From Jatland Wiki
Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Kramarajya (क्रमराज्य) was an ancient Kingdon in Kashmir. Identified as ancient Karamania or present Kerman Province in Iran. Rajatarangini mentions Kramarajya kingdom in: Book V (p.112), Book VII (i) (p.262, 268, 269),; Book VIII (p.4, 18, 22, 70, 79, 85); Book VIII (i) ( p.123,176); Book VIII (ii) (p.267).


Jat clans


In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[1] tells ...Suyya took out many vessels filled with dinnaras , and went by boat to Madava. There in the village named Nandaka, which was under water, he threw a pot of dinnaras, and returned. Although the courtiers pronounced him to be undoubtedly mad, the king heard of his work, and enquired as to what he did afterwards. At Yakshadara in Kramarajya he began to throw dinnaras by handfuls into tho water. The Vitasta was there obstructed by rocks which had fallen into its bed from both its rocky banks ; and the villagers who were suffering from scarcity, began to search for the

[p.113]: dinnaras, and in so doing removed the rocks which, were in, the bed of the river, find cleared the passage of the water. No sooner had the water flowed out than Suyya raised a stone embankment along the Vitasta, which was completed within seven days. (Book V, p.112-113)

Rajatarangini[2] tells that in the reign of Harsha of Kashmir (b.1059, ruled. 1089-1101 AD), The Damaras became riotous, and he ordered the lord of Mandala to massacre them. The Damaras inhabiting Madava and Lohara were first attacked and murdered like birds in the nests. Even the Brahmanas who dwelt at Madava were not spared by the destroyer of the Lavanyas (Damaras). Poles were fixed on the place where the Damaras were executed. One wife of a Lavanya was impaled, the rest were terrified, and fled on all sides. Some fled to the country of the Mlechchhas and lived on beef, others took to working wheels at wells. The lord of Mandala sent to the fierce king many garlands made of the heads of the Lavanyas. The gates of the palace was seen filled with Damara heads. Gold, cloth, and other valuable things were kept at the palace-gate, and whoever brought a Damara head obtained one of them from the door as his reward. And the birds lingered at the king's gate to feed on human heads. Wherever the king stopped, the gates were adorned with garlands of Damara heads. The bad smell which arose, and the cry of jackals, made the place appear like the spot assigned for the burning of the dead.

From the tank at Valeraka to Lokapunya, the lord of Mandala erected a row of the impaled Damaras.

After having quite depopulated — Madava of the Damaras, the lord of Mandala intended to do the same with Kramarajya, and marched towards it. In despair the Damaras of this place collected an army at Loulaha. They fought a fierce battle, and the lord of Mandala was for a time baffled. But the king, like a Rakshasa, was bent on destroying this beautiful kingdom. Book VII (i), p.262

Rajatarangini[3] tells ...Uchchala was reduced to much difficulty on the day of full moon in the month of chaitra, but on the fifth day of the dark moon he fearlessly set out for battle. He allowed Vattadeva and others to take their own course that they might create confusion in the kingdom. He intended to enter Kashmira by the way which led through Kramarajya. Kapila, grandson of Kshema, whom the king had placed at Lohara after Udayasiha, fled as Uchchala entered the place. Uchchala moved before his army with sword and shield, and arrived at Parnotsa, and there compelled the royal army to fly. He captured Sujjaka, Lord of Dvara, who was reposing at ease and apprehended no danger, and soon entered Kashmira. Some of the Damaras and the people of Khasha, who inhabited the mountains and who were enemies of the king, now joined Uchchala.[VII (i),p.268]

Rajatarangini[4] tells.... Thus order was slowly restored in the country which Uchchala had got by artifice and had cleared of oppressors. The king who thus obtained peace, felt a desire for conquest, and within a few days drove out the Damaras and their cavalry from Kramarajya. The king then went to Madva and having captured Kaliya and other Damaras who were against him, impaled them. The king with a strong army attacked within the city, the powerful Ilaraja who had gradually possessed himself of a part of the kingdom, and destroyed him. (Book VIII, p.4)

Rajatarangini[5] tells....The king marched with his army, quickly pursued his brother towards Kramarajya by the way of Selyapura road. Thus pursued by his elder brother, Sussala with his handful followers entered the country of Darad. (Book VIII,p.18)

Rajatarangini[6] tells....Once when the king was at Kramarajya he went to the mountainous village of Varhanachakra in order to see the fire that lights of itself. When he was passing by the road of the village of Kamvaleshvara some armed Chandala robbers who lived there, surrounded him. Though they were intent on striking, and though the king's soldiers were few, yet being struck with panic they could not use their arms and so they did not strike. The king lost his way and wandered about with a few followers, and spent a night in a deep cavern. (Book VIII,p.22)

