Kalaka

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Kalaka (कालक) is name of a town and country mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi and in Mahabharata. Kalaka (कालक) was a Nagavanshi King. Kalaka was a Madraka town in district Sheikhupura, Pakistan.[1] Kalika River (कालिका) is mentioned in Mahabharata.

Variants

Jat clans

Mention by Panini

Kalaka (कालक) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [2]


Kalika (कालिका) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [3]

History

Tej Ram Sharma[4] mentions 9. Kalaka (कालक) (Kalaikuri Sultanpur Copper-plate Inscription of the Gupta Year 120 (=A.D. 439), L. 11): It means dark-blue or black.[5] It is a name based on colour.[6] We have several cases of names with the word Kalaka, for example, 'Kalakaksha' black-eyed, the name of an Asura; 'Kalakacarya' a Jain teacher and astronomer; 'Kalakendra' name of a prince of the Dhanavas. It is a name with the suffix 'ka'


Tej Ram Sharma[7] mentions 2. Kalaka-ksetra (कालाक-क्षेत्र) (Gunaighar Copper-plate Inscription of Vainyagupta Gupta Year 188 (=A. D. 507) (L.25) : It is a Prakritic form of Sanskrit Kalarka (कालार्क) , [8] i.e. the dreadful Sun at the time of the destruction of the whole world. The field may be connected with Sun-worship. Another alternative is that it was the property of a man with this name.


Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[9] writes.... After a long span of time, it was in the 9th, 7th and 2nd centuries B.C. that powerful hordes of the Scythians, known as Yueh-Chih (Gat or Gut or Gutian in archaic Chinese) uprooted the Sakas from the Jaxartes and they moved to Seistan in the South-West[10]. It was in Seistan that the Sakas received an invitation from an Indian Jain Patnarch, Acharya Kalak to invade India, for he wanted to avenge himself on Gardabhilla, the king of Ujjayini, who had seduced his sister, a pretty nun[11]. With the Yueh-chih on their heels and fresh encounters with their Parthian kings from north eastern Iran, the Sakas, sensing their stay in Seistan becoming hazardous, readily accepted the invitation of Kalaka.


Ram Sarup Joon [12] writes ...Bahik, Bahi, Bahin or Bahela: Bahik Jats is found both among the Hindu and Sikhs. In Pakistan there are Muslim Bahele Jats-, Bahiks are mentioned in Mahabharat also. According to "Karna Parva", chapter of the Mahabharat) King Shalya paid l/6th part of his income to the Bahiks. According to Nandlal Dey, Bahik are a sub branch of the Madraks. Arat in district Sheikhupura was their capital. Hashak, Karmabh Kalak and Karkar were their important towns. In Daurala (District Meerut, U.P.) the Bahiyan Jats have six villages.

कालिका

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[13] ने लेख किया है ...कालिका (AS, p.182) - महाभारत में उल्लिखित संभवत: पंजाब की कोई नदी. इसकी कौशिकी और अरुणा में मिलने वाली नदी बताया गया है. -- 'कालिका संगमे स्नातवा कौशिक्यवरूणयोर्गत:' - महाभारत वनपरवा 84,156.

In Mahabharata

Kalaka (कालक) is mentioned in Mahabharata (III.170.6).


In Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 170, Matali describes about Daitya's daughter, named Pulama and a mighty female of the Asura order, Kalaka by name, who practised severe austerities for a thousand celestial years. And at the end of their austerities, the self-create conferred on them boons --that their offspring might never suffer misfortune; that they might be incapable of being destroyed even by the gods, the Rakshasas and the [Pannaga]]s; and that they might obtain a highly effulgent and surprisingly fair aerial city, furnished with all manner of gems and invincible even by the celestials, the Maharshis, the Yakshas, the Gandharvas, the Pannagas, the Asuras and the Rakshasas.


Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 170 mentions about the Destruction of Hiranyapura, the city inhabited by Pulamas Kalakas and the Kalakeyas, Arjuna's terrible encounter with the Nivatakavachas dwelling in Hiranyaparva. Verse-(III.170.11) [14] mentions that Hiranyapura, the mighty city is inhabited by the Paulamas and the Kalakanjas; and it is also guarded by those mighty Asuras.

External links

References

  1. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p.71-72
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.230
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.119
  4. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of Householders and Traders,p.80
  5. Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Monier Williams. p. 1289, col. 3.
  6. अन्गविज्जा, पृ.153 , भूमिका पृ.47
  7. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Place-Names and their Suffixes, p.250-51
  8. We also find a kind of 'Sun' known as Lolārka.
  9. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations:p. 317
  10. CHI., vol. I. Ch. XXIII. Upadhyaya, op.cit., p. 61. within brackets mine S.Chattopadhyaya. Sakas in Ind .. Santiniketan, 1955. preface. CL Yu. V. Gannkovsky, M.R. Arunova et al. His. of Afghanistan, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1985, p. 42.
  11. Upadhyaya, op.cit.. pp. 61f. CHI, Vol. I, pp. 149f, 479.
  12. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p.71-72
  13. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.182
  14. हिरण्यपुरम इत्य एतत खयायते नगरं महत, रक्षितं कालकेयैश च पौलॊमैश च महासुरैः (III.170.11)