Chola

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Cholas (चोल) were one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the Indian history. The Cholas are also known as the Choda (चोड़).[1] Cholas are mentioned in Mahabharata, Ramayana and Mahavansha. Cholas are said be the descendants of Sibis who migrated to the extreme south of India. The Dasha Kumara Charitam refers to a settlement of the Sibis on the Kaveri river. Varahamihira in his Brihatsamhita mentions a Sivika country in the south. H.C. Ray Chaudhuri identifies the southern Sibis with the Chola ruling family.[2][3]

The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty[4][5] are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire (Ashoka Major Rock Edict No.13). As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, along with the Chera and Pandya, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.

Origin

Variants

Jat clans

History

The history of the Cholas falls into four periods:

1. The Early Cholas of the Sangam literature,

2. The interregnum between the fall of the Sangam Cholas and the rise of the Imperial medieval Cholas under Vijayalaya (c. 848),

3. The dynasty of Vijayalaya, and

4. The Later Chola dynasty of Kulotunga Chola I from the third quarter of the 11th century.

A commonly held view is that Chola is, like Chera and Pandya, the name of the ruling family or clan of immemorial antiquity. The annotator Parimelazhagar said: "The charity of people with ancient lineage (such as the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras) are forever generous in spite of their reduced means". Other names in common use for the Cholas are Killi (கிள்ளி), Valavan (வளவன்) and Sembiyan (செம்பியன்). Killi perhaps comes from the Tamil kil (கிள்) meaning dig or cleave and conveys the idea of a digger or a worker of the land. This word often forms an integral part of early Chola names like Nedunkilli, Nalankilli and so on, but almost drops out of use in later times. Valavan is most probably connected with "valam" (வளம்) – fertility and means owner or ruler of a fertile country. Sembiyan is generally taken to mean a descendant of Shibi – a legendary hero whose self-sacrifice in saving a dove from the pursuit of a falcon figures among the early Chola legends and forms the subject matter of the Sibi Jataka among the Jataka stories of Buddhism.[6] In Tamil lexicon Chola means Soazhi or Saei denoting a newly formed kingdom, in the lines of Pandya or the old country.[7]

There is very little written evidence available of the Cholas prior to the 7th century. Historic records exist thereafter, including inscriptions on temples. During the past 150 years, historians have gleaned significant knowledge on the subject from a variety of sources such as ancient Tamil Sangam literature, oral traditions, religious texts, temple and copperplate inscriptions. The main source for the available information of the early Cholas is the early Tamil literature of the Sangam Period.

There are also brief notices on the Chola country and its towns, ports and commerce furnished by the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei), and in the slightly later work of the geographer Ptolemy. Mahavamsa, a Buddhist text written down during the 5th century CE, recounts a number of conflicts between the inhabitants of Ceylon and Cholas in the 1st century BCE.[8] Cholas are mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 BCE–232 BCE) inscriptions, where they are mentioned among the kingdoms which, though not subject to Ashoka, were on friendly terms with him.

The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri River, but they ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power from the later half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th century. The whole country south of the Tungabhadra was united and held as one state for a period of three centuries and more between 907-1215 AD.[9]

Early Cholas: The earliest Chola kings for whom there is tangible evidence are mentioned in the Sangam literature. Scholars generally agree that this literature belongs to the second or first few centuries of the common era. The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled, and at present a connected account of the history of the period cannot be derived. It records the names of the kings and the princes, and of the poets who extolled them.[10]

The Sangam literature also records legends about mythical Chola kings.[11] These myths speak of the Chola king Kantaman, a supposed contemporary of the sage Agastya, whose devotion brought the river Kaveri into existence. Two names are prominent among those Chola kings known to have existed who feature in Sangam literature: Karikala Chola and Kocengannan.[12][13][14]

Urayur (now a part of Thiruchirapalli) was their oldest capital.[15] Kaveripattinam also served as an early Chola capital.[16] The Mahavamsa mentions that an ethnic Tamil adventurer, a Chola prince known as Ellalan, invaded the island Sri Lanka and conquered it around 235 BCE with the help of a Mysore army.[17][18]

Jat History

Bhim Singh Dahiya[19] writes: [p.78]: In India, Shivis first settled on the Chandrabhaga (Chenab) river and later some of them moved to Rajasthan and even towards south along the Kaveri river. The Shivi Jataka No. 499, mentions their king with two cities, named as Aritthapura and Jettuttara. The first is mentioned by Ptolemy, as Aristobothra, in the north of the Punjab.[20] The second city Jetuttara is identified by N.L. Dey with Nagri, 11 miles north of Chittor. Alberuni mentions it as Jattararur, capital of Mewar.[21] A number of their coins have been found near Chittor, at Madhyamika, and the legends on these coins are "Majhamikaya Sivijanapadasa", i.e., coins of the republic of the Sivis of Madhyamika (Chittor).


