Yaudheya

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Achaemenid empire showing:Utians=Yaudheya

Yaudheya (यौधेय)[1] Yaudhey (यौधेय)[2] [3] or Yaudheyagana (यौधेयगण) is gotra of Jats. Ushinara was ruler of Punjab who gave birth to son Nrig (नृग) from Rani Nriga (नृगा). Yaudheya was son of Nrig (नृग) who gave the name to this gotra. [4] They were rulers in Central Asia. [5]

Variants of name

  • Yaudheya (यौधेय) Mahabharata (I.90.83), (II.48.13),(VIII.4.46),

Origin

  • Yaudheyas are said to be the descendants of Trin (Trin-Vindu) and Nriga. [8]

Ancestry of Yaudheya

YayatiAnuSabhanaraKalanaraJanamejayaMaha ShalaMahamanas → (1.Ushinara + 2.Titiksha)

Identification by B. S. Dahiya

Bhim Singh Dahiya[13] provides us Clan Identification Chart from Yutiya - Yaudheya:

Sl West Asian/Iranian Greek Chines Central Asian Indian Present name
1 2 3 4 5 6
61. Yutiya Utians ? - - Yaudheya Johiya

Yaudheyas ancient tribal confederation

Coin of the Yaudheyas with depiction of Kartikeya
Yaudheya Seal 3
Yaudheya Seal 2
Yaudheya Seal 1

Yaudheyas had an ancient tribal confederation who lived in the area between the Indus river and the Ganges river. They find mention in Panini's Ashtadhyayi and Ganapatha. There are other references to them namely in Mahabharata, Mahamayuri, Brihatsamhita, Puranas, Chandrasekhar's and Kashika. As references are spanned from writings of early period to the medieval period, the chronology of Yaudheyas perhaps spans from as early as 500 BCE till 1200 CE. They were in zenith of their power from about 200 BCE to 400 CE.

Yaudheyas as known to Panini

We find earliest mention of Yaudheyas in Ashtadhyayi (V.3.116-17 and IV.1.178) of Panini (c.500 BCE) where Yaudheyas are mentioned amongst Ayudhajivin Sanghas.


V. S. Agrawala[14] mentions Sanghas known to Panini which includes - Yaudheya (यौधेय), under Yaudheyadi (यौधेयादि) (IV.1.178).


V. S. Agrawala[15] writes that there is the sutra Saṅgha-odghau gaṇa-praśaṁsayoḥ (III.3.86), which speaks of the political Saṅgha technically known as Gaṇa. Sangha and Gana were used as synonymous for a republic. Panini speaks of the Yaudheyas as a Saṅgha, where as they refer to themselves as a Gana on their coins, albeit in the post Paninian period.


V S Agarwal [16] writes about State emblem – Aṅka and Lakshnaṇa – As mentioned in Sutra IV.3.127, a Sangha had its Anka and Lakshnana. The Lakshnana denoted the heraldic symbols or marks of a Sangha which they employed on their coins, seals and banners. The Mahabharata takes Anka as a symptom of Lakshnana in describing the census of the royal cattle by branding them with proper marks (Vanaparva, 240.5), But in Panini’s sutra, anka seems to stand for the legend adopted by the states, like Mālavānām jayaḥ, or Yaudheya gaṇasya jayaḥ, as found on their coins. Lakshnana is the same as lāñchhana or heraldic crest of later Sanskrit.


V S Agarwal [17] writes that In the Sutra Jayaḥ karaṇam (VI.1.102) Panini refers to Jaya as a technical term in implying an instrument of victory, which was distinguished from the other word jaya denoting victory by an acute accent on its initial vowel. This term is found on many Gana coins and must be interpreted in the new light received from Panini’s rule. For example, the formula Yaudheya ganasya jayah on the coins of Yaudheya republic, proclaims the coin as a symbol of the authority. The issuing of coins was an exclusive prerogative of their sovereignty over that territory.


V S Agarwal [18] writes about Āyudhajīvī Sanghas – [p.434]: Panini refers to a number of Sanghas as Ayudhajivin (V.3.114-117), meaning those who lived by the profession of arms. Kautilya refers to two kinds of Janapadas,

  • (1) Āyudhīya prāyāh, those mostly comprising soldiers, and
  • (2) Shreni prāyāh, comprising guilds of craftsmen, traders and agriculturists. The former (and also his sastropajivins) correspond to Panini’s Ayudhajivi Sanghas, which were the same as Yodhajiva of Pali literature.

Four kinds of AyudhajivinsPanini classified his material of the Ayudhajivin Sanghas under several heads, viz.

  • 1. Sanghas in Vahika (V.3.114),
  • 2. Sanghas of Parvata (IV.3.91),
  • 3. Pūgas, organized under their Grāmaṇi in to some form of Sangha Govt (V.3.112), and lastly
  • 4. Vrātas living by depredation and violence (V.3.113, V.2.21), and having only semblance of Sangha.

The most advanced Ayudhajivin Sanghas belonged to the Vahika Country (V.3.114), which comprised the region from Indus to the Beas and and the Sutlej (Karnaparva, 44.7; Hindu polity, 1.34). These are the Yaudheyas, Kshudrakas and Malavas etc.


