Karamania

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Author: Laxman Burdak, IFS (R).
For the province in Iran see Kerman
Karmania on Map showing the route of Alexander the Great
Alexander The Great campaign India 326 BC
Location of Turkish provinces: Antalya, Mersin and Adana

Karamania was the name of the southern (Mediterranean) coast of Anatolia (Asiatic Turkey) in the early 19th century. It can also refer to the general south central Anatolian region, whose name is reflected on the modern town of Karaman. It is also the namesake of the larger Karaman Province of Turkey, the historical Karaman Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, the medieval Turkish Karamanids dynasty and state from the region, and the Karamanlides, a Turkish-speaking Orthodox Christian group originally from the area.

Location

Presently it corresponds to the coast line of three Turkish provinces: Antalya, Mersin and Adana.

Variants

History

The Karamanids (Turkish: Karamanoğulları) was a historical dynasty that ruled a state in the region between late 13th and late 15th centuries.[1] The state was founded by a Turkmen tribe, led by Karaman Bey, and it was finally incorporated into Ottoman realm during the reign of Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire. The Karamanid state was founded in the southern half of the Central Anatolia. At the zenith of its power it also controlled the central portion of the Mediterranean coast of Anatolia (roughly Cilicia Trachea of the antiquity, the eastern half of the modern Antalya Province and the western half of the modern Mersin Province.) After its territory was annexed by the Ottomans two names from the Karamanid era survived; present city of Karaman (in Central Anatolia) which was the capital city of Karamanids and (up to 1920s) the minority people named Karamanlides. (Although Karamanids were Muslim, Karamanlides were a Turkish-speaking Christian minority of the region who emigrated to Greece during to Greek-Turkish population exchange in the 1920s).


H. W. Bellew[2] writes that The country now called Afghanistan is the Ariana of the ancient Greeks. Strabo (xv. 2. 8), quoting Eratosthenes, gives the limits of this region as follows:

" Ariana is bounded on the east by the Indus, on the south by the Great Sea, on the north by the Paropamisus, and the succeeding chain of mountains as far as the Caspian Gates, on the west by the same limits by which the territory of the Parthians is separated from Media, and Karmania from Paraetakene and Persia. . . . The name also of Ariana is extended so as to include some part of Persia, Media, and the north of Baktria and Sogdiana ; for these nations speak nearly the same language."

H. W. Bellew[3] writes that Afterwards Arsakes (Arsak) a Skythian, with the Parnoi nomads (the Barni before mentioned as the tribe of the Kharizm Shahi dynasty), a tribe of the Dahi who live on the banks of the Okhus (that part of the Oxus river in the Khiva plain), invaded Parthia and made himself master of it. At first Arsakes and his successors were weakened by wars with those who had been deprived of their territories. Afterwards they became so powerful, by their successful warfare, that at last they took possession of all the country within the Euphrates. They deprived Eukratides and then the Scythians, by force of arms, of a part of Baktriana. They now (beginning of the Christian era) have an empire comprehending so large an extent of country, and so many nations, that it almost rivals that of the Romans in magnitude. In a previous passage (Geog. xv. 2), describing Ariana, Strabo mentions Khaarene as being situated somewhere about the part of the country bordering upon India, and adds that " this, of all the places subject to the Parthians lies nearest to India " ; and that " Kraterus traversed and subjugated this part of the country on his march from India to Karmania." The Khaarene here mentioned is the present Kharan of Balochistan. The Arsakes above mentioned as founder of the dynasty of the Arsakides, which overthrew the Roman power in Asia, and endured under a succession of thirty-one kings for 481 years — from 236 B.C. to 245 A.D. — belonged most probably to the tribe which is now represented by the Arsaki or Harzagi, division of the Turkoman of Marv ; the latter, a people which Klaproth has recognised as Koman or Kuman, Turk from the steppe north of the Caspian Sea.

जाट इतिहास

ठाकुर देशराज[4] लिखते हैं कि समोस द्वीप : यह द्वीप एजियन सागर में है। एशियाई रोम के ठीक पच्छिमी किनारे पर बसा हुआ है। यहां जो जाट समूह गया था, वह क्षौथी (Xuthi) कहलाता था। क्रुक साहब ने ‘ट्राइब्स एन्ड कास्टस आफ दी नार्थ वेस्टर्न प्राविन्शेज एन्ड अवध’ नामक पुस्तक में लिखा है -

"Their course from the Oxus to Indus may, perhaps, be dimly traced in the Xuthi of, Dianosius of Samos and the Xuthi of Ptolemy who occupied the Karmanian desert on the frontier of Drangiana."