[p.79]: The democratic nature of their rule is further indicated by Vassantara Jataka, which shows that the king of the Sibis, banished his own son, Vassantara (वसंतर) in obedience to the demand of his people.

The Mahabharata refers to a Sibi-rashtra (country of the Sibis) ruled by king Usinara.[22] According to Pargiter[23] Sivi son of Ushinara not only originated the Sibis, but also extended his conquests in the whole of the Punjab, through his four sons, named Urisadarbha, Suvira, Kekaya and Madraka who founded the kingdoms named after their names.[24] It was after the names of Suvira and Madraka, that the people of Punjab were called in the Puranas, as Sauviras and Madrakas. The Sibis also migrated to the extreme south of India. The Dasha Kumara Charitam refers to a settlement of the Sibis on the Kaveri river. Varahamihira in his Brihatsamhita mentions a Sivika country in the south. H.C. Ray Chaudhuri identifies the southern Sibis with the Chola ruling family.[25]


B.S. Dahiya[26] writes... Sanghedas are to be compared with the (Utsava) Sanketa of Mahabharata, [27] where Arjuna conquers them alongwith the Suhma and Chola in the North. The Suhma are the Summa of Sindh at the time of Arab invasion, and the Chola/ Chahla clan, respectively. The Sanketas were in the west also. [28] Sanskrit English Dictionary ( M. Williams) defines Sanketa as the name of a people.


Dr Naval Viyogi[29] has mentioned the history of Sor Jat clan. According to him Cher, Chola and Pandyas have been important indigenous tribes of Ancient India. H.L. Kosare [30] puts forth his opinion on their origin and history. Urgapur was one of the towns of Nagas of southern region. We have enough information on this issue. Ptolemy has informed that the name of the chief city of southern Cholas was Aur-Thaur. Aur-Thaur was capital of Shor Nagas and it was under Shoartai [31]. The word Shor is synonymous of Sor or Chol of Tamil language. It is quite clear from the name of Shor nagas that Aur-Thaur was the capital of the naga kings; whosoever, he was called Shor (Chola) because he was the ruler of Shor-Tai.[32]

In Mahavansa

Mahavansa/Chapter 21 mentions ...A Damila of noble descent, named Elara, who came hither from the Chola-country to seize on the kingdom, ruled when he had overpowered king Asela, forty-four years, with even justice toward friend and foe, on occasions of disputes at law.

Mahavansa/Chapter 36 tells.....A bhikkhu from the Cola people (Chola), named Samghamitta, who was versed in the teachings concerning the exorcism of spirits, and so forth, had attached himself to a thera banished thither, and he came hither embittered against the bhikkhus of the Mahävihära.

चोल

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[33] ने लेख किया है ...1. चोल (AS, p.345): सुदूर दक्षिण का प्रदेश-- कोरोमंडल या चोलमंडल. महाभारत सभा पर्व है 31,71 में चोल या चोड़ प्रदेश का उल्लेख है. इसे सहदेव ने दक्षिण की दिग्विजय यात्रा के प्रसंग में जीता था-- 'पाण्ड्यांश च द्रविड़ांश्चैव सहितांश चॊड्र केरलैः'. चोड का पाठांतर चोड्र भी है. वन पर्व 51,22 में में चोलों का द्रविड़ों और आंध्रों के साथ उल्लेख है-- 'सवंङ्गाङ्गान स पौण्ड्रोड्रान सचॊल द्रविडान्धकान'. सभा पर्व 51 में केरल और चोल नरेशों द्वारा युधिष्ठिर को दी गई भेंट का उल्लेख है--'चंदनागरुचानन्तं मुक्तावैदर्य चित्रिका:, चोलश्च केरलश्चोभौ ददतु: पाण्डवायवै'.