V S Agarwal [19] writes about Yaudheya (V.3.117) – Panini’s reference to Yaudheyas is the earliest known. The Yaudheyas have a long history as shown by their inscriptions and coins of different ages, and were existing up to the time of Samudragupta. Their coins are found in the east Punjab (now Haryana) and all over the country between the Sutlej and Jamuna, covering a period of about four centuries, 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD. The Mahabharata mentions Rohitaka as the capital of Bahudhāñyaka Country, where a mint site of the Yaudheyas of Bahudhanyaka was found by the late Dr Birbal Sahani. Sunet mentioned by Panini as Sunetra was a centre of Yaudheyas where their coins, moulds and sealings have been found. The Yaudheyas do not seem to have come into conflict with Alexander, since they are not named by the Greek writers. The Johiyas who are found on the banks of the Sutlej along the Bahawalpur frontier may be identified as their modern descendants (ASR, xiv, p.114).


V. S. Agrawala[20] mentions Ayudhjivi Sanghas in the Ganapatha under Yaudheyadi group, repeated twice in the Panini's Ashtadhyayi (IV.1.178) and (V.3.117), a phenomenon somewhat unusual. Nine names are common to both groups and they alone seem to be genuine. Yaudheyadi group includes following Sanghas:

(1) Yaudheya, as explained above.

(2) Śaubhreya (शौभ्रेय), probably named after original ancestor Shubhra referred to in Sutra (IV.1.123). The name was possibly connected with the Sabarcae of Curtius, who are named as Sabagrae by Orosius.

After the battle with the Oxydrakai (Kshudrakas) near the old junction of Ravi River with Chenab River, Alexander, marched towards the Subarcae, a powerful Indian tribe where the form of govt was democratic and not regal (Curtius). Their army consisted of 60000 foot and 6000 cavalry attended by 500 chariots. They had elected three generals renowned for their valour and military skill. The above description points to the Sabarcae having been an ayudhajivi Sangha, which the Saubhreyas of Panini were. In this case Greeks particularly noted the form of Govt which was democratic and not regal.

The territory of the Sangha lay on the lower course of the Chenab after it mate the Ravi River. The tribe was settled near the river by which Alexander was returning with his fleet after his battle with Kshudraka-Malavas. Both banks of river were thickly studded with villages.


[p.450]: (3) Śaukreya (शौक्रेय). Probably the Scythian tribe Sakarauloi, mentioned as Saruka, along with Pasionoi (Prāchīnī) in the Puṇyaśālā Inscription at Mathura.

(4) Vārteya – May be identified with the Indian tribe Oreitai, settled to the west of the river Porali which now falls in to the Sonmiani Bay, west of Karachi. (cf. Saunamāneya in Subhrādi gana IV.1.123;IV.1.86). According to Curtius the tribe had long maintained its independence in those parts and it negotiated peace with Alexander through their leaders, which reflects its Sangha character.

On the east of river Arabis (old name of Porali) was another independent tribe which the Greeks called Arabitai, corresponding to Sanskrit Ārabhaṭa (the home of the Ārabhaṭi vritti), a word unknown in Paninian geography, but both of them as the Greeks noted, lay within the geographical limits of India.

(5) Dhārteya – unidentified, probably the same as the Dārteyas. The Greek writers mention Dyrta as a town of Assakenoi or the Āśvakāyanas of Massaga, and this may have been the capital of the Darteyas.

(6) Jyābāṇeya (ज्याबाणेय), a war like tribe whose bow-sting served arrow. The Vratyas of Tandya Br. (XVII.124) and Srautasutra appear to be the same as Panini’s Ashtadhyayi Sangha of Vrata type. Amongst them we have a feature called jyā-hroda, a king of bow not for shooting arrows ḍwhich seems to be a contrivance for hurling sling balls, most probably a pellet-bow. The Jyabaneyas seem to be section of these Vratyas. The Mahabharata specifically mentions the Mountaineers (Parvatiyas) as experts in fighting by hurling stone-blocks as big as elephant heads, and secondly by shooting stone balls with slings (kshepaṇīya, Dronaparva,121.34-35).

(7) Trigarta (त्रीगर्त) – It is mentioned here again although its


[p.451]: constituent states (Trigarta-Shashthas) have been referred to only in the preceding Sutra V.3.116

(8) Bharata (भारत) - This gana alone mentions Bharatas as an ayudhjivi Sangha. It must be some old tradition, otherwise Panini locates them in Kuru region, on the borderland of the Udichya and Prachya divisions of India. According to another sutra the Kurus lived under a regal form of government. It seems that these Bharatas lived round about Kurukshetra as a Sangha in Panini’s times.

(9) Ushinara (उशीनर) – already mentioned as a division of Vahika. It is likely that it was under Sangha government.

The above survey of the names of ayudhajivi Sanghas as found in Sutras and the Gana-patha shows the dominant fact that the Sanghas were clustered in the north-west regions of India and the Punjab, that they were mostly ayudhajivins or martial tribes, a feature retained by most of them to this day, and they were living in different stages of political evolution, ranging from the Vratas and Pugas to Shrenis and Sanghas, as represented by the wild Pishachas at one end and and the highly organized Yaudheyas on the other hand.

History

We find earliest mention of Yaudheyas in Ashtadhyayi (V.3.116-17 and IV.1.178) of Panini (c.500 BCE) where Yaudheyas are mentioned amongst Ayudhajivin Sanghas.

