills of Lohara with them,—

"There the subjects were submissive to you before, and we displeased with their new king, and they will soon, come to take you there, or you may yourself proceed to the spot."

But the king replied that he could not depart all of a sudden leaving his wives, his treasures, his throne and other valuable things behind. His advisers urged that faithful men could ride with the females and treasures of the king, and as for the throne, it would be no disgrace if others sate on it, seeing that kings, who loved women of the low caste eating dog's flesh, had once filled it. "Let that go," said the king "say if, you have other advice to give." The ministers angrily replied that kings who ruled in accordance to the maxims of Kshatriyas and considered death in a battle a blessing, gave no rest to their army in this world. Want of endeavour, vanity, fear, and difference among ministers and not enemies, were the foes that increased the danger of the kings. The idle who did not superintend his work, but relied on his servants, met

[p.276]: danger at every step, like a blind man who trusted to his staff. The fool, blinded with vanity, who did not arm himself even against a small enemy, willfully suffered the enemy to gain strength. Even Indra in time might degenerate into a reptile, and even a reptile might attain the greatness of Indra, So to think that one is strong and another is weak was improper vanity. He whose preparations are incomplete can strike panic in a conqueror, can destroy him though he be complete in his preparations. Even the rich and well-to-do people were sometimes attacked by the poor, and those dependent on others and why were the former overcome and were afraid of the latter? Or why could they not show their powers? Nothing could be accomplished when there was difference among the ministers, as in harrowing nothing was done if the two frames were drawn by turns instead of being drawn together. Though the king were possessed of all the resources of the country, but depended on hope, his enemy, though weak, could take his life and his kingdom. He who followed the enemy and marched only to places attacked by the foe, never conquered. Fortune might be adverse, yet if the king fall in battle, surrounded by warriors, he won fame. Only the fortunate fell in the furious battle-field, their pride satisfied, their persons deserving of respect, and all blessings realized in them. Considering death in battle a noble action, the Kshetriyas became fearless as gamblers,

[p.277]: The ministers who gave this advice were, however, asked by Harsha to give other counsel ; on which they sighed and said to the king, whose time of death was drawing near, — " Can you die in the hour of danger as Harsha did, for otherwise some unworthy fate will befall you." He replied to them that he could not kill himself, and asked them to kill him when in extreme danger. When they heard the unmanly words of their master, they wept and said that they could not help him, as they were not bestowed with the power to do so. Surely the king had employed beasts in human shape. Though you may live for a yuga, still you shall have to die in the end ; therefore it is shame for servants to display cowardice when success can be achieved by the sacrifice of ones body. Even women enter fire thinking of their love for their lords. Who then can be baser than he who for-gets his love for his master? Those who, like actors, are unaffected by their master's sorrow, fear or timidity, make the earth unhallowed, although it be full of shrines. He who sees his son oppressed with hunger, his wife taking service under other men, his friends fainting, his cow, when yielding milk, crying for want of food; his parents dying but not getting food, and his master subdued by the enemy, has no worse thing to suffer in hell.

The king again said to these beasts in human form,— "I know what I should do, but my mind is bewildered as of one possessed, with devils. No one

[p.278]: will enjoy the kingdom so well and so completely as I have lately done. The saying that death and prosperity live on the lips of kings is verified in me alone in Kali yuga. Why should a mortal grieve at the approach of death, when Rudra, Upendra, Mahendra shall pass away. One thought alone grieves me, viz., that, through my fault, the world which was like a wife, will be like an old female servant in the possession of any one who is powerful enough to win her. From this time, now that the kingdom is weak, any one will aspire to it, knowing that it is attainable by conspiracy. Those that are rising, though of small strength, will laugh in pride to see tho fruitlessness of mighty attempts. Even impartial people do not blame the endeavour if it ends in brilliant success. The parade of wealth that I made for the benefit of the people will now be reckoned as stupidity. Uchchala, who is rising by his own exertion, will laugh at my good works. I am calm through shame, and not through fear, for I wish for this sort of death. For I wish it to be said of me that if my own people had not snatched the kingdom from me, "no one else could have taken it. In old times," continued Harsha, " there was a king named Muktapida, who was a shining light among kings. But his enemies took advantage of his weakness, and he died miserably. Muktapida had left his army at various places at Uttarapatha, and, when attended by a few men, had his passage opposed by his enemies over a difficult way. There king Shalya,

