Umarkot

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Location of Umarkot
Location of Umarkot
Hindu temple in Umarkot

Umarkot , Amarkot, Umer Kot, Umerkot, Omarkot and Omercote, (Hindi: उमरकोट, Urdu: عمرکوٹ ) is a city and district in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

Variants

  • Amarkot (अमरकोट) (सिंध, पाकिस्तान) (AS, p.30)

Origin of name

'Umar Súmra gave his name to the fort of 'Umarkot.[1]

Tahsils

The district is administratively subdivided into the following talukas


Jat Gotras

Click to see Jat Gotras in Umarkot

History

Umerkot is also referred to as Amar Kot as per old histories, "Amar Kot Itehas" by Tej Singh Solanki. Once, it has been Capital of Greater Sindh Province, including some parts of present Rajasthan state of India.

According to Thakur Deshraj, Panwar clan Jats were rulers here prior to Mughal ruler Humayun. Jame Todd tells it to be a Rajput state confusing Panwar with Rajputs, but it was denied by Cunningham, who wrote it to be a Panwar Jat state referring to the author of 'Humayun Nama'. [2], [3]

According to H A Rose [4]tradition says that the Surar, Subhago, Silro and Chāchaṛ tribes were once slaves of Raja Bungā Rai, Raja of Amrkot, and that Jam Jhakhar redeemed them, and there is a saying :

Surāṛ, Subhāgo, Sīlṛo, cliauthi Chāchaṛiā,
Anda hā Jām Jhakhaṛe hā bāhnān Bunga Ra.
Meaning-"Surar, Subhago (or Subhaga), Silro (or Silra), (these three) and a fourth tribe, the Chachar were the slaves of Bunga Rai ; it was Jam Jhakhar who brought them," (effecting their emancipation from Bunga Rai).

James Tod[5] writes that Umarkot, stronghold (kot) of the Umars, until a very few years back, was the capital of the Sodha Raj, which extended, two centuries ago, into the valley of Sind, and east to the Luni ; but the Rathors of Marwar, and the family at present ruling Sind, have together reduced the sovereignty of the Sodhas to a very confined spot, and thrust out of Umarkot (the last of the nine castles of Maru) the descendant of Siharas, who, from Aror, held dominions extending from Kashmir to the ocean. Umarkot has sadly fallen from its ancient grandeur, and instead of the five thousand houses it contained during the opulence of the Sodha princes, it hardly reckons two hundred and fifty houses, or rather huts.2 The old castle is to the north-west of the town. It is built of brick, and the bastions, said to be eighteen in number, are of stone. It has an inner citadel, or rather a fortified palace. There is an old canal to the north of the fort, in which water still lodges part of the year. When Raja Man [314] had possession of Umarkot, he founded several villages thereunto, to keep up the communication. The Talpuris then found it to their interest, so long as they had any alarms from their own lord paramount of Kandahar, to court the Rathor prince ; but when civil war appeared in that region, as well as in Marwar, the cessation of all fears from the one, banished the desire of paying court to the other, and Umarkot was unhappily placed between the Kalhoras of Sind and the Rathors, each of whom looked upon this frontier post as the proper limit of his sway, and contended for its possession. We shall therefore give an account of a feud between these rivals, which finally sealed the fate of the Sodha prince, and which may contribute something to the history of the ruling family of Sind, still imperfectly known.

James Tod writes that Bhatti Chief Mangal Rao, who found shelter in the wilds of the Garah, crossed that stream and subjugated a new territory. At this period, the tribe of Baraha inhabited the banks of the river; beyond them were the Boota Rajpoots of Bootaban. In Poogul dwelt the Pramara. Poogul from the most remote times has been inhabited by the Pramar race. It is one of the No-Koti Maroo-ca, the nine castles of the desert. In Dhat in habit the Soda race. The Sodas of Amarkot have inhabited the desert from time immemorial, and are in all probability the Sogdi of Alexander. See Vol. I, p. 85. [6]