Puranas (e.g. Brahmanda, Vayu, Brahma and Harivamsha) described Yaudheyas as the descendants of Ushinara and Nrigu[21].

Later, the Junagadh rock inscription (c. 150 CE) of Rudradaman I[22] acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas "who would not submit because they were proud of their title "heroes among the Kshatriyas"", although the inscription explains that they were ultimately vanquished by Rudradaman.[23][24]

"Rudradaman (...) who by force destroyed the Yaudheyas who were loath to submit, rendered proud as they were by having manifested their' title of' heroes among all Kshatriyas."|Junagadh rock inscription [25]

The Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta[26] also mentioned about the Yaudheyas. Varahamihira in his Brihatsamhita (XIV.28 and XVI.22) placed them in the northern division of India.

The territory of Yaudheyas included on the west – Sutlej, Depalpur, Satgarha, Ajundhan, Kahror, Multan, on the east - Bhatner, Abohar, Sirsa, Hansi, Panipat and Sonipat and on the north - Kangra. These were listed based on the assumptions of coin finds. Even Haryana and Panjab were included in the territory they might have ruled.

There isn’t much known about ancient tribes which are mentioned in ancient literature and inscriptions but the existence of a powerful clan known as Yaudheyas has come to light mainly from their coins and coin-moulds found in large number in this area. A large number of their coins depicted the god Brahmanyadeva or Karttikeya[27].

Dr Pema Ram writes that after the invasion of Alexander in 326 BC, the Jats of Sindh and Punjab migrated to Rajasthan. They built tanks, wells and Bawadis near their habitations. The tribes migrated were: Shivis, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Madras etc. The Shivi tribe which came from Ravi and Beas Rivers founded towns like Sheo, Sojat, Siwana, Shergarh, Shivganj etc. This area was adjoining to Sindh and mainly inhabited by Jats. The descendants of Yaudheyas in Rajasthan are: Kulhari, Kuhad, Mahla, Mahil, Khichar etc. [28]


Ram Sarup Joon[29] writes that ....Alexander invaded India in 326 BC and came upto the River Beas. After crossing the River Indus at Attock, he had to fight with a series of Jat Kingdoms. Alexander's historian Arrian writes that Jats were the bravest people he had to contest with in India......Names of tribes described above by Arrian as having fought Alexander viz., Maliha, Madrak, Malak, Kath, Yodha and Jatrak exist today as Jat gotras.


Ram Sarup Joon[30] writes that ....Samudra Gupta conquered the whole of Punjab and a major part of India. The clans defeated by him included


Ram Swarup Joon[31] writes about 'Yodha, Yaudheya, (Johiya): Thaka, Janjoha and Bath gotras are branches of this gotra. According to the Mahabharata Yodhya Kings gave presents on the coronation ceremony of Yudhisthira. Arrian, the historian of Alexander the Great, also refers to Yodha ruling dynasty. Chanakya also mentions Yodhya republic in his Arthashatra. Before


History of the Jats, End of Page-108


the establishment of the Rathor Kings in Bikaner Rangmahal was the capital of Johiya king Sheer Singh. These people are related to Dangle and Bagar gotras. The Yodha Jats considers Nabhaji of the Yadu dynasty as their ancestor. Many Johiya Jats are now followers of Islam and are settled on the banks of River Satluj and in the State of Bahawalpur.

Four types of coins belonging to the Johiya (Yaudeya) kings have been found. On one type there are the figures of a bull and an elephant. On the other there is some god. On the third is written Yodhya Republic and on the fourth Jai Yodhya . A rock inscription of Shaka Raja Rudragamana has been found in the Pillar edict of Samudragupta.

Saiyad Nasir Hussain and Ata-Ullah were busy in settling the chaotic conditions. Saiyad Ata-Ullah invaded Bidli-Gari and killed Badra Sen and the villagers were made to run away. Mohammadans allowed the Roras and Kalals to settle down in place of Jats because the former was more loyal to the Mohammadans. Badra Sen's family had to wander homeless. Seven of his brave soldiers came there clothed as Brahmins, they drank and conspired with the Kalals, as result of which, the Muslim ruler was killed. Later on they met the sons of the Muslim ruler, and told them that they were Brahmins and were loyal to them. They brought their families. Soon they dominated the administration. After gaining sufficient power they shed their sacred threads (colloquially speaking - put it in the Gol) and became Gulia Jats. All the inhabitants of Badli and neighboring villages, however, knew that these people belonged to Badra Sen's family. Only one of them was a Brahmin who did not drink. He also settled down at Badli as is known to the elders of their village and has probably been passed down to the generations by word of mouth. According to this, Sant Sarang Dev and seven brothers of Dhulia Jat gotra came from Kharnal village in the Indergarh Pargana in Nagore (Nagaur).


History of the Jats, End of Page-109


In the History of Herodotus

Bhim Singh Dahiya[32] writes that the in the period from ninth century B.C. to the fourth century B.C., roughly the time between the Manda and Van empires and Alexander's invasion, we find numerous tribes of the Jats finding a name in the history of Herodotus and others. Among the tribes of the Medians, we find:

The ruling people are called Arizanti or Arizatoi. The word Ari is a form of Arya and Zanti/Zatoi are of course the Jats, the Djati of ancient Egypt and the Guti of Sumer and China.