[p.279]: with eight lacs of horse, determined to captures him, without any arms as he was. Muktapida's judgment was bewildered at the failure of all his plans, and he asked his chief minister, Bhavasvami, as to what was to be done. The minister, after cool deliberation as to the means of escape, and knowing destruction to be inevitable, said that those who aspire after fame, follow the path of duty and keep their judgment sedate. Those who understand their duty, try to maintain their fame, and the attainment of kingdom follows of itself. When the body parishes, and is reduced to ashes, man is remembered by his fame, even as camphor is known by smell. When life is extinct, the name of the renowned still dwells in the tongues of those who praise him. To be famous is to live till the end of time (kalpa), for fame exists without diminution. The sedate do not think of money when the enemy attempts to rob wealth and power. Brahma often disgraces those in high position ; through the agency of the elephant he destroys the lily from which he himself was born, and he insults the moon through the Chandala (eclipse). They who can maintain their fame from such vicissitudes which destroy renown, degrade one suddenly, are indeed fortunate. The cane that grows on the mountain and dings to the bamboo and sets fire to the wood to maintain its dignity is degraded by kings, who place it in the hands of door-keepers. Having enjoyed to the full thy heart's desires, you should now try to preserve the beauty of

[p.280]: thy fame. Pretend to be suddenly attacked with Danddakalasaka disease, which kills speedily, and I shall tell you to-morrow what more you will have to do to avert the danger.' Thus saying the prime minister withdrew, and reached his own house. The king pretended to have that disease, and rolled on the ground restlessly and wept, and kept his eyes steadfast. Perspiration, spasms, vomiting and pains in the body, indicated to the people that the king was dying. The minister pretended to believe that the king would die, and in order to show his gratitude, perished by entering into fire. The minister did not say to the king what was to be done next (as he had promised to do.) But the king was in heart pleased with him at his self-sacrifice, and said that he was young and was able to bear pain, and so he too entered into fire. Thus by his self-sacrifice he attained fame which he had not obtained by his deeds. So, if any disgrace comes to the great, they can rid themselves of it either by their own or by their minister's judgment."

Harsha sent out his son Bhoja

When king Harsha had said this, the ministers advised him to send his son Bhoja within the fort that his line might not be extinct. After the prince had set out with due ceremonies, the king, through the advice of Dandanayaka, caused him to return. Judgment, courage, and presence of mind, all were at once lost in the impending danger. Wealth, fame, heroism, and power, are all subservient to good fortune, even as lightening, herons, thunder, and rainbow, all depend upon clouds. In

[p.281]: his day of prosperity, the people wondered why the king, who was superior to all in wisdom and valor, did not attack Indra ; and in the days of his misfortune, they wondered why the king, who was so foolish, infirm, inert and blind, was born on earth.

The king allowed travelling allowance to the Tantri soldiers who were within the town, and whom he sent in order to oppose the enemy. The king's servants, with their friends, took shelter with the opposite party ; and those who did not go were induced to remain by money. Only two or three remained faithful and did not think of going over to the enemy, but why should they be praised who died like women. There was one dancing girl named Kanashravati born in the family of dancing girls. She adopted one Jayamati of unknown parentage as her child. Now, when this latter attained her youth, she did not marry, but loved Uchchala.

Avaricious of wealth, she first entered the zenana of the Lord of Mandala ; and on his death she shamelessly went over to Uchchala, and through her good fortune became the principal queen. The king's servants shamelessly went over to Uchchala, placing their guru at their head, and accepted his pay add thus lost the respect of the army.

Shrilekha's nephew (brother's son) had a son named Vaddamanggala. The king attacked and killed him to give vent to his anger on the relatives of Malla. Shvashrava, wife of Vaddamanggala, and daughter of the maternal uncle of Uchchala, went to her home and burnt