अशोक के शिलालेख 13 में चोल का प्रत्यंत (पड़ोसी) देश के रूप वर्णन है. प्राचीन समय में यहां की मुख्य नदी कावेरी थी. चोल प्रदेश की राजधानी उरगपुर या वर्तमान त्रिशिरापल्ली (त्रिचनापल्ली, मद्रास) में थी. इसे उरयियूर भी कहते थे. किंतु कालिदास ने (रघुवंश 6,59) 'उरगाख्यपुर' को पाण्ड्य देश की राजधानी बताया है. अवश्य ही यह भेद इतिहास के विभिन्न कालों में इन दोनों पड़ोसी देशों की सीमाएं बदलती रहने के कारण हुआ होगा. चोल नरेशों ने प्राचीन काल और मध्यकाल में [p.346]: शासन की जनसत्तात्मक पद्धति शापित की थी जिसमें ग्राम पंचायतों और ग्राम समितियों का बहुत महत्व था. यह सूचना हमें चोल नरेशों के अनेक अभिलेखों से मिलती है.

2. चोल (AS, p.346): वर्तमान चोलिस्तान, जिसकी स्थिति वंक्षु (आक्सस) नदी के दक्षिण और वाल्हीक के पूर्व में थी. महाभारत सभा पर्व है 27,21 में इस प्रदेश पर अर्जुन की विजय का उल्लेख है-- 'ततः सुह्मांश च चॊलांश च किरीटी पाण्डवर्षभः, सहितः सर्वसैन्येन परामदत कुरुनन्थनः'.

चोल साम्राज्य

चोल साम्राज्य का अभ्युदय नौवीं शताब्दी में हुआ और दक्षिण प्राय:द्वीप का अधिकांश भाग इसके अधिकार में था। चोल शासकों ने श्रीलंका पर भी विजय प्राप्त कर ली थी और मालदीव द्वीपों पर भी इनका अधिकार था। कुछ समय तक इनका प्रभाव कलिंग और तुंगभद्र दोआब पर भी छाया था। इनके पास शक्तिशाली नौसेना थी और ये दक्षिण पूर्वी एशिया में अपना प्रभाव क़ायम करने में सफल हो सके। चोल साम्राज्य दक्षिण भारत का निःसन्देह सबसे शक्तिशाली साम्राज्य था। अपनी प्रारम्भिक कठिनाइयों पर विजय प्राप्त करने के बाद क़रीब दो शताब्दियों तक अर्थात् बारहवीं ईस्वी के मध्य तक चोल शासकों ने न केवल एक स्थिर प्रशासन दिया, वरन् कला और साहित्य को बहुत प्रोत्साहन दिया। कुछ इतिहासकारों का मत है कि चोल काल दक्षिण भारत का 'स्वर्ण युग' था। [34]

चोल साम्राज्य की स्थापना: चोल साम्राज्य की स्थापना विजयालय ने की, जो आरम्भ में पल्लवों का एक सामंती सरदार था। उसने 850 ई. में तंजौर को अपने अधिकार में कर लिया और पाण्ड्य राज्य पर चढ़ाई कर दी। चोल 897 तक इतने शक्तिशाली हो गए थे कि, उन्होंने पल्लव शासक को हराकर उसकी हत्या कर दी और सारे टौंड मंडल पर अपना अधिकार कर लिया। इसके बाद पल्लव, इतिहास के पन्नों से विलीन हो गए, पर चोल शासकों को राष्ट्रकूटों के विरुद्ध भयानक संघर्ष करना पड़ा। राष्ट्रकूट शासक कृष्ण तृतीय ने 949 ई. में चोल सम्राट परान्तक प्रथम को पराजित किया और चोल साम्राज्य के उत्तरी क्षेत्र पर अधिकार कर लिया। इससे चोल वंश को धक्का लगा, लेकिन 965 ई. में कृष्ण तृतीय की मृत्यु और राष्ट्रकूटों के पतन के बाद वे एक बार फिर उठ खड़े हुए।[35]