Yaudheyas in Jat History

Hukum Singh Panwar[33] writes:....Dr Colin Renfrew [34] talks of agricultural activity in Anatolia before the end of Ice Age, and Calvin Kephart[35] interestingly finds the Pre-Sumerian Gutis (and Utis, identified with the Jats), disseminating knowledge of agriculture in those lands, especially relating to cultivation of wheat, the original cereal crop, according to Vanilov, (supra) of the Punjab (Sapta-Sindhu) , were-from it was introduced through upper reaches of the Indus to Afghanistan and North Iran, and to Baluchistan, South Iran,and and Mesopotamia through its lower reaches. This movement of wheat must ave inspired Dr. Daniel Zohary, who[36] credits Afghanistan and north Iran where bread wheats are thought to have originated from a hybrid of emmer (Triticum Dicoccum) and 'goat-face grass' (Aegilops Squarrosa). Like many others, the above mentioned scholars, except Vanilov, advocate the migrations of the Indo-Aryans from west to east, but their thesis is conclusively refuted by the findings of Kephart and the archaeological evidence of Mehargarh (8566 B.C.) in Baluchistan.

The fact that wheat and certain cattle were carried to the west from Punjab (Sapta Sindhu) leads to the next important question - who were the carriers of this culture to those countries? It may, without any hesitation, be suggested that, in addition to the Dasas (Dahae), the carriers of these were the Yaudheyas. Dr. Buddha Prakash[37] contends on the authority of Frye and Adontz, that Yaudheyas, (the descendents of Trin and Nrga), along with the Maciyas (Matsyas or Machhiyas?), Parsas an Assagartas figured in an ancient Volkerwanderun and finally settled in Anatolia. They reached Anatolia through northern Iran (Luristan) where they were known as Yautiya. Those who reached


The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations:End of page 245


Anatolia through Armenia and Transcaucasia were simply called Uti or Utene in Greek. T.J. Kedar,[38] like others, does not admit India as the home of Aryans and contradicts himself when he locates Indo-Aryan tribe like Sivas or Sivis, Manns, Yakshus (Jakshus or Jakhus or Jakhars), Purus, Kurus and Sigrus (Sigrohas) etc. in Armenia and Anatolia in 7102 B.C., the age of Emperor Yayati.


They are identified with the Jats clan Joiyas or Johiya[39] [40] of Bahawalpur and Multan Divisions (Pakistan) and Bikaner, Rajasthan (India). Yaudheyas were the rulers of South-Eastern Punjab and Rajasthan. Even today these areas are inhabited by the Johiyas.


Alexander had heard about a very powerful people beyond the river Beas. Arrian describes them as gallant fighters, good agriculturists and having constitutional government. [Ibid.] Though they have not been specifically named, there is little doubt in their being Yaudheyas. [41], [42] It is said in the Adi Parva of Mahabharata that Yaudheya was son of Yudhishthira by his Shivi wife. [43] They find mention in the Sabhaparva of the Mahabharata under different name-Mattamayura. It is said that starting from Khandavapratha Nakul marched towards west and reached Rohitika-beautiful, prosperous and rich in cattle and horses and dear to Kartikeya. He also captured Marubhumi and Bahudhanya. Because these three places had been the chief centres of Yaudheyas and also because Kartikeya finds depiction on the Yaudheya coins, Mattamayura is merely another name for the Yaudheyas. This ancient name is preserved in Jat gotra as Mori, Maur, Mor. [44]

It appears that the political power of the Yaudheyas was eclipsed under the Mauryas. But after their decline the Yaudheyas again became politically dominant and had their heydays up to the rise of the Guptas. [45]

During the glorious period of the Yaudheyas their neighbours in Rajasthan were Malavas (Jaipur, Tonk, Ajmer), Shivis (Chittor), Matsya (Alwar) and Maukharis (Kota). The Yaudheyas probably formed a confederacy with these and others and, as Atlekar suggests, gave a final blow to the tottering Kushan Kingdom.[46] The Yaudheya chiefs who bore the titles Maharaja Senapati appear to have been chosen for this purpose by Yaudheya gana. During this period they might have developed some contacts with the Vakatakas, Bharashivas and other Naga families, under the subjugation of the Guptas, they must have developed closure toes with the Guptas. It is probably during these centuries that they absorbed some elements of their neighbours. The Jat Gotra names Malava, Mokhar, Makhar, Machchar, Bharshiv, Nag, Dharan may be understood against this back ground. [47]


B S Dahiya[48] writes: Utar are mentioned by Herodotus as Utians, along with the Sarangians (Saramgha) and the Pactyans [49]. In the Puranas they are mentioned as Uttara.