[p.282]: herself. The daughters of Shahi told the king that the great and proud Malla (Uchchala's father) concealed under his vow of silence a cruel heart, and was like Yama, and was creating disaffection, among the king's people in order to obtain the kingdom for his son. They advised the king to kill him without fear. The king attacked his house in person, and remained stationed at the door. Malla came out to satisfy the king of his innocence, and though entreated by his sons, the saint- like man did not leave the king. In order to gain the king's confidence, Malla sent out from his house the step-brothers of Uchchala, named Sahlana, &c. The king, whose death was nigh, was angry with Malla, who lived as a hermit and worshipped fire. While he was worshipping his gods, he was summoned by his enemies, and he issued out in that very dress to fight. He issued out in his attire of devotion with ashes, &c, on his forehead. The black and the white hair on his head looked like the the meeting of the rivers at Prayaga. His cap was his helmet his umbrella, his shield, and his stick his sword. Some of his servants whom he had treated kindly fell in the scuffle before he came out. Two Brahmanas, named Rathavatta and Vijaya, as well as Pouragava, Koshtaka and Sajjuka also perished in the affray. Udayaraja was wounded, but not killed. When Malla saw the doors completely beset with the enemy's soldiers, he, leaving his work aside, leapt on their heads. White through age, he moved over the swords and shields, like a hangsa, over

[p.283]: the mcos and lotus, and within a short time was seen , lying down pierced with a hundred sharp arrows. The king was riding over the place and put off, in his pride, the head of Udayaraja, who was already dead. What action. of the king was not miserable ?

Queen Kusumalekha, beloved of Malla, perished by throwing herself in the fire that was kept up in the house. The young wives of Sahlana and Rahla, named Aptasati and Sahaja daughters-in-law of Malla, also perished in the fire. Six females of the family, delicately brought up, thus perished in the flames. Those conflagrations took place on the left banks of the Vitasta and the fires and hot tears warmed the waters of the river. Nanda (wife of Malla) mother of the future kings, and descended of noble family, was living in the zenana on the other side of the river, when she saw the smoke of the fire and became anxious. She saw from the terrace of her house the armies of her sons on the north and south, and cursed the king that, within few days, her sons would revenge the death of their father, even as Parashurama did. She then perished in the fire which was kept up in the house ; as also Chandra, a nurse who was unable to bear the sight of the fire nearly extinguished over the ashes of one girl whom she had nursed with bee milk, and she burnt herself to death. The flames appeared like dancing female servants.

The king was nearly killed, but was accidentally saved by Darshanapala. He survived the rebellion in order to

[p.284]: suffer insults hereafter, and he was yet to live One year more.

Malla, was killed on the ninth dark lunar day in the month of Bhadra ; and when hie sons heard of it, their grief was only replaced by anger.

Sussala's battles

On the next day Sussala went in fury from the villages of Vahnipuraka, &c, to Vijayakshetra. Chandraraja set out to meet Sussala, but was deserted by Patta and Darshantipala with their armies ; but though deserted, he fought gallantly for a long time with his small army in spite of great odds. In this battle, two of the king's favorites, Akshotamalla and Chacharimalla, fell. Chandraraja, and after him Induraja, were also killed. On the fall of Chandraraja, all hopes of success left king Harsha.

When Sussala entered the country, Patta and others were alarmed and wore the garb of king's flatterers, entered the palace, and shut and bolted the doors after them. The courtier Padma was wounded in the scuffle outside, and Lakshmidhara, who wished to die, was brought by the Damaras bound. Sussala went up the treasury at Vijayeshvara, and saw below the royalists panic-struck like beasts. The wily Sussala smiled and gave assurance of safety, and so caused Patta and Darshanapala to be brought before hint. As there was no staircase, the followers of Sussala palled them up like dead men with ropes tied round their hands. But Sussala relieved them of all troubles by consenting to their proposal of going out to foreign countries and hide their shame. But after listening to the kind words of

[p.285]: Sussala, and making a comfortable repast over fried meat, their ardour to leave the country cooled on that very day. Sussala obtained possession of the place by the most wonderful means. For Jāsata, son of the maternal uncle of Harsha, and Umadhara, &c, three other Rajas, as well as Rajpoot cavalry and Tantri chieftains, and a large army, still remained on the side of the king. While these collected in the courtyard of god Vijayeshvara, Sussala went up, breaking through the gate, alone and sword in hand, and abused them in anger. They submitted, and he assured them of safety and made the god witness of his assurance. And when he had re-secured his house, his people brought to his palace, adorned with gold and silver hilted swords, those royalists who had laid down their arms, their bands tied with ropes. He placed them under the custody of the Damaras, and they were herded like beasts.