इसी बात को जनरल कनिंघम साहब ने अपनी तवारीख में इस भांति लिखा है -

"Xuthi of Dianosius of Samos were Jatii or Jats, who are coupled with the Ariene and in the Xuthi of Ptolemy, who occupied the Karmanian desert on the frontier of Drangiana. (Cunningham Vol.II P.55)

अर्थात् - सामोस के डाईनीसीअस के क्षूति जटी या जाट थे जो ऐर्रानी से टोलेमी के जूथी में मिल गए, जिन्होंने ड्रेनजिआना के सीमांत के करमानिया के ऊपर अधिकार कर लिया।

Carmania (satrapy)

Karmania (Ancient Greek: Καρμανία, from Old Persian of same) was a satrapy (province) of the Achaemenid Empire as well as, later on, the Sassanid Empire. The region is approximately equal to that of modern-day Kerman Province in Iran. Little is known about the exact boundaries of ancient Carmania, which may have fluctuated. It is not mentioned as a separate province in translated royal Achaemenid inscriptions (it may have been part of Persis at one time) although it is mentioned by Arrian.

At the time of Alexander's invasion it was a satrapy on the Persian Gulf coast west of Hormoz; it was bounded on the east by Gedrosia. Some authors, such as Ptolemy called the northern deserts, which stretched as far as Parthia and Aria, "desert Carmania", apparently to be distinguished from Carmania proper, which was a cultivated and fertile region, known for its teak wood .

Alexander erected a pillar/s on the Carmanian coast, possibly marking the edge of his empire, and established a city at a currently unknown site, probably in the area of Gavkosh or Gulashkird. Marco Polo later visited this town.

By the end of the rule Antiochus IV in 163 BC, the Seleucid empire had lost control of their eastern Persia area, including Persis and Seistan.

We must assume that Carmania, had become an independent kingdom called Ormuz,[5] the capital of which was Arkiotisas in the upper Jiroft basin. Numismatic evidence indicates an otherwise unknown dynasty of kings, Bellaios, Tigraios and Goaisos. Arkiotisas was briefly an important post on the trade route from India to Persepolis and thence Rome, and was clearly identified in the Peutinger Table as a half-way house between Seistan and Ormuz, there may have been visited by Marco Polo. The kingdom was after two centuries was absorbed into the Bactrian or Parthian kingdoms.

Ch.27: March of Alexander through Carmania - punishment of viceroys.

Arrian[6] writes ... WHEN he arrived at the capital of Gadrosia (Pura), he there gave his army a rest. He deposed Apollophanes from the viceroyalty,1 because he discovered that he had paid no heed to his instructions. Thoas was appointed viceroy over the people of this district; but as he fell ill and died, Sibyrtius succeeded to the office. The same man had also lately been appointed by Alexander viceroy of Carmania;’ but now the rule over the Arachotians and Gadrosians was given to him, and Tlepolemus, son of Pythophanes, received Carmania. The king was already advancing into Carmania, when news was brought to him that Philip, the viceroy of the country of the Indians, had been plotted against by the mercenaries and treacherously killed; but that Philip’s Macedonian bodyguards had caught some of the murderers in the very act and others afterwards, and had put them to death. When he had ascertained this, he sent a letter into India to Eudemus and Taxiles, ordering them to administer the affairs of the land which had previously been subordinated to Philip until he could send a viceroy for it. When he arrived in Carmania, Craterus effected a junction with him, bringing with him the rest of the army and the elephants. He also brought Ordanes, whom he had arrested for revolting and trying to effect a revolution.2 Thither also came Stasanor, the viceroy of the Areians3 and Zarangians, accompanied by Pharismanes, son of Phrataphernes, the viceroy of the Parthians and Hyrcanians. There came also the generals who had been left with Parmenio over the army in Media, Cleander, Sitalces, and Heracon, bringing with them the greater part of their army. Both the natives and the soldiers themselves brought many accusations against Cleander and Sitalces, as for example, that the temples had been pillaged by them, old tombs rifled, and other acts of injustice, recklessness, and tyranny perpetrated against their subjects. As these charges were proved,4 he put them to death, in order to inspire others who might be left as viceroys, governors, or prefects of provinces with the fear of suffering equal penalties with them if they swerved from the path of duty5. This was one of the chief means by which Alexander kept in subordination the nations which he had conquered in war or which had voluntarily submitted to him, though they were so many in number and so far distant from each other; because under his regal sway it was not allowed that those who were ruled should be unjustly treated by those who ruled. At that time Heracon was acquitted of the charge, but soon after, being convicted by the men of Susa of having pillaged the temple in that city, he also suffered punishment. Stasanor and (the son of) Phrataphernes came to Alexander bringing a multitude of beasts of burden and many camels, when they learnt that he was marching by the route to Gadrosia, conjecturing that his army would suffer the very hardships which it did suffer. Therefore these men arrived just at the very time they were required, as also did their camels and beasts of burden. For Alexander distributed all these animals to the officers man by man, to all the various squadrons and centuries2 of the cavalry, and to the various companies of the infantry, as far as their number allowed him.