Buddha Prakash says, “ The clan of Yaudheyas has an unmistakable resemblance with the Yautiya of Laristan the Ouitioi of Trans-Caucasia, and the Jut nomads of Kirmans[50] [51]

The Trigartas

Very closely associated with the Yaudheyas were the Trigartas. We are told that in the Mahabharata that having defeated Mattamayuras, Nakula proceeded towards Shibis, Trigartas, Ambashthas and Malavas. [52] Trigartas are said to have gone to the sabha of Yudhishthira to pay tributes at the time of his Rajasuya. [53]In the connection they are mentioned in compound with Sibis and Yaudheyas. Others who joined them are Rajanya, Madra, Kekaya, Ambashtha etc. Later the Trigartas joined the side of the Kauravas. In the Dronaparva the Trigarta army has been described as including Mavellaka, Lalittha and Madraka which may be recognized in such Jat gotra names as Mavata, Mall, Mavalya, Littha, Lathar, Madra and Maderna. [54]

Colonel Minchin, a British historian says that “the extreme north-eastern portion of the state Bahawalpur and a portion of Bikaner, was inhabited by a race called the Yaudheyas to whom General Cunningham, another historian, attributes the foundation of the town of Ajudhan or Ayodhaunne, the battle field, which is evidently connected with their own name of yaudheya or Ajudhiya inscription of Samudara Gupta and at a still early date by Panini in the Junagarh inscription of Rudra Dama. Now as the great grammarian was certainly anterior to Chandra Gupta Maurya, his mention of the Yaudhas proves that they must have been a recognized clan before the time of Alexander. General Cunningham identifies them with the existing tribes of Joiyas, which is included by colonel Tod amongst the 24-ruling race of Rajputana. He sated that this race possessed the same haunts as the Dahia or Dahers, are now extinct, but in fact both these tribes are still found in the Bahawalpur state, and they were converted to the Muhammadan Faith by the well known saint Hazrat Baba Fareed Shaker Gunj, whose shrine is in Ajudhan, and from whom the place derives its modern name of Pakpattan (District in Punjab, Pakistan), meaning 'the ferry of the pure ones'.”

यौधेय या जोहिया का इतिहास

यौधेय - इन लोगों का एक दल भारतवर्ष से हिमालय को पार करके अमू दरिया को पार करता हुआ कैस्पियन सागर तक पहुंच गया। वहां पर ये लोग ढेदहाये कहे गये।[55]

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[56] लिखते हैं: चन्द्रवंशी सम्राट् ययाति के चौथे पुत्र का नाम अनु था। अनु की नौवीं पीढ़ी मे उशीनर था जो पंजाब की अधिकांश भूमि का शासक था। उनकी पांच रानियां थीं। बड़ी रानी नृगा से नृग पुत्र हुआ। नृग के पुत्र का नाम यौधेय था। इससे ही यौधेय वंश चला जो जाट वंश है। यह भाषाभेद से जोहिया नाम से प्रचलित हुआ1

यौधेय गणराज्य शतद्रु (सतलुज) नदी के दोनों तटों से आरम्भ होता था। बहावलपुर (पाकिस्तान) राज्य इनके अन्तर्गत था। वहां से लेकर बीकानेर राज्य के उत्तरी प्रदेश गंगानगर आदि, हिसार, जींद, करनाल, अम्बाला, रोहतक, गुड़गावां, महेन्द्रगढ़, दिल्ली राज्य तक प्रायः समूचे उत्तरी दक्षिणी और पूर्वी राजस्थान में फैला था। अलवर, भरतपुर, धौलपुर राज्य इसी के अन्तर्गत आ जाते थे। यौधेयों के समूह के संघों में होशियारपुर, कांगड़ा तक प्रदेशों की गिनती होती थी। देहरादून, सहारनपुर, मुजफ्फरनगर, मेरठ, बुलन्दशहर, अलीगढ़, मथुरा, आगरा, मैनपुरी, एटा, बदायूं, बरेली, बिजनौर, पीलीभीत, मुरादाबाद, रामपुर जिला आदि सारा पश्चिमी उत्तरप्रदेश यौधेय गण के अन्तर्गत था। एक समय तो ऐसा आया था कि मुलतान के पास क्रोडपक्के का दुर्ग तथा मध्यप्रदेश का मन्दसौर तक का प्रदेश भी यौधेयों के राज्य में सम्मिलित था2। सिकन्दर सम्राट् इनकी शक्ति से डरकर व्यास नदी से वापिस लौट गया था।

पौराणिकों ने यौधेय वंश का प्रचालक युधिष्ठिर का पुत्र ‘यौधेय’ लिखा है। परन्तु यह प्रमाणित है कि नृग के पुत्र ‘यौधेय’ से यह वंश चला। हां ! यह सम्भव है कि युधिष्ठिर के पुत्र ‘यौधेय’ का संघ (दल) भी उपरलिखित ‘यौधेय गण’ में शामिल हो गया था। (लेखक)

भारतवर्ष के अतिरिक्त यौधेय का एक समूह हिमालय को पार करके जगजर्टिस नदी को पार करता हुआ कैस्पियन सागर तक पहुंच गया था। वहां पर इन्हें यौधेय की बजाय भाषाभेद से ढे और दहाये नाम से पुकारा गया। यह शब्द यौधेय से धेय और फिर अपभ्रंश होकर धे रह गया - यही धे अंग्रेजी लेखकों ने ढे और दहाये नाम से लिखा। जब इस्लाम का आक्रमण हुआ तो इनका एक बड़ा समूह भारत में लौट आया जो ढे जाट के नाम से पुकारा जाता है और मेरठ के आस-पास के प्रदेशों में आबाद है3

भारतवर्ष में जो यौधेय बाकी रह गये थे, वे आजकल जोहिया कहलाते हैं। महाभारत के युद्ध में यह दल भारी तैयारियों के साथ सम्मिलित हुआ था। इनका उल्लेख महाभारत में आता है। इन्होंने गुप्त, मौर्य, कुषाण सम्राटों से भी टक्कर ली। जैसे - चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य, समुद्रगुप्त और कनिष्क आदि। सम्राट् सिकन्दर की यूनानी सेना ने इन्हीं वीर यौधेयों की शक्ति से डरकर व्यास नदी से आगे बढ़ने से इन्कार कर दिया था।