Sussala remained there for three days, after which be set out, and when he had reached the village of Suvarnasānura, he liberated Patta and Darshanapala, who consented to go into foreign countries. Patta then went to Surapura, where he joined his wife, but the weak man forgot his promise to go into exile. And whatever intention Darshanapala may have had to leave his country, was now relinquished for his friendship for Patta. Now Sussala obtained possession, of the capital, and intended to usurp the kingdom for himself before his brother could arrive. And with this object he thought

[p.286]: of fighting with his elder. The two brothers loved each other, and were of the same age, and both were powerful, so that there was equality between them. In two or three days Sussala attacked several places, but remained in the neighbourhood of the capital.

Bhojadeva, otherwise called Vupya, son of king Harsha, set out for battle in order to burn Kalasha built by Sussala. Harsha, who feared that his sons might turn against him as he had rebelled against his father, brought them up as weak and spiritless men. But now, in this time of helplessness, when there was none to check the prince, he led armies in some battles. If this prince had been brought up as his great-grandfather had, could he not have cleared the country of the rebellious kinsmen ? All men know politics, but mistake in its applications; many there are who are learned in the Shastras, but few are practical men. The son should not he blamed for the ingratitude of the father. Though tila (sesamum orientale) is covered with rind, yet who discards the perfumed oil which comes out of it. The prince showed great ability in fighting against his powerful enemy.

The wicked Pittha, son of Devesehvara, who had been honored and promoted by the king, joined the enemy's side. Pittha's son, Malla, requested the king to allow him to go to battle against Sussala, and was at last allowed by Harsha to go to battle. " You will knew my heart to-day, O ! king," said the proud Malla as he went

[p.287]: away. He washed the stain of his line (his father's disaffection) in battle in which he fell. The king was not more grieved at the entire ruin which came upon him, than he was because he knew not before the loyalty of this grateful man. Kings, puffed up with wealth and ignorance, know not the hearts of men until it is too late to do anything far them than to lament their loss.

The army of Sussala was defeated by prince Bhoja, and he fled from the battle to Lavanotsa. On the other hand, Bhoja returned from his victory, and suffering from the hot rays of the sun, sat for a short time with his father- in a garden. He heard a voice from the north side of the palace saying " the older son of Malla has arrived ; prepare a bridge."

Dandanyaka had informed Uchchala that if he did not march that very day, Sussala would usurp the kingdom. Uchchala came in hastily, and in the very beginning of the fight killed Devanayaka, who was stationed before Charadeva. Naga, the superintendent of the city, with the royal cavalry and a large body of infantry went out for battle. He had relied on this superior army in the battle against Sussala, and he did not now fear to meet Uchchala. Uchchara feared Naga, and had a smaller army, but Naga, when he approached him, took off his turban and bowed to him. But Uchchala did not trust him after his experience of the conduct of the Lord of Mandala, and told him to retire to his house at Dumba, which Naga did. The fruit of Naga's disaffection was visible in this

[p.288]: world, as he ended bis life as a beggar in his very country.

On arriving to the river side, the king saw the Damaras black and disfigured on the other side of the bridge ; and among them Janakachandra shone in his white mail. The great bridge of boats which the king had built for his own purpose, now served the purpose of his foes. The king was disgusted with the people, and calmly saw the battle with his relatives on the, other side of the bridge. On the other hand, the daughter of Shahi and other queens intended to perish in the flames, and took some fire with them, and ascended a house which had a hundred doors. As the king's party was unable to overcome the opponents, the ladies were preparing to light the fire, when the king forbade them to commit suicide by fire, and went to the other side of the bridge to join the battle. Janakachandra and his men drove by their arrows the royal elephant which was in the front of the bridge. The beast, struck by arrows in a mortal part, retreated, vomiting and breathing hard and treading on the king's soldiers. This unfortunate accident caused numerous deaths among the cavalry and infantry of the royalists. Repulsed by the enemy, the king recrossed the bridge and entered the palace with a hundred doors. The king, who had never been seen even in privacy without garments, who even at the time of taking his meals did not cast away the signs of royalty, was now seen perspiring from fear and from

[p.289]: the heat of the sun, his armour repeatedly slipping from his shoulders, and as often replaced. Through his restlessness, the whip struck the horse and made the animal run, the reins fell from his hand, and were taken up and pulled again. His hair fell to his shoulders, and he drew them round his ears, which looked like caverns surrounded, by black serpents; and the sword dropped from his hand. There were no ornaments in his ears, his red lips were pale and dried for want of betel, and he was frequently licking it with his tongue. There was dust in his eyes, which disfigured his face and made it pale. He was looking on his queens behind him, and moving about in the courtyard, and with his hand forbidding his queens to light the pile which they were ready to do.

