Galava

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Galava (गालव) was a great rishi of Mahabharata period. He was a pupil of Viswamitra.

Mythology

It is related in the Mahabharata that at the conclusion of his studies he importuned his master to say what present he should make him. Viswamitra was annoyed, and told him to bring 800 white horses, each having one black ear. In his perplexity Galava applied to Garuda, who took him to King Yayati at Pratishthana. The king was unable to provide the horses, but he gave to Galava his daughter Madhavi. Galava gave her in marriage successively to Haryaswa, king of Ayodhya, Divodasa, king of Kasi, and Usinara, king of Bhoja, receiving from each of them 200 of the horses he was in quest of, upon the birth of a son to each from Madhavi. Notwithstanding her triple marriage and maternity, Madhavi, by a special boon, remained a virgin. Galava presented her and the horses to Viswamitra. The sage accepted them, and had a son by Madhavi, who was named Ashtaka. When Viswamitra retired to the woods, he resigned his hermitage and his horses to Ashtaka, and Galava having taken Madhavi back to her father, himself retired to the forest as his preceptor had done. The horses were first obtained by the Brahman Richaka from the god Varuna. They were originally 1000 in number, but his descendants sold 600 of them, and gave the rest away to Brahmans. [1]

According to the Harivansa, Galava was son of Viswamitra, and that sage in a time of great distress tied a cord round his waist and offered him for sale. Prince Satyavrata gave him liberty and restored him to his father. From his having been bound with a cord (gala) he was called Galava.

There was a teacher of the White Yajurveda named Galava, and also an old grammarian named by Panini.

Mention by Panini

Galava (गालव) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [2]

Jat Gotras from Galava

  • Ghalyan (घाल्याण) Gahlan (गहलान) Ghalan (घालान) Gallan (गाल्लान) Galan (गाल्लान) Gala (गाला) gotra of Jats found in Distt Panipat in Haryana are mentioned in the Markandeya Purana as Galava (गालव). The original name is Gall and the suffix ‘an’ or ‘va’ is added to it. The Gauls of Europe are their brothers. [3] The Gauls, the old name of the French is the same as the Gallan of India, the suffix 'an', added to clan name under Panini's rule.[4]

Galava Roman Fort

According to Wikipedia [5] Galava (or Ambleside Roman Fort) was a fort in the Roman province of Britannia, dating to the 1st century or 2nd century A.D. Its ruins are located on the northern edge of Lake Windermere at Waterhead, near Ambleside, in the English county of Cumbria (formerly in Westmorland). It guarded the Roman road from Brocavum (Brougham) to Glannaventa (Ravenglass).

Another source[6]tells us that Galava Roman Fort, which stands at Borrans Head, Waterhead, Ambleside, was was built around 79A.D., as one of a series of fortified structures constructed to defend Roman trade routes across Cumbria. The fort stands on land owned by the National Trust and is maintained by English Heritage.

The first fort to occupy the site was erected of timber in the latter part of the first century to house a garrison of around 200 troops. The timber fort was later abandoned by the Romans.

In the early part of the second century A.D., during the time of General Agricola, it was replaced by a stone fort on the site. This stood on an artificial platform, the remains of which are still just about visible today. It housed a cohort of 500 infantrymen. It consists of an oblong enclosure measuring 300 x 120 feet and was held until around 365 A.D..

The remains of the fort's defences, and parts of the internal building arrangement, including the main gate, the south gate, the commanding officer's house, the headquarters building and the granaries, were excavated between 1914 and 1920 by the archaeologist R.G. Collingwood of Pembroke College, Oxford.

The main entrance to the fort was through its eastern gateway, a road- the Via Praetoria, ran through it to the headquarters building, the gate once had double portals with gate towers. The fort possessed four gateways in all with each standing on one its four sides.

