Humayun (Hindi: (हुमायूँ, Persian: نصیر الدین محمد همایون;) (b.1508–d1556; r.1531–1540, 1555–1556) was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled over territory in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1531–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early, but regained it with the aid of the Safavid dynasty of Persia, with additional territory.
Humayun succeeded his father Babur
Humayun succeeded his father Babur in 1531, as ruler of the Mughal territories in India. At the age of 23, Humayun was an inexperienced ruler when he came to power. His half-brother Kamran Mirza inherited Kabul and Lahore, the more northern parts of their father's empire. Mirza was to become a bitter rival of Humayun.
Humayun lost Mughal territories to the Pashtun noble, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian (Safavid) aid, regained them 15 years later. Humayun's return from Persia was accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen and signaled an important change in Mughal court culture. The Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language and literature. There are many stone carvings and thousands of Persian manuscripts in India dating from the time of Humayun.
Subsequently, in a very short time, Humayun was able to expand the Empire further, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar.
Sher Shah Suri
Shortly after Humayun had marched on Gujarat, Sher Shah saw an opportunity to wrest control of Agra from the Mughals. He began to gather his army together hoping for a rapid and decisive siege of the Mughal capital. Upon hearing this alarming news, Humayun quickly marched his troops back to Agra allowing Bahadur to easily regain control of the territories Humayun had recently taken.
Battle of Kanauj on 17 May 1540
When Humayun returned to Agra, he found that all three of his brothers were present. Humayun once again not only pardoned his brothers for plotting against him, but even forgave Hindal for his outright betrayal. With his armies travelling at a leisurely pace, Sher Shah was gradually drawing closer and closer to Agra. This was a serious threat to the entire family, but Humayun and Kamran squabbled over how to proceed. Kamran withdrew after Humayun refused to make a quick attack on the approaching enemy, instead opting to build a larger army under his own name. When Kamran returned to Lahore, his troops followed him shortly afterwards, and Humayun, with his other brothers Askari and Hindal, marched to meet Sher Shah just 240 kilometres east of Agra at the Battle of Kanauj on 17 May 1540. The battle once again saw Humayun make some tactical errors, and his army was soundly defeated. He and his brothers quickly retreated back to Agra, humiliated and mocked along the way by peasants and villagers. They chose not to stay in Agra, and retreated to Lahore, though Sher Shah followed them, founding the short-lived Sur Dynasty of northern India with its capital at Delhi.
His four brothers were united in Lahore, but every day they were informed that Sher Shah was getting closer and closer. When he reached Sirhind, Humayun sent an ambassador carrying the message "I have left you the whole of Hindustan (i.e. the lands to the East of Punjab, comprising most of the Ganges Valley). Leave Lahore alone, and let Sirhind be a boundary between you and me." Sher Shah, however, replied "I have left you Kabul. You should go there." Kabul was the capital of the empire of Humayun's brother Kamran Mirza, who was far from willing to hand over any of his territories to his brother. Instead, Kamran approached Sher Shah, and proposed that he actually revolt against his brother and side with Sher Shah in return for most of the Punjab. Sher Shah dismissed his help, believing it not to be required, though word soon spread to Lahore about the treacherous proposal and Humayun was urged to make an example of Kamran and kill him. Humayun refused, citing the last words of his father, Babur "Do nothing against your brothers, even though they may deserve it."
In the Thar Desert
Humayun decided that it would be wise to withdraw still further, Humayun and his army rode out through and across the Thar Desert, when the Hindu ruler Rao Maldeo Rathore allied himself with Sher Shah Suri against the Mughal Empire. In many accounts Humayun mentions how he and his heavily pregnant wife, had to trace their steps through the desert at the hottest time of year. All the wells had been filled with sand by the nearby Hindu inhabitants in order to starve and exhaust the Mughals further, leaving them with nothing but berries to eat. When Hamida's horse died,no one would lend the Queen (who was now eight months pregnant) a horse, so Humayun did so himself, resulting in him riding a camel for six kilometeres (four miles), although Khaled Beg then offered him his mount. Humayun was later to describe this incident as the lowest point in his life.
