|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
- Karura (करूर) (AS, p.141)
- Bhaskarakshetra भास्कर क्षेत्र = Bhaskarapuram भास्करपुरम्, दे. Karura करूर (p.667)
Karur is located at 10.95°N 78.08°E and has an average elevation of 101 metres (331 feet). The town is located in Karur district of the South Indian state, Tamil Nadu, at a distance of 370 km from Chennai. Karur is located on the banks of Amaravati River.
Karur is mentioned in inscriptions and literature by two names, Karuvoor and Vanji. Additionally, it has been referred as: Adipuram, Tiruaanilai, Paupatheechuram, Karuvaippatinam, Vanjularanyam, Garbhapuram, Thiru vithuvakkottam, Bhaskarapuram, Mudivazhangu Viracholapuram, Karapuram, Aadaga maadam, Cherama nagar and Shanmangala Kshetram. Among them, the name Adipuram, meaning the first city seems to indicate that it was held as the foremost city by the medieval writers. It was also called Vanci moothur, the ancient city of Vanji. In the foreign notices of Ptolemy, it was called Karoura - an inland capital of the Cheras.
Karur is one of the oldest towns in Tamil Nadu and has played a very significant role in the history and culture of the Tamils. The history dates back to the Sangam period when it was a flourishing trade centre. Karur was built on the banks of river Amaravathi which was called Aanporunai during the Sangam days. According to Hinduism, Brahma began the work of creation here, which is referred to as the "place of the sacred cow."
Epigraphical, archaeological and literary evidence indicate that Karur was the capital of early Chera kings of Sangam age. The names of early Chera kings who ruled from Karur have been found in the rock inscriptions in Aaru Nattar Malai close to Karur. The Tamil epic Silapathikaram mentions that the famous Chera King Senguttuvan ruled from Karur. The archaeological excavations undertaken in Karur resulted in the excavation of mat-designed pottery, bricks, mud-toys, Roman coins, Chera coins, Pallava coins, Roman Amphorae, Rasset coated ware and rare rings. Karur might have been the center for old jewellery-making and gem setting (with the gold imported mainly from Rome), as seen from various excavations. In 150 CE, Greek scholar Ptolemy mentioned "Korevora" (Karur) as a very famous inland trading center in South India. It was ruled by the Cheras, Western Gangas, Cholas, the Vijayanagara Nayaks, Tipu Sultan and the British successively.
Kartripura in Gupta Inscriptions
- (L. 22.)-Whose imperious commands were fully gratified, by giving all (kinds of) taxes and obeying (his) orders and coming to perform obeisance, by the frontier-kings of Samatata, Davaka, Kamarupa, Nepala, Kartripura, and other (countries), and by the Mālavas, Arjunāyanas, Yaudheyas, Madrakas, Abhiras, Prārjunas, Sanakanikas, Kākas, Kharaparikas, and other (tribes);-
- L-22. समतट-डवाक-कामरूप-नेपाल-कर्त्तृपुरादि-प्रत्यन्त-नृपतिभिर्म्मालवार्जुनायन-यौधेय-माद्रकाभीर-प्रार्जुन-सनकानीक-काक-खरपरिकादिभिश्च5 सर्व्व-कर -दानाज्ञाकरण-प्रणामागमन-
It is one of the five frontier kingdoms 264 mentioned in the inscription whose kings did homage and paid tribute to Samudragupta. Scholars differ in their views about the identification of this place-name :
According to smith, 265 this kingdom 'occupied the lower ranges of the western Himalayas, including probably Kumaon, Garhwal, and Kangra'. Oldham 266 holds that the kingdom of Katripura, included Kumaun, Almora, Garhwal and Kangra. Fleet 267 suggests that the name may survive in Kartarpur in the Jullundur district.
We prefer the view of Dasaratha Sharma. 268 His contention is that amongst the five frontier kingdoms mentioned in the inscription, the first three belong to the East, the fourth one belongs to the North, hence it will be better to leave aside
the northern and eastern sides of the empire and to look for Kartrpura somewhere to the west of the Gupta dominions. Consequently he finds Karor or Karur to be a good equivalent for Kartrpura. 269 Kara here stands for Kartr and 'ur' or 'ur' would stand here for pura. 270 Karur, again, is to be preferred to the other alternatives on account of its associations with the Gupta period of Indian History. According to Al-Beruni, an eastern king, called Vikramaditya, put to flight and killed a Saka ruler in the region of Karur, between Multan and Loni. 271 This Vikramaditya is to be identified with Chandragupta II 'the enemy of the Sakas', who disguised as his brother's wife, Dhruvasvamini, 'ripped upon the belley of the Saka ruler', and destroyed the Saka army, most probably, in Kartrpura or Karur. 272
This was the first encounter between the Sakas and Vikramaditya, and Karur, Karor, or Kartrpura was the theatre of the war because of its intermediate position between the Saka dominions and the Gupta empire. 273
262. N.L. Dey, Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval India, p. 96, also see p. 95.
263. B.C. Law, Historical Geography of Ancient India. p. 97.
264. समतट-डवाक-कामरूप-नेपाल-कर्तृपुरादिप्रत्यन्तनृपति भि: ।
265. V.A. Smith, Early History of India. p. 302, Cf. H.C. Raychaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India. (4th ed.), p. 457.
266. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London. 1898, p. 198.
267. D.B. Diskalkar, Selections From Sanskrit Inscriptions. Vol. I, part II, p. 39 : Indian Historical Quarterly, Calcutta . I, p. 257.
268. Journal of Indian History, Trivandrum Vol. XIV, 1935, pp. 30-33.
269. Ibid., p. 30.
270. Cf. Purusapura -- Peshawar - Pashaur There is still a small town named Karor in the triangle formed by the rivers Chenab and Sutlej.
271. E.C. Sachau, Alberuni's India. ii, 6.
272. Journal of Indian History, Trivandrum. XIV, p. 30.
273. R.C. Majumdar, The History of Bengal. Vol. I, p. 50.
1. करूर (AS, p.141): केरल की प्राचीनतम राजधानी थी, जो पेरियार नदी पर स्थित थी। करूर का अभिज्ञान वर्तमान 'तिकरूर' ग्राम से किया जाता है, जो कोचीन से 28 मील पूर्वोत्तर में स्थित है। अमरावती और कावेरी नदी का संगम यहाँ से 6 मील की दूरी पर है। केरल या चेरवंशीय नरेशों के पश्चात् चोलों ने भी यहाँ राज्य किया था। चोल अपने को सूर्यवंशीय मानते थे, और इसी कारण 'करूर' को 'भास्करपुरम्' या 'भास्करक्षेत्र' भी कहा जाता था। करूर में पशुपतीश्वर शिव का कलापूर्ण मंदिर स्थित है।
2. करूर (AS, p.141): करूर पाकिस्तान में मुल्तान और लोनी के बीच में स्थित एक स्थान है। इस स्थान पर भारत के नरेश विक्रमादित्य ने शकों को हराया था। इतिहासकार स्मिथ ने इस राजा को चंद्रगुप्त द्वितीय माना है। अन्य इतिहासकारों की राय में यह राजा यशोवर्मन था।
- Urban Infrastructure report (2008). Conversion of City Corporate Plan into Business Plan (PDF) (Report). Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited. Retrieved 2012-12-29. p. 4
- R., Nagaswami (1995). Roman Karur: A peep into Tamil's past. Madras: Brahad Prakashan.
- "Chera Roman coins". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 4 February 2008.
- Urban Infrastructure Report 2006, p. 4
- Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Place-Names and their Suffixes,pp.229-230
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.141