Rajatarangini[7] tells.... In the year 96, on the sixth dark lunar day of Agvahayana, when there was yet one prahara of the day left, the king set out with his servants. At every stop, his own men deserted him and stole his horses. Thus with a few soldiers, at night, he arrived at Pratapapura. When he came to Tilaka, he confided in him and shed tears in sorrow, as before a friend. Believing that Tilaka would not rebel against him, the king went to his house at Hushkapura the next day, and honored Tilaka by performing his bath &c, in his house. The king wished to collect an army, and with a view of again obtaining the kingdom he entered Kramarajya. (Book VIII,p.70)

Rajatarangini[8] tells.... The Turushka soldiers dropped their ropes in fear and were destroyed by Sussala within a short time. Sussala also killed the maternal uncle of Somapala in the battle on the banks of the river Vitola. Though Sussala's army was smaller, yet he defeated tho enemies, killed them and made them flee, and they impeded one another in flight. How commendable the actions of the Kashmirians ! They fought against one of their masters, and spread evil reports of another ! When Somapala with the Turushkas had gone, the shameless Kashmirians left Vimba and went over to Sussala. They were not ashamed on that day to bend their heads to him against whom they had openly bent their bows on the preceding day. Accompanied by the Damaras and citizens who came to him, Sussala, in two or three days, marched towards Kashmira.

The Rajpoot Kahlana, son of Sahadeva, collected the Damaras who were at Kramarajya and advanced towards the king. The same Vimba who was the first to leave Sussala's army to go over to Bhikshu, now left Bhikshu and joined Sussala. (Book VIII,p.79)

Rajatarangini[9]tells....At Kramarajya Rilhana subdued Kalyanavara and others; and Ananda, son of Ananta, became lord of Dvara. The powerful Prithvihara having impaled Siṃha fought with Janakasimha and others on the banks of the Kshiptika. (VIII,p.85)

Rajatarangini[10]tells....Sussala's plan of usurpation: Sussala, though possessed of wealth of all kinds, planned the usurpation of the kingdom and meditated an attack on his brother. The king heard all of a sudden that his brother had crossed Varahavartta and had fallen on him with the speed of a hawk. The active king issued out for battle before his opponent could gain a firm footing, and 'ell on him with his large army and did him much harm. The younger brother fled towards his quarters, leaving his baggage behind. The king returned with success but heard that his brother had returned on the following day, bent on mischief. By his orders Gaggachandra marched out with a large army to crush the force of Sussala. The battle raged for a long time and innumerable hardy soldiers of Sussala departed to heaven, and assuaged the fatigue of the women in the garden of that place. In this battle Sahadeva and Yudhishthira, two Rajputs, paid with their lives the debt of favor they owed to their master. Gagga captured the fleeing horsemen of the enemy who rode on beautiful horses which excited the curiosity even of the king who had many horses. The king marched with his army, quickly pursued his brother towards Kramarajya by the way of Selyapura road. Thus pursued by his elder brother, Sussala with his handful followers entered the country of Darad. The king killed Loshtaka, the Damara inhabitant of Selyapura, because he gave passage to Sussala, and entered the city Selyapura. When Sussala had gone far away, the king though polluted with sins, did not try to possess the hills of Lohara out of love for his brother. Sussala was married to the pure Meghamanjari, daughter of Vijayapala. She had lost her father and had been affectionately brought up by her mother's father Kahla, king of Kalindara, as his own child. Such was the power of Sussala that though it was then winter yet his enemies at Lohara could not oppose him. [VIII (ii), p.17-18]

Rajatarangini[11] tells....Bhāsa, a servant of Sujji, had escaped his enemies through the virtue of the people and being weary, entered the court-yard of god Avasvami at Avantipura. He and Kshemananda who had quelled the rebellion at Kampana were surrounded by the angry Damaras of Holaḍa. Induraja, a commander in the army, born of the line of Kularaja was also surrounded by the same Damaras ; but by some pretext Induraja obtained the protection of Tikka at Dhyānoddāra. Pinchadeva and many other leaders of the army were besieged by the Damaras and they left Kramarajya. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i),p.123

Rajatarangini[12] tells....Lothana having obtained help from some Thakkuras remained at a place named Vapyanila, and defeated Mallarjjuna by his prowess. Lothana displayed unexpected courage on this occasion. Deprived of his throne, he overcame Mallarjjuna after having tied up his legs [ i. e. not allowing him to escape. ] He seized the horses and plundered the market of Attalika and everywhere destroyed roads and towns. Lothana entered Kramarajya at the request of the Damara named Rajaraja, and in order to obtain the kingdom of Kashmira. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i),p.176

Rajatarangini[13] tells...Since Rajavadana, who deserved punishment was soothed by gifts, he became bold and again welcomed Bhoja who had arrived there. In a place called Dinnagrama inhabited by the Khashas, Bhoja gave a large bribe to Rajavadana. ....Alankara said to Bhoja: — "Come to our assistance when we are in fear." and he set out and commenced civil war. The villain named Jayānandavāra, son of Anandawar and others of Kramarajya who wore renowned for their valor followed him. Book VIII (ii),p.267

External links