The large South Gate or Porta Principalis, once had a single portal and high flanking walls. The outer threshold stone is still visible today, in which the large pivot holes, on which swung massive wooden doors, may still be discerned. Through these doors ran the Via Principalis, the road leading down to the edge of Lake Windermere. The Romans are likely to have used the lake for transporting men and materials from the south. The fort's defences consisted of two external ditches and a stone wall, which was about 1.2 metres (4 feet) in height.

The Commanding Officer's house at the fort, known as the Praetorium, was a large building with at least twelve small rooms built around a centrally placed open courtyard. The Principia, or Headquarters building was the most important structure within the fort and occupied a central position at the junction of the two main roads. It was designed around a small, open courtyard surrounded on three sides by a verandah, on the fourth side stood a hall which ran the full length of the building. At the northern end of the hall, the remains of the tribunal, from which the commanding officer would have issued orders, can still be seen.

The Horrea, or Granaries at Galava, consisted of two butressed buildings, which were seperated by a narrow yard. The fort was laid out in a typical Roman 'playing card' shape, with rounded corners. At each of the corners stood a tower which rose above the defensive wall. The towers provided access to a wall walk which ran the length of the wall.

A gravestone discovered near the site commemorates Flavius Romanus, a records clerk at the fort who was 'killed inside the fort by the enemy'. Finds at the site included coins of Faustina Iunior, Iulia Domna, and Valens, Samian of about A.D. 80 and later, including one or two bits of German Samian, a silver spoon, some glass, iron, and bronze objects, a leaden basin, and seven more leaden sling-bullets. Artefacts from the fort can be viewed at the Kendal Museum of Natural History and Archaeology.


In Mahabharata

Galava is mentioned in Mahabharata in following Verses:

  • Mbh.1.2.324 Then the story of Matali' and then of Galava.
  • Mbh.1.2.419 Here hath been recited the story of Damvodvava; then the story of the high-souled Matuli's search for a husband for his daughter: then the history of the great sage Galava; then the story of the training and discipline of the son of Bidula.
  • Mbh.2.4.118 Alamva and Parijataka; the exalted Parvata, and the great Muni Markandeya; Pavitrapani, Savarna, Bhaluki, and Galava.
  • Mbh.2.7.325 And Parasara and Parvata and Savarni and Galava; and Sankha, and the Muni, Gaursiras, and Durvasa, and Krodhana and Swena and the Muni Dhirghatamas; and Pavitrapani, Savarni, Yajnavalkya and Bhaluki; and Udyalaka, Swetaketu, and Tandya, and also Bhandayani; and Havishmat, and Garishta, and king Harischandra; and Hridya, Udarshandilya.
  • Mbh.3.85.4733 Those foremost of Rishis, Valmiki, and Kasyapa, and Atreya, and Kundajathara, and Viswamitra, and Gautama, and Asita, and Devala, and Markandeya, and Galava, and Bharadwaja, and Vasishtha, and the Muni Uddalaka, and Saunaka with his son, and Vyasa, that best of ascetics, and Durvasas, that foremost of Munis, and Javali of great austerities, all these illustrious Rishis endued with wealth of asceticism, are staying in expectation of thee.
  • Mbh.5.106.4921 And as he stood there, an ascetic of the name of Galava, from motives of respect and reverence and from affection and desire of doing what was agreeable, began to wait upon him.
  • Mbh.5.106.4927 And pleased as he was with the services and devotion of his discipline, the ascetic Galava, Viswamitra, addressed him and said, With my leave, O Galava, go whithersoever thou mayest wish'
  • Mbh.5.106.4928 Thus commanded by his preceptor, Galava, highly pleased, said in a sweet voice unto Viswamitra of great effulgence, What final gift shall I make thee in consequence of thy services as preceptor?
  • Mbh.5.106.4935 The illustrious Viswamitra knew that he had really been conquered by Galava by means of the latter's services, and the Rishi, therefore, sought to dismiss him by repeatedly saying, Go, Go'
  • Mbh.5.106.4936 But thou repeatedly commanded by Viswamitra to go away, Galava still addressed him saying, What shall I give'
  • Mbh.5.106.4937 And seeing this obstinacy on the part of ascetic Galava, Viswamitra felt a slight rise of anger and at last said, Give me eight hundred steeds, every one of which should be as white as the rays of the moon, and every one of which should have one ear black.
  • Mbh.5.106.4938 Go now, O Galava, and tarry not
  • Mbh.5.107.4939 SECTION CVII Narada said, Thus addressed by Viswamitra of great intelligence Galava was filled with such anxiety that he could not sit or lie down, or take his food.
  • Mbh.5.107.4940 A prey to anxiety and regret, lamenting bitterly, and burning with remorse, Galava grew pale, and was reduced to a skeleton.
  • Mbh.5.107.4969 And while Galava was thus lamenting, his friend Garuda, the son of Vinata, appeared in his sight.
  • Mbh.5.107.4976 Come, O Galava, do not tarry
  • Mbh.5.108.4977 SECTION CVIII Garuda said, O Galava, commanded I have been by God, who is the cause of all knowledge.
  • Mbh.5.108.4979 The eastern, the southern, the western, or the northern, towards which, O best of regenerate persons, shall I go, O Galava?
  • Mbh.5.108.5004 Tell me, O Galava, if any other quarter pleaseth thee, for we will then go there.
  • Mbh.5.109.5026 It is in this region, O Galava, that men of wicked deeds rot in tortures.
  • Mbh.5.110.5056 Here, O Galava, wind, and fire, and earth, and water, are all free, both day and night, from their painful sensations.
  • Mbh.5.110.5065 Tell me now, O Galava, towards which side, O best of regenerate persons, shall we go
  • Mbh.5.111.5067 And, O Galava, because the abode of all the treasures of the north stretches in a line towards the east and the west, therefore is the north sometimes called the central region Madhyama.
  • Mbh.5.111.5078 It was here, on the breast of Kailasa, O Galava, that Kuvera, was installed on the sovereignty of the Rakshasas, the Yakshas, and the Gandharvas.
  • Mbh.5.111.5083 It is in this, region, O Galava, that the Siddhas, with souls ever under control and always sporting at will, have their fit abodes, abounding with every object of enjoyment.
  • Mbh.5.111.5090 The thousand dishes they use for serving the food offered in hospitality and the edibles also they create at will, are all a mystery, The man, O Galava, that passeth beyond the point guarded by these Munis, is certain, O foremost of Brahmanas, to meet with destruction.