1. क्षत्रिय जातियों का उत्थान-पतन एवं जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 335 लेखक कविराज योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री।
2. हरयाणे के वीर यौधेय (प्रथम खण्ड भूमिका लेखक श्री भगवानदेव आचार्य।
3. जाट इतिहास (उत्पत्ति और गौरव खण्ड) पृ० 102 लेखक ठा० देशराज, जधीना - भरतपुर।


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-197


भरतपुर राज्य में इनका एक शिलालेख मिला था। इस बात का वर्णन डा० प्लीट ने गुप्तों के वर्णन के साथ किया है। उस शिलालेख में यौधेय गण के निर्वाचित प्रधान का उल्लेख है। इनका प्रधान महाराजा महासेनापति की उपाधि धारण करता था। कुछ अन्य गणों के अध्यक्ष भी राजा और राजन्य की उपाधि धारण करते थे। एकतंत्रियों के मुकाबले में गणतंत्र अपने अध्यक्षों को राजा, महाराजा या राजन्य (राजन्) की उपाधि देने लग गये थे। जाट वंश लिच्छिवि गण ने तो अपने 7077 मेम्बरों को भी राजा की उपाधि दे दी थी। यौधेयों का यह शिलालेख गुप्तकाल का बताया जाता है।

इनकी प्राचीन मुद्रायें लुधियाना के सुनेत स्थान से प्राप्त हुई हैं। सोनीपत (हरयाणा) के किले से और सतलुज तथा यमुना के मध्यवर्ती कई स्थानों से यौधेयों के सिक्के प्राप्त हुए हैं, जो कि भिन्न-भिन्न प्रकार के हैं। शुंग काल के सिक्कों पर चलते हुए हाथी और सांड (बैल) की मूर्ति अंकित मिलती है। उन सिक्कों पर ‘यौधेयानाम्’ ऐसा लिखा है। दूसरी तरह के सिक्कों पर ‘यौधेयगणस्य जय’ लिखा है। इस सिक्के पर एक योद्धा के हाथ में भाला लिए त्रिभंगी गति से खड़ी हुई मूर्ति बनाई गई है। तीसरी तरह के सिक्कों पर उन्होंने युद्ध के देवता कार्तिकेय (जो शिवजी का बड़ा पुत्र था) की मूर्ति अंकित की है। कुछ सिक्कों पर ‘हि’ और ‘त्रि’ भी लिखा हुआ पाया गया है।

ईसा की तीसरी शताब्दी तक यौधेय दल ने मारवाड़ (जोधपुर), जैसलमेर, बीकानेर (जांगल) प्रदेश की बहुत बड़ी भूमि पर अधिकार कर लिया था। दूसरी शताब्दी में शक राजा रुद्रदामन के साथ यौधेयों का युद्ध जोधपुर की प्राचीन भूमि पर हुआ था, क्योंकि रुद्रदामन बराबर पैर फैला रहा था। जोधपुर में यौधेयगण का नेता महीपाल था। रुद्रदामन ने इनके बारे में लिखाया था - सर्व क्षत्राविष्कृत वीर शब्द जातोत्सेकाभिधेयानां यौधेयानाम्। अर्थात् सभी क्षत्रियों के सामने यौधेयों ने अपना नाम (युद्धवीर) चरितार्थ करने के कारण जिन्हें अभिमान हो गया था और जो परास्त नहीं किये जा सकते थे। यह थी उनकी वीरता जिसका उल्लेख उनके शत्रु ने भी किया है। अपनी युद्धकुशलता के लिए वे प्रसिद्ध हो गये थे।

जोधा जी के पुत्र बीका जी राठौर ने जब नया राज्य बीकानेर स्थापित करने का प्रयत्न प्रारम्भ किया तो जोहिया जाटों का वहां 600 गांवों पर अधिकार था1। शेरसिंह नामक वीर योद्धा उनका राजा था जिसकी राजधानी भूरूपाल में थी। इस शूरवीर शेरसिंह ने राठौरों को नाकों चने चबवा दिये। बीका जी ने कुछ समय अपनी व्यवस्था ठीक करने और शक्तिसंचय करने में लगाया।

वहां के निकट क्षेत्र पर गोदारा जाटों की बड़ी शक्ति थी। जोहिया व गोदारा जाटों की आपसी शत्रुता होने के कारण से गोदारों का नेता गोदारा ‘पाण्डु’ जाट ने बीका जी से कुछ शर्तों पर संधि कर ली। अब बीका जी ने अपनी और गोदारों की सेना लेकर जोहिया जाटों पर आक्रमण कर दिया। वीर शेरसिंह ने अपनी सेना लेकर दोनों बड़ी शक्तियों का साहस से मुकाबला किया।


1. कर्नल टॉड Vol II P. 1126-27 पर जोहिया जाटों का 600 गांवों पर अधिकार था, लिखा है; ले० रामसरूप जून ने अपने जाट इतिहास में पृ० 70 पर इनका राज्य 1100 गांवों पर लिखा है। इनके परगने 1. जैतपुर 2. महाजन 3. पीपासर 4. उदयमुख, और 5. कम्भाना थे।