He asked that his brothers join him as he fell back into Sindh. While the previously rebellious Hindal Mirza remained loyal and was ordered to join his brothers in Kandahar. Kamran Mirza and Askari Mirza instead decided to head to the relative peace of Kabul. This was to be a definitive schism in the family.
Humayun expected aid from the Emir of Sindh, Hussein Umrani, whom he had appointed and who owed him his allegiance. The Emir Hussein Umrani welcomed Humayun's presence and was loyal to Humayun just as he had been loyal to Babur against the renegade Arghuns. Whilst in the oasis garrison of Umerkot in Sindh, Hamida daughter of noble Sindhi, gave birth to Akbar on 25 October 1542, the heir-apparent to the 34-year old Humayun. The date was special because Humayun consulted his Astronomer to utilize the astrolabe and check the location of the planets.
While in Sindh, Humayun alongside Emir Hussein Umrani, gathered horses and weapons and formed new alliances that helped regain lost territories. Until finally Humayun had gathered hundreds of Sindhi and Baloch tribesmen alongside his Mughals and then marched towards Kandahar and later Kabul, thousands more gathered by his side as Humayun continually declared himself the rightful Timurid heir of the first Mughal Emperor Babur.
Restoration of the Mughal Empire
Sher Shah Suri had died in 1545; his son and successor Islam Shah died too, in 1554. These two deaths left the dynasty reeling and disintegrating. Three rivals for the throne all marched on Delhi, while in many cities leaders tried to stake a claim for independence. This was a perfect opportunity for the Mughals to march back to India.
The Mughal Emperor Humayun, gathered a vast army and attempted the challenging task of retaking the throne in Delhi. Humayun placed the army under the able leadership of Bairam Khan. This was a wise move given Humayun's own record of military ineptitude, and turned out to be prescient, as Bairam was to prove himself a great tactician.
Jats during Humayun's reign
Jat Khaps attacked Humayun: Ram Sarup Joon writes that Jats never became faithful and royal subjects with Moghul Emperors and were a constant source of trouble. It has been mentioned in Tod's Rajasthan that a chief of Humayun named Mulla Shakebi once laid siege of a Jat village Dhandras, in tehsil Gohana, Distt Rohtak (Haryana) and wanted to wipe out the village but Jat Khap attacked him so fiercely, that he had to beat a retreat. Sher Shah Suri succeeded in getting the help of Jat Khap and overthrew the Moghul ruler.
Bijarnias - Jagsi Bijarnia's family moved from Ladhana to Palsana in Sikar district. Jagsi had two sons Bindra and Alha. Alha was an ambitious and far sighted person. He came to know that Badshah Humayun was returning from Ajmer after performing jiyarat at Ajmer Dargah and going to capital Delhi. He offered for a feast to the Badshah to please him. Badshah accepted it and Alha gave a grand feast of khir-churma to Humayun.  Humanyu liked the Rajasthani food. He was pleased with Alha and gifted him 5500 bigha land. Alha was a kind man. He left a gauchar land and constructed a talab there. This Johad is still present and called Alhana Talab.
Bijarnia ancestor came to Dhankoli: Book on Dhankoli village - 'Dhankoli Aaj Tak' by M.K Azad, Published by Dhankoli Vikas Mandal, Dhankoli, 2004 tells us the history of Bijarnia based on record of their bard. The Bahi of the bard (Raoji Bajrang Singh, Dalania, Phagi, Jaipur) of Bijarnia reveals that One Bijarnia ancestor had come to Dhankoli in samvat 1609 (1552 AD) during the period of Kayamkhani rulers at Dhankoli and the rule of Humayun at Delhi. 
Aulakh - H.A. Rose gives following account of Aulakh: Aulakh (ओळख), Aurak (औरक), a Jat tribe, whose head-quarters would appear to be in the Amritsar district, where they own a barah of, originally, 12 villages, but they are found in the northern Malwa, as well as in the Manjha. They are said to be of Solar descent, and their ancestor Aulakh lived in the Manjha. But another story makes their ancestor one Raja Lui Lak (राजा लूई लाक ), a Lunar Rajput. They are related to the Sekhu and Deo tribes with whom they will not intermarry.