  • Mbh.5.111.5101 Here, in this region, O bull among Bharatas, the regents of the worlds, O Galava, every morning and evening, proclaim, What business of what person shall we do'
  • Mbh.5.112.5107 SECTION CXII Galava said, O Garuda, O slayer of foremost snakes, O thou of beautiful feathers, O son of Vinata, carry me, O Tarkhya, to the east where the two eyes of Dharma are first opened.
  • Mbh.5.112.5113 And thereupon, the Muni Galava rode on the back of Garuda.
  • Mbh.5.112.5114 And Galava said, Thy beauty, O devourer of snakes, as thou proceedest, seemeth to be like that of the sun himself in the morning, that maker of the day endued with a thousand rays.
  • Mbh.5.112.5137 Narada continued, Unto Galava uttering these and many other words of entreaty and sorrow, the son of Vinata, without slackening his speed, laughingly replied, saying, Thou hast little wisdom, O regenerate Rishi, since thou wishest to put an end to thy own life.
  • Mbh.5.112.5143 Resting here for some time and refreshing ourselves with food, I will, O Galava, return
  • Mbh.5.113.5145 And Galava and Garuda both saluted her by bending their heads, and worshipped her.
  • Mbh.5.113.5151 And beholding him come to that plight, Galava sorrowfully enquired, saying, What is this condition that has overtaken thee as the consequence of thy sojourn here?
  • Mbh.5.113.5173 And then with Sandili's leave, Garuda with Galava on his back took his departure.
  • Mbh.5.113.5175 And it so happened that Viswamitra met Galava on the way.
  • Mbh.5.113.5176 And thereupon, that foremost of speakers addressed Galava in the presence of Vinata's son and said, O regenerate one, the time is already come when thou shouldst give me the wealth thou hadst promised me of thy own accord.
  • Mbh.5.113.5181 Hearing these words, Garuda addressed cheerless Galava who was overwhelmed with sorrow, saying, What Viswamitra said unto thee before hath now been repeated in my presence.
  • Mbh.5.113.5182 Come, therefore, O Galava, best of Brahmanas, we will deliberate on the matter.
  • Mbh.5.114.5184 SECTION CXIV Narada said, Garuda then, that foremost of winged beings, addressed the cheerless Galava and said, Because it is created by Agni, in the bowels of the earth and augmented by Vayu, and because also the earth itself is said to be Hiranmaya, therefore, is wealth called Hiranya.
  • Mbh.5.114.5198 Talking thus, and thinking upon what was best to be done, Garuda and Galava together went to king Yayati, who was then in his capital called Pratisthana.
  • Mbh.5.114.5201 And thereupon Garuda answered, saying, O son of Nahusha, this ocean of asceticism, called Galava, is my friend.
  • Mbh.5.114.5206 If, O Galava, thou desirest to give anything to thy preceptor, let this then be given'
  • Mbh.5.115.5215 SECTION CXV Narada said, Thus addressed by Suparna in excellent words fraught with truth, that performer of thousand sacrifices, that foremost of givers, that liberal ruler of all the Kasis, the lord Yayati, revolving those words in his mind and reflecting on them coolly, and seeing before him his dear friend, Tarkshya, and that bull among Brahmanas, Galava, and regarding the alms sought as an indication, highly praiseworthy, of Galava's ascetic merit, and in view particularly of the fact that those two came to him having passed over all the kings of the Solar race, said, Blessed is my life today, and the race also in which I am born, hath, indeed, been blessed today.
  • Mbh.5.115.5224 Therefore, O Galava, take thou this daughter of mine, this perpetrator of four families.
  • Mbh.5.115.5231 Accepting that daughter in gift, Galava then, with Garuda, went away, saying, We will again see thee.
  • Mbh.5.115.5235 And after the prince of birds had gone, Galava, with that maiden in his company, began to think of going to some one among the kings who would be able to give fit dower for the maiden.
  • Mbh.5.115.5238 And the Brahmana Galava, repairing unto Haryyaswa, said, This maiden, O king of kings, will increase the family of her husband by bringing forth offspring.
  • Mbh.5.116.5250 Galava said, Give me eight hundred steeds, born in a good country, of lunar whiteness, and each with one ear black in hue.