1. This man had been placed over the Oritians. See page 351 supra.

2. Curtius (ix. 41) says that Craterus sent a messenger to the king, to say that he was holding in chains two Persian nobles, Ozines and Zeriaspes, who had been trying to effect a revolt.

3. The Areians were famed for their skill as professional mourners. See Aeschylus (Choëphorae, 423). For the origin of the name see Donaldson (New Cratylus, sect. 81.)

4. εξηλέχθη is substituted by Sintenis for the common reading εξηγγέλθη.

5. According to Curtius (x. 1), Cleander and his colleagues were not slain, but put into prison; whereas 600 of the soldiers who had been the agents of their cruelty were put to death. Curtius says Oleander was spared for having killed Parmenio with his own hand. Cf. iii. 26 supra.

p.360-362

Ch.28: Alexander in Carmania B.C. 325

Arrian[7] writes ... Certain authors have said (though to me the statement seems incredible) that Alexander led his forces through Carmania lying extended with his Companions upon two covered waggons joined together, the flute beinig played to him; and that the soldiers followed him wearing garlands and sporting. Food was provided for them, as well as all kinds of dainties which had been brought together along the roads by the Carmanians. They say that he did this in imitation of the Bacchic revelry of Dionysus, because a story was told about that deity, that after subduing the Indians he traversed the greater part of Asia in this manner and received the appellation of Thriambus.[1] For the same reason the processions in honour of victories after war were called thriambi. This has been recorded neither by Ptolemy, son of Lagus, nor by Aristobulus, son of Aristobulus, nor by any other writer whose testimony on such points any one would feel to be worthy of credit. It is sufficient therefore for me to record it as unworthy of belief.[2] But as to what I am now going to describe I follow the account of Aristobulus. In Carmania Alexander offered sacrifices to the gods as thank-offerings for his victory over the Indians, and because his army had been brought in safety out of Gadrosia. He also celebrated a musical and gymnastic contest. He then appointed Peucestas one of his confidential body-guards, having already resolved to make him viceroy of Persis. He wished him, before being appointed to the viceroyalty, to experience this honour and evidence of confidence, as a reward for his exploit among the Mallians., Up to this time the number of his confidential body-guards had been seven:—Leonnatus, son of Anteas, Hephaestion, son of Amyntor, Lysimachus, son of Agathocles, Aristonous, son of Pisaeus, these four being Pellaeans; Perdiccas, son of Orontes, from Orestis, Ptolemy, son of Lagus, and Peithon, son of Crateas, the Heordaeans. Peucestas, who had held the shield over Alexander, was now added to them as an eighth. At this time Nearchus, having sailed round the coast of Ora and Gadrosia and that of the Ichthyophagi, put into port in the inhabited part of the coastland of Carmania,[3] and going up thence into the interior with a few men he reported to Alexander the particulars of the voyage which he had made along the coasts of the external sea. Nearchus was then sent down to the sea again to sail round as far as the country of Susiana, and the outlets of the river Tigres.[4] How he sailed from the river Indus to the Persian Sea and the mouth of the Tigres, I shall describe in a separate book, following the account of Nesa-chus himself.[5] For he also wrote a history of Alexander in Greek. Perhaps I shall be able to compose this narrative in the future, if inclination and the divine influence urge me to it. Alexander now ordered Hephaestion to march into Persis[6] from Carmania along the sea-shore with the larger division of the army and the beasts of burden, taking with him also the elephants; because, as he. was making the expedition in the season of winter,[7] the part of Persis near the sea was warm and possessed abundant supplies of provisions.