There was a house of Mallaraja near the capital, Janakachandra set fire to this after crossing the river. On seeing the flame approaching towards the capital, Bhoja thought the kingdom was lost, and fled. He rode out of the courtyard through the gate, pierced with the great lances of the enemies. With five or six horsemen he went towards Lohara, and crossing the bridge, arrived before the Matha of Sinharaja. The king gazed with tearful eyes on the direction in which his son had disappeared, and with horsemen went round and round the house. In order to save some of the queens who in the meantime were intending to commit suicide, the king's men attempted to break in into the rectangular building. The daughters of Shahi, believing that the enemies had

[p.290]: arrived, went up to the top of the rectangular house and set it on fire. At this time the Damaras who dwelt there, armed themselves and hurt one another, and plundered the palace with a hundred doors which was now on fire. In doing so, some died, some endangered their lives, and some got things they had never seen before, and became the objects of ridicule. Some took a mouthful of camphor, considering it to be white sugar, and burnt his mouth, and threw the pot into the river. Some took gold-colored pictures, and tho burnt clothes and ashes of varingated hues, believing them to be gold. Some Damara women thinking the pearls in which no holes had been made to be rice, pounded them in mills.

Fall of Harsha

Fortune now left the kingdom. The beautiful and well dressed females of the king were seen at every step to be captured by the cruel Damaras. Vasantalekha and other sixteen queens, together with the wives of their sons, perished in the flames. The bursting sounds of the burning houses were heard like the roaring of the summer clouds on the sea. The king saw these things from the side of Shripadmashri, a place for the distribution of water, and often and often repeated the line composed by the Rishis, " The fire that rises for oppressing the subjects is not quenched till it has burnt the king's dynasty, fortune, and life."

Uchchala, accompanied by the Damaras, thus burnt the capital, but finding the enemy still possessed of an

[p.291]: array, re-crossed the river. The king wished to die in battle, a wish worthy of his family, but was swayed every moment by the wavering opinions of the infantry. The king was going to battle through the advice of Anantapala and other Rajpoots, but was remonstrated by Dandanayaka at every step. Champaka advised, the king either to go to battle or to Lohara, and the latter step was deemed better by Prayaga. But the king, not having beard anything of his son, became anxious, and ordered Champaka to follow the footsteps of prince Bhojadeva. Champaka sighed and said, " You will soon, be left alone with Prayaga, so do not send me away." And the king replied to him with tears in his eyes, that, "they say you never rebelled, then wherefore do you disobey my orders now. Though the sun shines, I cannot see anything without my son, so you cannot be angry when he shall embrace me. Even in these days there in difference without cause between the prince and the minister."- Thus rebuked by his master, Champaka, abashed and with downcast face, set out after the prince of big horsemen and followers and his brothers, fifty in all, who set out with him, only five were left, including himself, when he crossed the river. Not getting any news of the prince, he arrived in the evening at the junction of the Vitasta and the Sindhu. The king sent other faithful men in search of his son, while more of his people, on the pretence of searching for the prince, deserted him.

[p.292]: Dandanayaka was now the king's adviser - the same man who had taken bribe in the wars with Rajapuri, &c, who had employed unworthy servants, who was the cause of the royal army, being destroyed by fire, who had opposed the prince when he was going to Lohara, and who, when the king was busy in some other battle, had admitted the enemy into the city. Harsha, weak, and listening to various advices, could not determine what to do. As the pipe will not sound if one- breathes through all the holes, even so the king could not come to any determination from the several advices he received. When even low people insolently offer advice, though unasked, according to their judgment it is a certain sign of the loss of fortune's favor. The charioteer, named Troilokya, who was speaking to Daudanayaka, pulled the reins of his horse and said to the king : " On former days your grandfather conquered with the help of the Ekanngas, fighting side by side with the cavalry. So let us go near Akshapatala to collect a similar army ; then falling on them we Shall destroy the enemy whose army is mostly composed of infantry." But when he consented to move towards that place, his army scattered itself on all directions, as the crowd which comes to a theater does when overtaken by rain. The king gave the jewelled ornaments of his neck to the Rajpoots, whom he found on the other side of the Vitasta, to defray the expenses of his son on the road. When these ensigns of royalty were given to his followers, the king looked