  • Mbh.5.116.5252 Narada continued, Hearing these words, that royal sage, king Haryyaswa, filled with sorrow, but blinded by lust, addressed Galava, that foremost of Rishis, saying, I have only two hundred steeds about me of the kind wanted by thee, although of other kinds all worthy of sacrifice, I have many thousand moving about in my dominions, O Galava, I desire to beget only one son upon this damsel.
  • Mbh.5.116.5254 Hearing these words of the king, that damsel said unto Galava, A reciter of Brahma granted me a boon that I would after each delivery, be a maiden again.
  • Mbh.5.116.5260 Thus addressed by that maiden, the Muni Galava said these words unto king Haryyaswa, O Haryyaswa, O best of men, accept this damsel for a fourth part of the dower that I have settled, and beget only one son upon her'
  • Mbh.5.116.5261 Taking then that maiden and worshipping Galava, the king in due time and place had by her a son of the kind wished for.
  • Mbh.5.116.5264 After some time, intelligent Galava came back and approaching the delighted Haryyaswa, said unto him, Thou hast, O king obtained a son.
  • Mbh.5.116.5267 Hearing these words, Haryyaswa who was even truthful in speech and steady in acts of manliness, and remembering that the balance of six hundred steeds could not be made up by him, gave Madhavi back to Galava.
  • Mbh.5.116.5268 And Madhavi also, abandoning that blazing, kingly prosperity, and once more becoming a maiden, followed the footsteps of Galava.
  • Mbh.5.116.5269 And Galava too, saying, Let the steeds remain with thee' then went, accompanied by the maiden, to king Divodasa
  • Mbh.5.117.5270 SECTION CXVII Narada said, Galava then, addressing Madhavi, said, The ruler of the Kasis is an illustrious king known by the name of Divodasa.
  • Mbh.5.117.5276 Galava, then, began to urge the monarch for begetting a child.
  • Mbh.5.117.5282 In the matter of the steeds, O Galava, my wealth is like that of king Haryyaswa.
  • Mbh.5.117.5287 And after she had borne him a son, the holy Galava came to Divodasa at the appointed time, and said unto him, Let the maiden come with me, and let the steeds also thou art to give me remain with thee, for I desire to go elsewhere, O ruler of Earth, for dower'
  • Mbh.5.117.5288 Thus addressed, the virtuous king Divodasa, who was devoted to truth, thereupon, gave back the maiden to Galava at the appointed time
  • Mbh.5.118.5289 SECTION CXVIII Narada said, The illustrious Madhavi, faithful to her promise, abandoning that prosperity and once more becoming a maiden, followed the footsteps of the Brahmana Galava.
  • Mbh.5.118.5290 And Galava, whose heart was set upon the accomplishment of his own business, reflecting upon what he should do next then went to the city of the Bhojas for waiting upon king Usinara.
  • Mbh.5.118.5291 And arrived before that king of unbaffled prowess, Galava addressed him, saying, This maiden will bear thee two royal sons.
  • Mbh.5.118.5301 Hearing these and other words of Galava, king Usinara.
  • Mbh.5.118.5302 replied unto him, saying, I have heard what thou, O Galava, hast said.
  • Mbh.5.118.5307 I will, O Galava, beget only one son upon her, by treading the path that hath been told by others such as Haryyaswa and Divodasa.
  • Mbh.5.118.5313 Hearing these and many other words that Usinara spoke, that best of Brahmanas, Galava, then applauded the monarch and gave him the maiden.
  • Mbh.5.118.5314 And making Usinara accept that damsel, Galava went into the woods.
  • Mbh.5.118.5317 And after the birth of that son, the Brahmana Galava came to Usinara, and taking back from him the maiden went, O king, to see the son of Vinata
  • Mbh.5.119.5318 SECTION CXIX Narada said, Seeing Galava, Vinata's son smilingly addressed him, saying, By good luck it is, O Brahmana, that I behold thee successful'
  • Mbh.5.119.5319 Galava, however, hearing the words spoken by Garuda informed him that a fourth part of the task was still un-finished'
  • Mbh.5.119.5320 Garuda then, that foremost of all speakers, said unto Galava, Do not make any endeavour to obtain the remaining two hundred, for it will not succeed.
  • Mbh.5.119.5322 Thereupon Gadhi, O Galava, addressing the Rishi, said, O holy one, let a thousand steeds of lunar brightness, each with one ear black of hue, be presented to me'
  • Mbh.5.119.5328 O Galava, thou canst never have that which is not to be had.
  • Mbh.5.119.5331 Galava then, saying, So be it' and taking with him both the maiden and the steeds, went with Garuda in his company unto Viswamitra.
  • Mbh.5.119.5332 And arrived in his presence, Galava said, Here are six hundred steeds of the kind demanded by thee.