चोल साम्राज्य का उत्थान: छठी शताब्दी के मध्य के बाद दक्षिण भारत में पल्लवों, चालुक्यों तथा पाण्ड्य वंशों का राज्य रहा। पल्लवों की राजधानी कांची, चालुक्यों की बादामी तथा पाण्ड्यों की राजधानी मदुरई थी, जो आधुनिक तंजौर में है और दक्षिण अर्थात् केरल में, चेर शासक थे। कर्नाटक क्षेत्र में कदम्ब तथा गंगवंशों का शासन था। इस युग के अधिकतर समय में गंग शासक राष्ट्रकूटों के अधीन थे या उनसे मिलते हुए थे। राष्ट्रकूट इस समय महाराष्ट्र क्षेत्र में सबसे अधिक प्रभावशाली थे। पल्लव, पाण्ड्य तथा चेर आपस में तथा मिलकर राष्ट्रकूटों के विरुद्ध संघर्षरत थे। इनमें से कुछ शासकों विशेषकर पल्लवों के पास शक्तिशाली नौसेनाएँ भी थीं। पल्लवों के दक्षिण पूर्व एशिया के साथ बड़े पैमाने पर व्यापारिक सम्बन्ध थे और उन्होंने व्यापार तथा सांस्कृतिक सम्बन्धों को बढ़ाने के लिए कई राजदूत भी चीन भेजे। पल्लव अधिकतर शैव मत के अनुयायी थे और इन्होंने आधुनिक चेन्नई के निकट महाबलीपुरम में कई मन्दिरों का निर्माण किया। [36]

चोल साम्राज्य का पतन:

चोल साम्राज्य के अंतिम शासक कुलोत्तुंग द्वितीय के उत्तराधिकारी निर्बल थे। वे अपने राज्य को अक्षुण्ण बना रखने में असफल रहे। सुदूर दक्षिण में पाण्ड्य, केरल और सिंहल (श्रीलंका) राज्यों में विद्रोह की प्रवृत्ति बहुत बढ़ गई थी और वे चोलों की अधीनता से मुक्त हो गए। समुद्र पार के जिन द्वीपों व प्रदेशों पर राजेन्द्र प्रथम द्वारा आधिपत्य स्थापित किया गया था, उन्होंने भी अब स्वतंत्रता प्राप्त कर ली। द्वारसमुद्र के होयसाल और इसी प्रकार के अन्य राजवंशों के उत्कर्ष के कारण चोल राज्य अब सर्वथा क्षीण हो गया। चोलों के अनेक सामन्त इस समय निरन्तर विद्रोह के लिए तत्पर रहते थे, और चोल राजवंश के अन्तःपुर व राजदरबार भी षड़यत्रों के अड्डे बने हुए थे। इस स्थिति में चोल राजाओं की स्थिति सर्वथा नगण्य हो गई थी।[37]

चोल राजवंश

चोल राजवंश (9वीं से 12वीं शताब्दी तक): चोलों के विषय में प्रथम जानकारी पाणिनी कृत अष्टाध्यायी से मिलती है। चोल वंश के विषय में जानकारी के अन्य स्रोत हैं - कात्यायन कृत 'वार्तिक', 'महाभारत', 'संगम साहित्य', 'पेरिप्लस ऑफ़ दी इरीथ्रियन सी' एवं टॉलमी का उल्लेख आदि। चोल राज्य आधुनिक कावेरी नदी घाटी, कोरोमण्डल, त्रिचनापली एवं तंजौर तक विस्तृत था। यह क्षेत्र उसके राजा की शक्ति के अनुसार घटता-बढ़ता रहता था। इस राज्य की कोई एक स्थाई राजधानी नहीं थी। साक्ष्यों के आधार पर माना जाता है कि, इनकी पहली राजधानी 'उत्तरी मनलूर' थी। कालान्तर में 'उरैयुर' तथा 'तंजावुर' चोलों की राजधानी बनी। चोलों का शासकीय चिह्न बाघ था। चोल राज्य 'किल्लि', 'बलावन', 'सोग्बिदास' तथा 'नेनई' जैसे नामों से भी प्रसिद्व है। भिन्न-भिन्न समयों में 'उरगपुर' (वर्तमान 'उरैयूर', 'त्रिचनापली' के पास) 'तंजोर' और 'गंगकौण्ड', 'चोलपुरम' (पुहार) को राजधानी बनाकर इस पर विविध राजाओं ने शासन किया। चोलमण्डल का प्राचीन इतिहास स्पष्ट रूप से ज्ञात नहीं है। पल्लव वंश के राजा उस पर बहुधा आक्रमण करते रहते थे, और उसे अपने राज्य विस्तार का उपयुक्त क्षेत्र मानते थे। वातापी के चालुक्य राजा भी दक्षिण दिशा में विजय यात्रा करते हुए इसे आक्रान्त करते रहे। यही कारण है कि, नवीं सदी के मध्य भाग तक चोलमण्डल के इतिहास का विशेष महत्त्व नहीं है, और वहाँ कोई ऐसा प्रतापी राजा नहीं हुआ, जो कि अपने राज्य के उत्कर्ष में विशेष रूप से समर्थ हुआ हो।[38]