[p.293]: shorn of his glories. The number of his soldiers , diminished at every step ; and when he arrived at Akshapatala, there was none to attend him. The king felt suspicious, and in the evening went round the houses of the ministers ; he waited at their doors, but none allowed him entrance. The false friends of the king did not help him in this last extremity. After passing by the houses of all for help, he entered the house of the minister Kapila. At that time Kapila was at Lohara, but his wife was willing to give him shelter, and afterwards to send him by boat to the fort of Lohara. But the king was bewildered, and did not accept the offer.

The king's sons who had rebelled against him as he did against his father, hid themselves from him as bankrupts hide from those who lend. The king now came to know that he had done many things wrong by hearing himself ill spoken of. Previous to this the ministers used to hide many things from him. Having lost hope in every thing, and mistrusting those around him, he passed with a small retinue to Pradyumna. When the darkness deepened and it deepened at every step, the horses stopped. At this time the proud Rajpoots, Anantapala and others, who counted their dynasties thirty-six generations back, deserted him. When the king arrived before the temple of Johila, he descended from his horse, and Dandanayaka and the king's younger brother now deserted him. His younger brother left him on the pretence that there was his father-in-law's house in the neighbourhood, and that he could return

[p.294]: after paying a visit. Prayaga asked the king's younger brother something for the king's food, and be gave him an ornament, but not saktu (powdered oats).

The king, whose life was nearly at its end, was shorn of his glories, and had only one piece of cloth to wear, and had Prayaga for his only follower. One Mukta, cook of Jelaka, who was a servant of Champaka, now came to the king, and was received into his confidence. When they were wandering about, a woman from a cavern in a rock told them that the land before them was not passable, owing to the canals being out for the supply of water. And when they bad seated by the Vitasta, Prayaga called for the boatmen, in order to go to Jayapura fort, Prayaga made an agreement with the armed men who were in the neighbourhood to take them to the house of Bhimadeva, where the king wished to go. Bhimadeva was a partisan of Uchchala, but had said that he would follow the king if the king would come to his house. When the boat was brought in by the boatmen, the timid king who was hurrying to destruction would not get into it. At the time of destruction, the light of man's intellect fails and leads him to death. In this time of rebellion the proud Nimba of Nilashviya who, like ladies of the zenana, would not even look on others, with his friendly followers instead of joining the Damaras went to the king who was looking out for help. The rainy season now set in as if to wash the world guilty of rebellion ; what did not the king suffer then ? The earth seemed without men, the rains darkened all

[p.295]: sides, and he was without help and in fear of the enemy.

For the interests of history, I must name those who should have been forgotten on account of their wicked acts. Within the forests of Pitrivana there are some revered gods who were named Someshvara. They belonged to Somananda, the Siddha. There in the garden shaded by the trees was a cot of Shinna, an insignificant hermit. He, with a prostitute named Bhishchā, generally known as Virahabhujanggi, led the life of a procurer. The king was then near the temple of Pratapagaurisha, and was brought here by Mukta who considered it to be a place for holy men to live. Mukta led the way, the king followed him, and Prayaga went last ; and thus they went by the fitful light of the lightning. The king reached the cottage led by Mukta and Prayaga, without turban, wearing a sewed piece of cloth, and sinking down with fatigue. He was grieved as he remembered the hero Kandarpa who was driven out by his evil ministers, and who could have extricated him from his present danger ; he grieved even as Utpala had grieved when he thought of the Daitya. Mukta entered the cottage by scaling the wall, and then opened the door and the king entered the yard, but the hermit was not there. When the king was coming in, his right foot; was cut by a stone and bled, and he knew by that bad omen that his death was nigh. The cottage room was barred, so that the king passed the dreadful and cloudy night in the yard. He passed the night sitting on

[p.296]: a muddy place which was prepared for sacrifice, and besmeared with mud, and covered with a servant's, blanket. His cares made him sleepless, though much of his grief was allayed while he was nodding in sleep.

"Who am I? Who has conquered me? Whore am I to-day? Who is my follower! What should now be done?"