  • Mbh.5.119.5338 Viswamitra then, beholding Galava in the company of the bird, and that highly beautiful maiden, said, Why, O Galava, didst thou not give me this maiden before?
  • Mbh.5.119.5346 And Galava also, with his friend Suparna, having in this way succeeded in giving his preceptor the fee he had demanded, with a cheerful heart addressed that maiden and said, Thou hast borne a son who is exceedingly charitable, and another who is exceedingly brave, and a third who is devoted to truth and righteousness, and yet another who is a performer of great sacrifices.
  • Mbh.5.119.5349 Saying this, Galava dismissed Garuda that devourer of snakes, and returning the maiden unto her father himself went into the woods
  • Mbh.5.121.5417 Even this was the case with thyself, O king when thou madest me over to Galava'
  • Mbh.5.121.5419 And at that time Galava also came there, and addressing Yayati, said, Accepting an eighth part of my ascetic austerities, ascend thou to heaven again
  • Mbh.5.123.5461 Narada continued, O monarch, even such was the distress into which Yayati fell in consequence of vanity, and such was the distress into which Galava fell owing to his obstinacy.
  • Mbh.12.47.2294 Surrounded by Vyasa conversant with the Vedas by the celestial Rishi Narada, by Devasthana, by Asmaka Sumantu, by Jaimini, by the high-souled Paila, by Sandilya, by Devarata, by Maitreya of great intelligence, by Asita and Vasishtha and the high-souled Kausika, by Harita and Lomasa and Atri's son of great intelligence, by Vrihaspati and Sukra and the great sage Chyavana, by Sanatkumara and Kapila and Valmiki and Tumvuru and Kuru, by Maudgalya and Rama of Bhrigu's race, and the great sage Trinavindu, by Pippalada and Vayu and Samvarta and Pulaha and Katha, by Kasyapa and Pulastya and Kratu and Daksha and Parasara, by Marichi and Angiras and Kasmya and Gautama and the sage Galava, by Dhaumya and Vibhanda and Mandavya and Dhaumra and Krishnanubhautika, by Uluka, that foremost of Brahmanas and the great sage Markandeya, by Bhaskari and Purana and Krishna and Suta, that foremost of virtuous persons, surrounded by these and many other highly-blessed sages of great souls and possessed of faith and self-restraint and tranquillity of mind, the Kuru hero looked like the Moon in the midst of the planets and the stars.
  • Mbh.12.287.18003 In this connection also is cited the old narrative of the discourse between Galava and the celestial Rishi Narada.
  • Mbh.12.287.18004 Once on a time Galava, desirous of obtaining what was for his benefit, addressed Narada freed from error and fatigue, learned in the scriptures, gratified with knowledge, a thorough master of his senses, and with soul devoted to Yoga, and said, Those virtues, O Muni, by the possession of which a person becomes respected in the world, I see, dwell permanently in thee.
  • Mbh.12.287.18018 Ascertaining them first from well-qualified preceptors, reflect upon them, O Galava
  • Mbh.12.342.22664 Indeed, Galava, born in the Vabhravya race, having attained to high ascetic success and obtained a boon from Narayana, compiled the rules in respect of the division of syllables and words for reading the Vedas.
  • Mbh.12.342.22665 Indeed, Galava, born in the Vabhravya race, having attained to the high ascetic success and obtained a boon from Narayana, compiled the rules in respect of the division of syllables and words, and those about emphasis and accent in utterance, and shone as the first scholar who became conversant with those two subjects.
  • Mbh.12.347.23141 Having adored with the austerest penances the illustrious deity with the equine head, the Rishi Panchala otherwise known as Galava acquired the science of Krama by proceeding along the path pointed out by the deity Rudra
  • Mbh.13.18.2855 Galava said, Formerly I studied at the feet of my preceptor Viswamitra.
  • Mbh.13.26.3511 There were also Vrihaspati and Usanas, and Vyasa and Chyavana and Kasyapa and Dhruva, and Durvasas and Jamadagni and Markandeya and Galava, and Bharadwaja and Raibhya and Yavakrita and Trita.
  • Mbh.13.94.8551 There were also the Rishi Galava, and Ashtaka and Bharadwaja and Arundhati and the Valakhilyas; and Sivi and Dilipa and Nahusha and Amvarisha and the royal Yayati and Dhundhumara and Puru.
  • Mbh.13.94.8624 Galava said, Let him who has stolen thy stalks be more infamous than a sinful man!

References


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