चोल वंश के शासक[39]

  1. उरवप्पहर्रे इलन जेत चेन्नी
  2. करिकाल
  3. विजयालय (850 - 875 ई.)
  4. आदित्य (चोल वंश) (875 - 907 ई.)
  5. परान्तक प्रथम (908 - 949 ई.)
  6. परान्तक द्वितीय (956 - 983 ई.)
  7. राजराज प्रथम (985 - 1014 ई.)
  8. राजेन्द्र प्रथम (1014 - 1044 ई.)
  9. राजाधिराज (1044 - 1052 ई.)
  10. राजेन्द्र द्वितीय (1052 - 1064 ई.)
  11. वीर राजेन्द्र (1064 - 1070 ई.)
  12. अधिराजेन्द्र (1070 ई.)
  13. कुलोत्तुंग प्रथम (1070 - 1120 ई.)
  14. विक्रम चोल (1120 - 1133 ई.)
  15. कुलोत्तुंग द्वितीय (1133 - 1150 ई.)


In Ramayana

Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 41 describes The Empire of Holy Vanaras to the South. Sugreeva sends Vanaras to southward which troop includes Hanuman, Jambavanta, Nila and others and Angada is its leader. Sugreeva gives a vivid picture of the southern side of Jambudvipa up to the south-most part of passable regions. Ramayana mentions Cholas along with Andhras, Pundras, Pandyas and Keralas on the bank of Godawari River in verse 4.41.12. [40]..... "Like that Vanga, Kalinga territories shall be searched along with Kaushika territories available on their fringes, then cast about the Dandaka forest all over its mountains, rivers, and its caves, then River Godavari that courses through Dandaka forest, and then the provinces of Andhra, Pundra, Chola, Pandya, Kerala are to be searched thoroughly. [4-41-11, 12]

In Mahabharata


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 24 mentions countries subjugated by Arjuna that lay to the North. Chola (चोल) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.24.20). [41]...That Prince of the Kuru race (Arjuna) then took the delightful town of Abhisari (अभिसारी), and then brought under his sway Rochamana ruling in Uraga. Then the son of Indra (Arjuna), putting forth his might, pressed the delightful town of Singhapura that was well-protected with various weapons. Then Arjuna, that bull amongst the son of Pandu, at the head of all his troops, fiercely attacked the regions called Suhma and Chola. Then the son of Indra, endued with great prowess, after pressing them with great force, brought the Valhikas always difficult of being vanquished, under his sway.


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 28 mentions Sahadeva's march towards south: kings and tribes defeated. Chodra (चोड्र) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.28.48). [42]....The hero (Sahadeva) brought under his subjection and exacted tributes from the Pandayas and the Dravidas along with the Chodras and Keralas and the Andhras and the Talavanas, the Kalingas and the Ushtrakarnikas, and also the delightful city of Atavi (Roma) and that of the Yavanas.


Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 48 describes Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira attended by the chiefs of many islands and countries. Chola (चोल) is mentioned in Mahabharata (III.48.18). [43]....I saw all kings, even those of the Vangas and Angas and Paundras and Odras and Cholas and Dravidas and Andhakas, and the chiefs of many islands and countries on the sea-board as also of frontier states.


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Chola (चोल) is mentioned, with other kingdoms in the south, in Mahabharata (VI.10.58).[44].... the Karnikas, the Kuntikas, the Saubdikas, and the Nalakalaka; the Kaukutakas, the Cholas, and the Konkanas, the Malavanakas;....


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 46 mentions Krishna, Yudhisthira and his brothers looking for arrangements of the Mahabharata War. Chola (चोल) Janapada is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.46.50).[45].... Balhikas, Tittiras, and Cholas, Pandya etc kings formed southern wing.