प्रमार जाट:ठाकुर देशराज

ठाकुर देशराज[7] ने लिखा है.... परमार - प्रमार हुमायूं के समय में उमरकोट में परमार राजा राज करते थे। हुमायूं की जीवनी के लेखक ने उसे जाट लिखा है। कर्नल टॉड आबू के परमार राजा को भी जाट लिखते हैं।

पाबूजी का विवाह अमरकोट में

राजस्थान के लोक देवता पाबूजी का जन्म संवत 1313 में जोधपुर जिले की फलौदी तहसील के कोलू ठिकाने में हुआ. इनके पिता का नाम घांघल जी राठोड़ था. वे कालू दुर्ग के दुर्गपति थे. पाबूजी का विवाह अमरकोट के सोढा राणा सूरज मल की पुत्री के साथ हुआ. विवाह के तुंरत बाद दूदा सूमरा ने अमरकोट पर हमला कर दिया. उसके सिपाही गायों को ले भागे. पाबूजी ने तुंरत सूमरा को जा घेरा और युद्ध के लिए ललकरा. घमासान युद्ध में गायें तो छुड़ाली पर पाबूजी वीर गति को प्राप्त हुए. [8]

ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं

उमरकोट - सिन्ध और राजपूताना के मध्य में यह स्थान है। इस पर हुमायूं के समय तक पंवार गोत्री जाटों का राज्य था। पंवार शब्द के कारण कर्नल टाड ने उसे राजपूतों का राज्य बताया है। किन्तु जनरल कनिंघम ने 'हुमायूं नामा' के लेखक के कथन का हवाला देकर उसे जाट पंवार लिखा है। टाड राजस्थान के कथन का प्रतिवाद करते हुए जनरल कनिंघम लिखते हैं - “किन्तु हुमायूं की जीवनी लिखने वाले ने प्रमार के राजा और उनके अनुचरों का 'जाट' के नाम से परिचय दिया है।”1 यह वंश धारा नगर के जाट-परमारों से सम्बन्धित रहा होगा। क्योंकि धारा नगर में जगदेव नाम का जाट राजा राज्य करता था और प्रमार जाट था। बिजनौर के कुछ जाट अपने को धारा नगर के महाराज जगदेव की संतान बताते हैं2, जो कि वहां से महमूद गजनवी के आक्रमण के समय यू० पी० की ओर बढ़ गए थे। प्रमार भी 'अवार' की भांति एक शब्द है। जाट एक समय अवार कहलाते थे, जिसका कि भारत में अवेरिया से सम्बन्ध है। इसी भांति एक प्रदेश का नाम पंवार-प्रदेश था, जो कि धारा नगर और उज्जैन के मध्य में था और जो प्रान्त पंवार लोगों के बसने के कारण प्रसिद्ध हुआ।

इसी तरह से सिन्ध के अन्य अनेक स्थानों पर जाट-राज्यों की सामग्री मिल सकती है, किन्तु उसके लिए महान् साधन और खोज की आवश्यकता है।


1. Memoirs of Humayoon P.45 ।
2. ट्राइब्स एण्ड कास्ट्स ऑफ दी नार्थ वेस्टर्न प्राविंसेज एण्ड अवध।


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-705


Notable persons

  • Rana Chandar Singh (1931-2009), A Rajput landlord from Umarkot, was former Minister in Pakistan Government and President of the Pakistani Hindu Sabha. A close friend of Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) founder Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, Singh was elected to the National Assembly four times between 1980 to 1990. But he parted ways with the PPP and formed his own party, the Pakistan Hindu Party (PHP) in 1990. He breathed his last on 2 August 2009.

External links

References

  1. Sir H. M. Elliotand John Dowson: The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/VIII. Tuhfatu-l Kirám,p.345
  2. Memoirs of Humayun, p. 45
  3. Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihas, p.705
  4. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/C, p.145
  5. James Todd Annals/Sketch of the Indian Desert, Vol. III,p. 1287-88
  6. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204
  7. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Shashtham Parichhed, p.127
  8. डॉ मोहन लाल गुप्ता:राजस्थान ज्ञान कोष, वर्ष २००८, राजस्थानी ग्रंथागार जोधपुर, पृ. 473

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