1. The thriambus was a hymn to Bacchus, sung in festal processions in his honour. It was also used as a name of that deity, as we learn from Diodorus, iv. 5. It was afterwards used as synonymous with the Roman triumphus, by Polybius, Dionysius, and Plutarch.

2. The Bacchanalian procession through Carmania is described by Curtius (ix. 42); Plutarch (Alex. 67); and Diodorus (xvii. 106).

3. Diodorus (xvii. 106) says that the port into which Nearchus put was called Salmus.

4. ἐκπεριπλεύσοντα. The Attic future of πλέω is πλεύσομαι. πλεύσω is only found in Polybius and the later writers.

5. See Arrian (Indica, 18-43).

6. The name for Persia and the Persians in the Hebrew Bible, is Paras. Cyrus is called Koresh (the sun) in Hebrew; in the cuneiform inscriptions the name is Khurush. Cambyses is called Ahasuerus in Ezra iv. 6; and Smerdis the Magian is the Artaxerxes who was induced by the Samaritans to forbid the further building of the temple (Ezra iv. 7-24). The Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther is probably Xerxes. Artaxerxes the Long-handed was the patron of Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra vii. 11-28; Neh. ii. 1-9, etc). " Darius the Persian," mentioned in Neh. xii. 22, was probably Darius Oodomannus, who was conquered by Alexander. The province of Susiana, previously called Elymais, appears in the Hebrew under the name of Eilam or Elam. Persis is still called Fars.

7. B.C. 325.

p.362-364

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[8] tells that in the reign of Harsha of Kashmir (b.1059, ruled. 1089-1101 AD), The Damaras became riotous, and he ordered the lord of Mandala to massacre them. The Damaras inhabiting Madava and Lohara were first attacked and murdered like birds in the nests. Even the Brahmanas who dwelt at Madava were not spared by the destroyer of the Lavanyas (Damaras). Poles were fixed on the place where the Damaras were executed. One wife of a Lavanya was impaled, the rest were terrified, and fled on all sides. Some fled to the country of the Mlechchhas and lived on beef, others took to working wheels at wells. The lord of Mandala sent to the fierce king many garlands made of the heads of the Lavanyas. The gates of the palace was seen filled with Damara heads. Gold, cloth, and other valuable things were kept at the palace-gate, and whoever brought a Damara head obtained one of them from the door as his reward. And the birds lingered at the king's gate to feed on human heads. Wherever the king stopped, the gates were adorned with garlands of Damara heads. The bad smell which arose, and the cry of jackals, made the place appear like the spot assigned for the burning of the dead.

From the tank at Valeraka to Lokapunya, the lord of Mandala erected a row of the impaled Damaras.

After having quite depopulated — Madava of the Damaras, the lord of Mandala intended to do the same with Kramarajya, and marched towards it. In despair the Damaras of this place collected an army at Loulaha. They fought a fierce battle, and the lord of Mandala was for a time baffled. But the king, like a Rakshasa, was bent on destroying this beautiful kingdom. [VII (i), p.262]


Rajatarangini[9] tells ...Uchchala was reduced to much difficulty on the day of full moon in the month of chaitra, but on the fifth day of the dark moon he fearlessly set out for battle. He allowed Vattadeva and others to take their own course that they might create confusion in the kingdom. He intended to enter Kashmira by the way which led through Kramarajya. Kapila, grandson of Kshema, whom the king had placed at Lohara after Udayasiha, fled as Uchchala entered the place. Uchchala moved before his army with sword and shield, and arrived at Parnotsa, and there compelled the royal army to fly. He captured Sujjaka, Lord of Dvara, who was reposing at ease and apprehended no danger, and soon entered Kashmira. Some of the Damaras and the people of Khasha, who inhabited the mountains and who were enemies of the king, now joined Uchchala.[VII (i),p.268]


Rajatarangini[10]tells....At Kramarajya Rilhana subdued Kalyanavara and others; and Ananda, son of Ananta, became lord of Dvara. The powerful Prithvihara having impaled Siṃha fought with Janakasimha and others on the banks of the Kshiptika. (VIII,p.85)