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-198


“देशी राज्यों के इतिहास” में सुखसम्पत्तिराय भण्डारी ने लिखा है –

“शेरसिंह ने अपनी समस्त सेना के साथ बीका जी के खिलाफ युद्ध करने की तैयारी कर रखी थी। बीका जी जो कई युद्धों के विजेता थे, इस युद्ध में सरलता से विजय प्राप्त न कर सके। शत्रुगण अद्भुत पराक्रम दिखाक्र साहस छोड़ गया। अन्त में विजय की कोई सूरत न देख, बीका जी ने षडयन्त्र द्वारा शेरसिंह को मरवा दिया।”

‘वाकए-राजपूताना’ में भी यही बात लिखी है। यह युद्ध रामरत्न चारण के लेखानुसार सीधमुख के पास ढाका गांव में हुआ था।

शेरसिंह के मारे जाने के बाद भी जोहिया जाट विद्रोही बने रहे। उन्होंने सहज ही में अधीनता स्वीकार नहीं की। उनका प्रत्येक युवक प्राणों की बाजी लगाकर स्वाधीनता की रक्षा करना चाहता था। शेरसिंह के बाद उन्हें कोई योग्य नेता नहीं मिला।

“भारत के देशी राज्यों के इतिहास” का लेख -

“यद्यपि बीका जी ने जोहिया जाटों को परास्त करके अपने अधीन कर लिया था तथापि वे बड़े स्वाधीनताप्रिय थे और अपनी हरण की हुई स्वाधीनता को फिर से प्राप्त करने का प्रयत्न कर रहे थे। अतः बीका जी के वंशज रायसिंह ने अपने भाई भीमसिंह जी के संचालन में एक प्रबल राठौर-सेना उनके दमन करने के लिए भेजी। इस सेना ने वहां पहुंचकर भयंकर काण्ड उपस्थित कर दिया। प्रबल समराग्नि प्रज्वलित हो गई। हजारों जोहिया जाटगण स्वाधीनता के लिए प्राण विसर्जन करने लगे। वीर राठौर भी अपने ध्येय से न हटे। उन्होंने इस देश को यथार्थ मरुभूमि के समान कर दिया।”

इस तरह से 15वीं सदी में जांगल प्रदेश पर से जोहिया जाटों का राज्य समाप्त हो गया।

इन यौधेयों की कालान्तर में कई शाखायें भी हो गईं। कुलकिया शाखा के लोग अब अजीतगढ़ चूड़ी के पास मौजूद हैं। इस वंश में ढाका शाखा के भी अनेक गांव हैं जिनमें गांव ढानी जयपुर में, ढकौली, पटौली, औगटा, सहदपुर आदि मेरठ में, मिल्क, मानिपुर, छाचरी आदि जिला बिजनौर में सुप्रसिद्ध गांव हैं। जोहिया जाट जोधपुर, बीकानेर तथा जालन्धर जिले में जड़िया, जोड़ा, बिनौला, थाबलक, जड़ियाला, जोहल आदि 12 गांवों में बसे हुए हैं। जोहिया जाट सतलुज नदी के किनारे उस स्थान पर रहते थे जहां बहावलपुर राज्य था। आजकल वह पाकिस्तान में है। उस स्थान पर इस वंश के जाटों के नाम पर जोहियावार प्रदेश (क्षेत्र) विद्यमान है।

जय यौधेय लेखक राहुल सांकृत्यायन, पृ० 5 पर लिखते हैं कि -

भावलपुर रियासत से मुलतान तक फैला एक इलाका जोहियावार कहा जाता है और बहुसंख्यक निवासी जोहिया (यौधेय) कहे जाते हैं। कराची के कोहिस्तान में जोहियार रहते हैं, बल्कि उनके सरदार को ‘जोहिया-जोजन्म’ कहा जाता है। अलवर और गुड़गांव के मेव अब भी यौधेय भूमि में ही बसते हैं और उनकी वीरगाथायें सुनकर आज भी रोमांच हो उठते हैं।

यौधेय के शाखागोत्र - 1. कुलकिया 2. ढाका

Geographic distribution

The Joiyas are at present found in the states of Indian Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan in India. And in Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Multan and Sahiwal in Pakistan side of Punjab and in Sindh province of Pakistan. Joiyas are considered a Punjabi tribe in Pakistan. Joiyas are known as Joyo in the province of Sindh in Pakistan.

Religion

Yaudheya or Joiya are Hindus and Muslims.

Joiya Septs

The Joiyas septs are very numurous, 46 being enumerated as principal septs alone. Of these the more important are the Lakhweras, Bhaderas, Daultanas, Nihalkas, Ghazi Khananas and Jalwanas, their ancestor having been designated Naik-o-Kar Bhai or the Virtous Brothers, by Abdullah Jahanian, a muslim saint. Most of the Joiya septs are eponymous, their names ending in -ka and sometimes in -era.

The other principal septs are Akoke, Bhalana, Bhatti, Firozke, Hassanke, Jamlera, Jhagdeke, Jugeke, Lakhuke, Langahke, Laleke, Mihruke, Mummunke, Panjera, Ranuke, Sabuke, Sanatheke, Shahbake, Sahuka and Saldera.