Thus he thought and trembled every moment.

"My kingdom is snatched away, my wives are burnt, my son separated from me, myself alone and without friends, without provisions for the road, and rolling in the yard of a beggar ?"

Thus thinking of his misfortunes, he could not find an instance, even in history, of a person whose end was as miserable as his own.

Prince Bhoja dead

On the other hand, prince Bhoja reached Hastikarna with two or three horsemen. While thus travelling, he fancied that the kingdom would be theirs again in five or six days, even if Indra were their enemy. What does not a man, when excited by his valor, propose to do? But fortune mars all. He waited at Ranggavāta for his servant Nageshvara, to whom his mother gave provision for the journey. Hearing of his servant's approach, he issued from the empty temple where he was living, suspecting nothing; but he was attacked by the rebels. When the treason was discovered, the prince, true to his Kshetriya caste, displayed wonderful feats of bravery. After killing his enemies in battle, like a lion, he died the death of a hero, besmeared with blood. Padma, son of his maternal uncle, and possessed of great valor, fell overwhelmed with numbers,

[p.297]: At night Uchchala entered the monastery of queen Surjjamati. His brother, too, tired of war, came from Lavanotsa. Hearing that prince Bhoja was dead, and Harsha alone was living, they felt as if a pale had been withdrawn from their mind, and only the point of a sword was left there.

Harsha's last days

On the morning Mukta sought out the hermit, who entered the cottage and bowed to the king and unbarred the door of his room. The king and Mukta entered the room which was full of gnats, and there was spread a grass mat, and the floor was sprinkled with water. He, whose words bestowed honor on kings before, now flattered a beggar through fear. The king was pained at the shameful words and behaviour of the beggar when requested for some beggarly food. Prayaga gave the hermit his wearing sheet to sell, and sent him to a shop to buy food with its proceeds. This man, with his rude and indecent words, was a cause of uneasiness to the king, and the king feared he would be betrayed. At mid-day the beggar returned with a female hermit, on whose shoulder he had placed pots containing food. The king, finding himself seen by the woman, despaired of his life. Oppressed by grief, he, at the request of Prayaga, merely touched the food presented to him by Prayaga, but did not eat it. Prayaga asked for news of the female hermit, who lived in village, whereupon she told him of the death of Bhoja. Prayaga said that it was a lie, but the king believed the painful news. He had fallen in

[p.298]: battle, behaving as heroes covet to do at the time of their death, but the king through the excess of his grief lamented as if he had died on his lap. He saw in his own person the necklaces which should have adorned his youthful son, and became afflicted. He was ashamed to think that his boy, whom he should have protected, had died in that way, while he was saving his life by unworthy means.

Thus oppressed with unspeakable grief for his son, he spent the second night in the house of the hermit. Prayaga asked the king to go to Bhagavanmatha, but that night he was unable through grief to think of it. The night having the moon for its face seemed to moan; and it seemed to cry in the cries of Chakravaka, and to weep in heavy dews. On the morning Prayaga saw his master hungry and thirsty, and asked the hermit for breakfast. The hermit went out and brought two plates full of rice and curry. He said that he had stolen those two plates from a religious feast of a householder, on which Prayaga sighed and said :— " See, O king ! see the rejoicings of the people on your dethronement." The king smiling replied :— " Why do yon talk like a fool? He who is gone is gone ; his loss does not create loss to other people. All seek for their own pleasure ; no one grieves for others. When the sun, which is like the only eye of tho earth, sets, the people sleep at ease. Who ever deprives himself of rest on account of his separation from the sun. Having heard of the death of my son,

[p.299]: who was the life of my life, I sit here apparently at ease. Why then blame others ? When the king had said so, Prayaga rejected the two plates already brought and again privately sent the hermit to prepare food. The hermit said that what remained of the proceeds of the sale of the sheet, after defraying the expenses of the previous day, would hardly suffice to pay him, still he would try. Thus saying he went out as if grieved.

Men of poor worth cannot keep a secret ; they can digest Amrita as little as mercury. Manoratha, the friend and adviser of the hermit, came to know of these things. He tempted the hermit and said that they would get riches if they discovered the king to his enemies. Manoratha was born of some low caste servant, for good or had works of a man indicate his birth. Iltaraja heard from them of Harsha's whereabouts and informed Uchchala of it, and Uchchala sent him to capture Harsha. Some say that one Bhuribhishcha, of the Kayastha caste, was the cause of the hermit and his friend going to Iltaraja. If it be true, as many have heard, that this servant (Bburibhisncha) acted treacherously, then the various insults that he was subsequently subjected to (making him ride on the shoulder of a Chandala who eats the flesh of dog, and his death in prison) were all well deserved.