Rajatarangini[11]tells....Sussala's plan of usurpation: Sussala, though possessed of wealth of all kinds, planned the usurpation of the kingdom and meditated an attack on his brother. The king heard all of a sudden that his brother had crossed Varahavartta and had fallen on him with the speed of a hawk. The active king issued out for battle before his opponent could gain a firm footing, and 'ell on him with his large army and did him much harm. The younger brother fled towards his quarters, leaving his baggage behind. The king returned with success but heard that his brother had returned on the following day, bent on mischief. By his orders Gaggachandra marched out with a large army to crush the force of Sussala. The battle raged for a long time and innumerable hardy soldiers of Sussala departed to heaven, and assuaged the fatigue of the women in the garden of that place. In this battle Sahadeva and Yudhishthira, two Rajputs, paid with their lives the debt of favor they owed to their master. Gagga captured the fleeing horsemen of the enemy who rode on beautiful horses which excited the curiosity even of the king who had many horses. The king marched with his army, quickly pursued his brother towards Kramarajya by the way of Selyapura road. Thus pursued by his elder brother, Sussala with his handful followers entered the country of Darad. The king killed Loshtaka, the Damara inhabitant of Selyapura, because he gave passage to Sussala, and entered the city Selyapura. When Sussala had gone far away, the king though polluted with sins, did not try to possess the hills of Lohara out of love for his brother. Sussala was married to the pure Meghamanjari, daughter of Vijayapala. She had lost her father and had been affectionately brought up by her mother's father Kahla, king of Kalindara, as his own child. Such was the power of Sussala that though it was then winter yet his enemies at Lohara could not oppose him. (p.17-18)


Rajatarangini[12] tells ....Once when the king Sussala was at Kramarajya he went to the mountainous village of Varhanachakra in order to see the fire that lights of itself. When he was passing by the road of the village of Kamvaleshvara some armed Chandala robbers who lived there, surrounded him. Though they were intent on striking, and though the king's soldiers were few, yet being struck with panic they could not use their arms and so they did not strike. The king lost his way and wandered about with a few followers, and spent a night in a deep cavern. Soon on the morning this bad news reached the camp. From


[p.23]: camp the news slowly reached the capital. The Superintendent of the city was Chhudda of the family of the hero Kamadeva and brother of Radda. He quelled the disturbance in the city by arms, and then entered the palace with his brothers in order to determine what to do. When deliberations were going on as to who should be made king, Sadda a wicked Kayastha wishing to benefit his own caste people thus addressed him : — " You with your many friends, kinsmen and servants are unconquerable, rule this kingdom without opposition." When thus addressed the wicked man wished to enjoy the kingdom and soon tried to get on the throne. Whoever was conscious of his descent from the line of Shriyashaskara felt a desire to rule the kingdom. It appears that the wish that was inherent in them was inflamed by the words of an evil friend. They were not inclined to follow the right path, or why should they think of Sadda's evil counsel ? The low Sadda was born of the family of Lavata, the porter. Kshemadeva's son who held a small appointment behaved harshly like a very desperate and brave man. He stole a golden vase from the palace, and though ho was suspected yet, being a grave man, he was not discovered. He kept a small sword, was without a turban, laughed at all and prided himself, and like a prince despised the world. He always moved his fingers, and his notions of Government were cruel. By the words of this man and by their own evil desire, Chhudda and others aspired to the kingdom, but their de-


[p.24]: From that time the desire of being king was neither rooted out from their minds, nor was asleep, nor did it find an outlet. The king whose regard for them became unsettled gradually removed them from Government offices, and reduced them to an humble state. The king who was naturally rude in his speech now told them heart-piercing words. In the reign of king Harsha, they lived in the house of their young widow-mother after their father's death. Their neighbour an youthful friend and soldier named Madyasattaka was suspected with having formed an intrigue with their mother, and they killed him. But the king judged that they had not punished their unchaste mother and cut off her nose, and published this news behind their back ; and enquired after them as sons of the " Nose-cut." The king who was like death towards the Kayasthas had made Sadda the treasurer of the great treasury &c., and prevented him from doing mischief. But oppressed by Sadda's harshness his own accountant told the king that Sadda used to defalcate money from the treasury. The king in anger took away from him his post of Praveshabhagika and he again drove Radda and Chhudda to adopt their former plan.