In Mahabharata

Yaudheya (यौधेय) are mentioned in Mahabharata (I.90.83), (II.48.13),(VIII.4.46),


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 90 gives us History and family tree of Puru, Bharatas and Pandavas commencing from Daksha. Yaudheya is mentioned in verse (I.95.83), which tells us that Yudhishthira, having obtained for his wife Devika, the daughter of Govasana of the Shaibya tribe, in a self-choice ceremony, begat upon her a son named Yaudheya. {Yudhishthira → Prativindhya + Yaudheya (from wife Devika d/o Govasana of the Shaibya tribe)} [57]


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 describes the Kings who presented tributes to Yudhishthira. Yaudheyas are mentioned in verse (II.48.13). [58]


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 4 tells us about the Warriors who are dead amongst the Kurus and the Pandavas after ten days. Yaudheyas have been mentioned in verse (VIII.4.46). ...."Kaikeyas, Malavas, Madrakas, Dravidas of fierce prowess, Yaudheyas, Lalittyas, Kshudrakas, Mavellakas, Usinaras, have all been slain by Savyasachi." [59]

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ज-43
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. य-6
  3. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.57,s.n. 2104
  4. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p. 277
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.341
  6. Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria), The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.345
  7. Mukerji, AB.; op.cit., p. 39.
  8. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations, p. 245
  9. Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 95:Mahabharata (1.95.83) युधिष्ठिरस तु गॊवासनस्य शैब्यस्य देविकां नाम कन्यां सवयंवरे लेभे । तस्यां पुत्रं जनयाम आस यौधेयं नाम
  10. Dilip Singh Ahlawat: Jat viron ka Itihas
  11. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The Scythic origin of the Jats,p.192
  12. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV (Page 341)
  13. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix II,p.322
  14. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.500
  15. India as Known to Panini,p.426
  16. V S Agarwal, India as Known to Panini,p.431
  17. V S Agarwal, India as Known to Panini,p.431
  18. V S Agarwal, India as Known to Panini,p.434-436
  19. V S Agarwal, India as Known to Panini,p.445
  20. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.449
  21. Pargiter, F.E. Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi, 1972 pp.109
  22. [http://projectsouthasia.sdstate.edu/Docs/HISTORY/PRIMARYDOCS/EPIGRAPHY/JunagadhRockInscription.htm Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman I, accessed on 23 March 2007.
  23. Rosenfield, "The dynastic art of the Kushans", p132
  24. Rapson, "A catalogue of the Indian coins in the British Museum", p.lx
  25. Source
  26. Allahabad Posthumous Stone Pillar Inscription of Samudragupta, accessed on 23 Marah, 2007.
  27. Allan, John A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum (Ancient India), London, 1936, Pl. XXXIX.22
  28. Dr Pema Ram:Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, First Edition 2010, ISBN:81-86103-96-1,p.14
  29. History of the Jats/Chapter IV,p. 49-50
  30. History of the Jats/Chapter IV ,p. 58
  31. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p. 108-109
  32. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Antiquity of the Jats,p.300-301
  33. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The migrations of the Jats to the North-Western countries,pp.245-246
  34. Dr.D.G. Sidharth, B.M. Birla Science Centre, Research Report, Aug., 1991, pp. 1-5. Cf. Ali Sami, Shiraz, Musavi Printing Office, Shiraz, 1958, p.12.
  35. Kephart, op.cit., p. 244.
  36. Deshpande & Hook, op.cit., p. 104. cf. also Zohary, Daniel; 1969
  37. Pol. & Sac Movts. in Anc. Pb. p. 105. Cf. R.N. Frye, Heritage of Persia. 1962. London, p. 50; N Adontz, Histoire d 'Armenia, les origines. p. 308). q. by Buddha Prakash. op.cit., p. 105.
  38. Op.cit.. pp. 2. 211. 30. etc. etc.
  39. Cunningham , A. Coins of Ancient India, London, 1891,pp. 75-76
  40. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix II,p.331
  41. Brahma Purana, Ch. 13
  42. Harivansha, Ch. 32
  43. Mahabharata ch. 95, 76
  44. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 23
  45. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 23
  46. A.S. Atlekar and R.C. Majumdar, The Vakataka Gupta Age, p.27
  47. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 25
  48. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Jat Clan in India,p. 276-277
  49. Book VII , ch. 68)( Pakhtoons)
  50. The Heritage of Persia, 1962, p.50
  51. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 276-277
  52. Mahabharata, Crit.ed. II, 296
  53. Mahabharata, Crit.ed. II. 48.13cd., 14ab
  54. Maheswari Prasad, “Jats in Ancient India”:The Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Vol.I, p. 25
  55. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p. 341
  56. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृ.197-199
  57. [Yudhishthira|युधिष्ठिरस]] तु गॊवासनस्य शैब्यस्य देविकां नाम कन्यां सवयंवरे लेभे, तस्यां पुत्रं जनयाम आस यौधेयं नाम (I.90.83)
  58. काश्मीराः कुन्दमानाशपौरका हंसकायनाः, शिबित्रिगर्तयौधेया राजन्या मद्रकेकयाः (II.48.13)
  59. मालवा मद्रकाश चैव द्रविडाश चॊग्रविक्रमाः, यौधेयाशललित्दाशक्षुद्रकाश चाप्य उशीनराः (VIII.4.46)

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