In Amritsar they give the following pedigree :-—
This would make them akin to the Punnun. They are also found as a Jat (agricultural) tribe west of the Ravi as far as Leiah. In Montgomery they are both Hindu and Muhammadan. The Muhammadan Aulakh of Leiah have a curious tale. Complaint was made to Humayun that Pir Muhammad Rajan drank bhang, in defiance of the Quranic prohibition. So the emperor summoned the saint to Delhi and made him walk along a narrow path beset with poisoned swords, while a ferocious elephant pursued him. But as he walked the steel turned to water and one of his disciples killed the elephant with a single blow of his staff. Among the courtiers was Raja Aulakh, a Punwar Rajput, who at once embraced Islam. The saint returned to Rajanpur, and Aulakh followed him, conquered the country from the Balun tribe and gave it to the Pirs, on whom the emperor also conferred it in jagir, though the Aulakh continued to administer it until about 175 years ago, when their power declined.
Panwar rulers in Omarkot - Umerkot is town in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. It is also referred to as Amar Kot as per old histories, "Amar Kot Itehas" by Tej Singh Solanki. Once, it had been Capital of Greater Sindh Province, including some parts of present Rajasthan state of India. According to Thakur Deshraj, Panwar clan Jats were rulers here prior to Mughal ruler Humayun. Jame Tod tells it to be a Rajput state confusing Panwar with Rajputs, but it was denied by Cunningham, who wrote it to be a Panwar Jat state referring to the author of 'Humayun Nama'. , 
Thathal: The Amir Taimur destroyed India and Thathaals were scattered, their helping Jat tribes like Gondal, Sandhu, Cheema, Chatha, Tarar and Bajwas started their life as cultivator/ Zamindar. The central power of Thathaals vanished as rulers, their individual valour remained but now they were fighting under Gakhars of Salt Range.
In 1525 Zaheeruddin Babur started attacking different parts of India. Thathaals Sardar Safdar Murad under the influence of Ghakhars sided Babur. Doulat Khan Lodhi was defeated but Thathaals were still without independent areas as Ghakhars did not desire to create a rival nearby. Thus a faction of Thathaals remained with Ghakhars but Murad Qaleech Khan took away a group of daredevils with him, selected a place along Kharian Pubbi and inaugurated a village Qaleechpur, still thriving with majority of Thathaals. Source of the tribe converted to cultivators of land but never became good Zamindars, still fond of fighting.
When Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun, ill fate of Thathaals commenced. Ghakhars were defeated, Suri pathans captured the Salt Range and uprooted the Ghakhars and Thathaals. The Janjua’s and Gondal’s of adjoining areas also suffered. Rohtas Fort was established and bad luck of Thathaals was still very much there. Qaleechpur was destroyed, people of area were butchered, some escaped and sheltered into Pubbi Kharian for safety. Mansur Murad the headman of Thathaals was killed, and might of Thathaals was almost vanished for the time being. Return of Humayun in 1546 restored some of the honour and pride in Thathaal tribe. Mughals captured some area of Kashmir, Syed Yousaf Mashadi the governor called for Sardar Muhammad Azam Thathaal. Azam was a dare devil, he attacked and captured Yadgar Mirza in Akbar’s regime. Mirza was killed and mutiny was over, Azam was bestowed the title of “BAHADUR”.
Death and legacy
On 27 January 1556, Humayun, with his arms full of books, was descending the staircase from his library when the muezzin announced the Adhan (the call to prayer). It was his habit, wherever he heard the summons, to bow his knee in holy reverence. Trying to kneel, he caught his foot in his robe, tumbled down several steps and hit his temple on a rugged stone edge. He died three days later.
His body was laid to rest in Purana Quila initially, but because of attack by Hemu on Delhi and capture of Purana Qila, Humayun's body was exhumed by the fleeing army and transferred to Kalanaur in Punjab where Akbar was coronated.
His tomb stands in Delhi, where he was later buried in a grand way.
प्रमार जाट:ठाकुर देशराज
- Abul-Fazel: "Akbar-nama".
- Thar Desert
- History of the Jats/Chapter IX, p.151
- M.K Azad:'Dhankoli Aaj Tak, 2004 p.197
- M.K Azad:'Dhankoli Aaj Tak, 2004 p.196
- A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/A, p.25
- Memoirs of Humayun, p. 45
- Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.705
- Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Shashtham Parichhed, p.127