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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Kartripura (कर्तृपुर) was one of the five frontier kingdoms mentioned in the Allahabad inscription whose kings did homage and paid tribute to Samudragupta.




Kartripura in Gupta Inscriptions

Tej Ram Sharma[1] provides following information from Gupta inscriptions on this matter: (5) Kartrpura (कर्तृपुर) (No. I, L. 22: Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta) :

(L. 22.)-Whose imperious commands were fully gratified, by giving all (kinds of) taxes and obeying (his) orders and coming to perform obeisance, by the frontier-kings of Samatata, Davaka, Kamarupa, Nepala, Kartripura, and other (countries), and by the Mālavas, Arjunāyanas, Yaudheyas, Madrakas, Abhiras, Prārjunas, Sanakanikas, Kākas, Kharaparikas, and other (tribes);-
L-22. समतट-डवाक-कामरूप-नेपाल-कर्त्तृपुरादि-प्रत्यन्त-नृपतिभिर्म्मालवार्जुनायन-यौधेय-माद्रकाभीर-प्रार्जुन-सनकानीक-काक-खरपरिकादिभिश्च5 सर्व्व-कर -दानाज्ञाकरण-प्रणामागमन-

Though the most accepted and correct reading is Krtrpura, some scholars prefer to read Katṛipura 262 or Kātripura. 263

It is one of the five frontier kingdoms 264 mentioned in the inscription whose kings did homage and paid tribute to Samudragupta. Scholars differ in their views about the identification of this place-name :

According to smith, 265 this kingdom 'occupied the lower ranges of the western Himalayas, including probably Kumaon, Garhwal, and Kangra'. Oldham 266 holds that the kingdom of Katripura, included Kumaun, Almora, Garhwal and Kangra. Fleet 267 suggests that the name may survive in Kartarpur in the Jullundur district.

We prefer the view of Dasaratha Sharma. 268 His contention is that amongst the five frontier kingdoms mentioned in the inscription, the first three belong to the East, the fourth one belongs to the North, hence it will be better to leave aside

Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 229

the northern and eastern sides of the empire and to look for Kartrpura somewhere to the west of the Gupta dominions. Consequently he finds Karor or Karur to be a good equivalent for Kartrpura. 269 Kara here stands for Kartr and 'ur' or 'ur' would stand here for pura. 270 Karur, again, is to be preferred to the other alternatives on account of its associations with the Gupta period of Indian History. According to Al-Beruni, an eastern king, called Vikramaditya, put to flight and killed a Saka ruler in the region of Karur, between Multan and Loni. 271 This Vikramaditya is to be identified with Chandragupta II 'the enemy of the Sakas', who disguised as his brother's wife, Dhruvasvamini, 'ripped upon the belley of the Saka ruler', and destroyed the Saka army, most probably, in Kartrpura or Karur. 272

This was the first encounter between the Sakas and Vikramaditya, and Karur, Karor, or Kartrpura was the theatre of the war because of its intermediate position between the Saka dominions and the Gupta empire. 273

262. N.L. Dey, Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval India, p. 96, also see p. 95.

263. B.C. Law, Historical Geography of Ancient India. p. 97.

264. समतट-डवाक-कामरूप-नेपाल-कर्तृपुरादिप्रत्यन्तनृपति भि: ।

265. V.A. Smith, Early History of India. p. 302, Cf. H.C. Raychaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India. (4th ed.), p. 457.

266. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London. 1898, p. 198.

267. D.B. Diskalkar, Selections From Sanskrit Inscriptions. Vol. I, part II, p. 39 : Indian Historical Quarterly, Calcutta . I, p. 257.

268. Journal of Indian History, Trivandrum Vol. XIV, 1935, pp. 30-33.

269. Ibid., p. 30.

270. Cf. Purusapura -- Peshawar - Pashaur There is still a small town named Karor in the triangle formed by the rivers Chenab and Sutlej.

271. E.C. Sachau, Alberuni's India. ii, 6.

272. Journal of Indian History, Trivandrum. XIV, p. 30.

273. R.C. Majumdar, The History of Bengal. Vol. I, p. 50.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[2] ने लेख किया है ... कर्तृपुर (AS, p.145): कर्तृपुर का अभिज्ञान हिमाचल प्रदेश की कांगड़ा घाटी से किया गया है। कुछ विद्वानों का मत है कि कर्तृपुर में करतारपुर (ज़िला जालंधर, पंजाब) तथा उत्तराखण्ड का गढ़वाल और कुमायूं का इलाका कत्यूर भी सम्मिलित रहा होगा। यदि यह अभिज्ञान ठीक है तो करतारपुर और कत्यूर को कर्तृपुर का ही बिगड़ा हुआ रूप समझना चाहिए।

गुप्त सम्राट् समुद्रगुप्त की प्रयाग प्रशस्ति में इस स्थान का गुप्त साम्राज्य के (उत्तरा पश्चिमी) प्रत्यंत या सीमा प्रदेश के रूप में उल्लेख है- :'समतटडावककामरूपनेपाल- कर्तृपुरादि प्रत्यंतनृपतिभि: मालवाअर्जुननायन यौधेयमद्रक आंभीरप्रार्जुनसनकानिककाकखरपरिक....।'

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