On the other hand, Harsha, being excessively hungry, and being repeatedly asked by Prayaga, thought of taking some food in spite of his grief for his son. Expecting

[p.300]: the hermit every moment: to arrive with food, they frequently looked out like young birds from the nest. They soon saw the cottage surrounded by armed men, and heard the noise made on the bars of the door at the courtyard. They found out their danger, and saw the vile hermit calling out from the yard to their enemies to approach Mukta who was armed. Leaving Mukta, the king opened the door, and fearlessly took up a light knife which was nigh. One cruel warrior encased in mail, and sword in hand, came to the king puffed up with pride and courage. Though the room was small, yet by his skill the king throw him on the ground, and through mercy spared his life. He proudly said even then, that no end would be gained by destroying that poor fallen man. Another person, lifting up one end of the roof of the cottage, entered the room, and he was followed by another, but they saw him armed and fell to the ground through fear. The king was standing on the body of the one who had first entered the room, and for a moment looked like the goddess on the lion. This last battle of the king was not attended with loud yells or war music, or the sound of the warlike instruments. The armed Damaras were entered into the room noiselessly as cats to kill a rat in an earthen pot. Another person entered the room through the roof, killed Prayaga, and wounded the king in the head and arm ; and having eluded the blow aimed by the king, hastily struck him twice on his breast with his knife. Harsha twice called

[p.301]: out the name of god Maheshvara, and fell dead on the ground like a tree severed at its stem. He was a king, but was killed in the hut like a thief who had fled into a room. Never did he look so noble as now, nor were his faults ever so completely hid from view as at this moment. Possibly, it was his aversion to war which alone spoilt the nobility of his soul. Possibly his fault lay in being led by the counsel of others. It was the fault of his ministers which brought on misfortunes.

Death of Harsha

He died in the Kashmirian era seventy-seven, on the fifth day of the bright moon, in the mouth of Bhadra, aged forty-two years and eight months. It was by magic that this king wishing, like Duryyodhana to destroy his relatives, caused the extirpation of his own line and kindred. He was born when the Sun was in the Cancer.

The low (un-Brahmanical) people severed the head of their master as of a thief, and sent it to his enemy. When his head was severed the whole world shook, and although there were no clouds in the sky, it rained heavily. They who fixed -the head on a stick and did other improper acts suffered greatly for those actions. The beheading of kings, even like the destruction of images of gods, had only recently been introduced in this country. Uchchala, through a sense of propriety, refrained from looking on the head when it was sent to him; he remained thoughtful for some time, and had it burnt. O! fie, that the body of the late king, like that of a thief, should not have received the benefit of funeral

[p.302]: rites without the orders of Uchchala. Deserted by his servants, his own race extirpated, himself naked, Harsha's remains like those of a helpless man were burnt by one Gouraka, a wood-seller.

This long history of Harsha is as wonderful as Ramayana or Mahabharta. Fortune is restless like the lightening in the clouds; and sudden rising brings evil consequences in the end. Still the pride of wealth of those men, whose aspiration is clouded by ignorance, is not assuaged. Though the late king had many women in the zenana, none wept for him; though he had many servants, none followed him or retired to the shrines. It is shameful that men's minds do not become indifferent to worldly affairs, and that they themselves do not retire to forests, after beeing this heartlessness of persons whose minds are engrossed in their own pleasures. It cannot be ascertained what there was before life began, nor what will come after death. Between the two stages, living beings are suddenly subjected to miseries, and then retire no one knows where, even like an actor without head or legs, who acts for a while, and then retires behind the screen.

As the sun leaving the godless peak of the Himalaya dwells on Sumeru, so the splendour of royalty left the fallen race of Udayaraja and rested on that of Satavahana.

Here ends the seventh book of Rajataranggini by Kahlana, son of Champakaprabhu the great minister of Kashmira.

[p.303]: During ninety-seven years, eleven months and twenty-seven days, there reigned six kings of the line of Udayaraja.

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