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 describes Kings who presented tributes to Yudhishthira..... And the Kings of Chola and Pandya, though they brought numberless jars of gold filled with fragrant sandal juice from the hills of Malaya, and loads of sandal and aloe wood from the Dardduras hills, and many gems of great brilliancy and fine cloths inlaid with gold, did not obtain permission (to enter).

External links

References

  1. Prasad, G. Durga (1988), History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D., P. G. Publishers,p. p. 120
  2. H.C. Ray Chaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India, p. 205, f.n. 5.
  3. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats, p.79
  4. Gene Gurney. Kingdoms of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa: an illustrated encyclopedia of ruling monarchs from ancient times to the present. Crown, 30-Jul-1986 - History - 438 pages. p. 396.
  5. Edgar Thorpe, Showick Thorpe. The Pearson General Knowledge Manual 2017. Pearson Education India, 2016 - 1048 pages. p. C.26
  6. Sastri, K. A. N. (1984) [1935], The CōĻas, University of Madras, pp. 19-20
  7. Archaeological News A. L. Frothingham, Jr. The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 69–125
  8. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture by John Bowman p.401
  9. K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p 157
  10. Sastri, K. A. N. (2002) [1955], A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar, Oxford University Press, pp. 170-172
  11. Tripathi, Rama Sankar (1967), History of Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0018-2, p. 457
  12. Majumdar, R. C. (1987) [1952], Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publications, ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4, p. 137
  13. Tripathi (1967), p. 458
  14. Sastri (2002), p. 116
  15. Tripathi (1967), p. 457
  16. Sastri (2002), p. 113
  17. Tripathi (1967), p. 457
  18. R, Narasimhacharya (1942). History of the Kannada Language. Asian Educational Services. p. 48. ISBN 9788120605596.
  19. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats, p.79
  20. N.L. Dey, Geographical Dictionary, p. 11.
  21. AIS, Vol. 1, P, 202.
  22. MBT, III, 130-131. 17 जलां चॊपजलां चैव यमुनाम अभितॊ नथीम । उशीनरॊ वै यत्रेष्ट्वा वासवाथ अत्यरिच्यत ।। (III.130.17); राज्यं शिबीनाम ऋथ्धं वै शाधि पक्षिगणार्चित (III.131.20);
  23. Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, pp. 41,264.
  24. H.C. Ray Chaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India, p. 205, f.n. 5.
  25. H.C. Ray Chaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India, p. 205, f.n. 5.
  26. B.S. Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 290
  27. Mahabharata, Sabha Parva, 24 / 15
  28. ibid 2 / 29/ 8
  29. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p. 310
  30. H.L. Kosare, P.47
  31. E.A. 8 P-368
  32. D.R. Bhandarkar, Ram Prakash Ojha "Ashoka" PP 35-36
  33. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.345
  34. भारतकोश-चोल साम्राज्य
  35. भारतकोश-चोल साम्राज्य
  36. भारतकोश-चोल साम्राज्य
  37. भारतकोश-चोल साम्राज्य
  38. भारतकोश-चोल राजवंश
  39. भारतकोश-चोल राजवंश
  40. नदीम् गोदावरीम् चैव सर्वम् एव अनुपश्यत ।तथैव आन्ध्रान् च पुण्ड्रान् च चोलान् पाण्ड्यान् केरलान् ॥४-४१-१२॥
  41. ततः सुह्मांश च चॊलांश च किरीटी पाण्डवर्षभः, सहितः सर्वसैन्येन परामदत कुरुनन्थनः (II.24.20)
  42. पाण्ड्यांश च द्रविड़ांश्चैव सहितांश चॊड्र केरलैः, अन्ध्रांस तलवनांश चैव कलिङ्गान ओष्ट्र कर्णिकान (II.28.48)
  43. यत्र सर्वान महीपालाञ शस्त्रतेजॊ भयार्थितान, सवङ्गाङ्गान सपौण्ड्र उड्रान सचॊल द्रविडान्धकान (III.48.18)
  44. कर्णिकाः कुन्तिकाश चैव सौब्धिदा नलकालकाः, कौकुट्टकास तदा चॊलाः कॊङ्कणा मालवाणकाः (VI.10.58)
  45. बाह्लिकास तित्तिराश चैव चॊलाः पाण्ड्याश च भारत, एते जनपदा राजन दक्षिणं पक्षम आश्रिताः (VI.46.50)