Rajatarangini[13] tells....Bhāsa, a servant of Sujji, had escaped his enemies through the virtue of the people and being weary, entered the court-yard of god Avasvami at Avantipura. He and Kshemananda who had quelled the rebellion at Kampana were surrounded by the angry Damaras of Holaḍa. Induraja, a commander in the army, born of the line of Kularaja was also surrounded by the same Damaras ; but by some pretext Induraja obtained the protection of Tikka at Dhyānoddāra. Pinchadeva and many other leaders of the army were besieged by the Damaras and they left Kramarajya.

Book by Francis Beaufort

In 1811–12, Francis Beaufort, then the captain of HSM Frederikssteen in the British Navy, was tasked with mapping the Mediterranean coast of Anatolia. In 1817, he published a book about his services, named Brief description of the south coast of Asia-Minor and of the remains of antiquity. With plans, views, & collected during a survey of that coast, under the orders of the Lords commissioners of the Admiralty, in the years 1811-1812.[14] In the preface of the book he called the southern coasts of Anatolia as Caramania but he added that although the name was a common name among the Europeans, neither the people nor the government of the Ottoman Empire used this name.[15]

Geography

In his book, Sir Francis Beaufort referred to all of the southern coast of Anatolia as Caramania or Karamania. This name referred to a wide region from Yediburun (Mount Cragus) to Ayas (Aegeae) where Beaufort was wounded during a clash.[16] This region is from 36°24′N 29°07′E in the west to 36°47′N 35°50′E in the east, almost lying at the same latitude but spanning a longitude difference of more than 6 degrees which corresponds to about 600 kms bird’s flight. Presently it corresponds to the coast line of three Turkish provinces: Antalya, Mersin and Adana. Even at the zenith of their power, however, the Karamanids controlled only one third of this coast.

Jat History

Sir H. M. Elliot[17] writes that General Cunningham in his Archælogical Report for 1863-4, says, "The traditions of the Hindu Játs of Biána and Bharatpur point to Kandahar as their parent country, while those of the Muhammadan Játs generally refer to Gajni or Garh-Gajni, which may be either the celebrated fort of Ghazni in Afghanistan or the old city of Gajnipur on the site of Rawul-Pindi. But if I am right in my identification of the Játs with the Xanthii of Strabo, and the Iatii of Pliny and Ptolemy, their parent country must have been on the banks of the Oxus, between Bactria, Hyrkania, and Khorasmia. Now in this very position there was a fertile district, irrigated from the Margus river, which Pliny calls Zotale or Zothale, and which, I believe to have been the original seat of the Iatii or Játs. Their course from the Oxus to the Indus may perhaps be dimly traced in the Xuthi of Dionysius of Samos, who are coupled with the Arieni, and in the Zuthi of Ptolemy who occupied the Karmanian desert on the frontier of Drangiana. As I can find no other traces of their name in the classical writers, I am inclined to believe, as before suggested, that they may have been best known in early times, by the general name of their horde, as Abars, instead of by their tribal name as Játs. According to this view, the main body of the Iatii would have occupied the district of Abiria and the towns of Parda-bathra and Bardaxema in Sindh, or Southern Indo-Scythia,


[p.508]: while the Panjab or Northern Indo-Scythia was chiefly colonized by their brethren the Meds.

When the Muhammadans first appeared in Sindh, towards the end of the seventh century, the Zaths and Meds were the chief population of the country. But as I have already shown that the original seat of the Med or Medi colony was in the Panjab proper, I conclude that the original seat of the Iatii or Ját colony, must have been in Sindh.

Ja clans

Kilak Jat clan gets name after a place name Kilikia in Asia Minor.

H. W. Bellew writes about a satrapy in Afghanistan composed of the Kilikoi, and apparently comprised the province of Kilikia, the modern Adana, with perhaps the adjoining province of Karaman with its capital Koniya, the ancient Ikonium. The Kiliki may perhaps be represented in Afghanistan by the Ghilji or Khiliji, The Ghilji of Afghanistan, called also Ghalzoe, Khalaja, and Khalachi, are said to be a Turk tribe from beyond the Jaxartes, and of the Khilichi or "Swords- men" tribe of Turk. They have been known in Afghanistan by the name of Ghilji or Khilichi, at least since the time of Mahmud of Ghazni, towards the close of the tenth century, and were probably settled in the country at a much earlier date. The name appears in the form of Khizilchi, or Khilichi, or Khizilji, as the patronymic of the Saljuk dynasty of Rum, or Asia Minor, whose capital was Ikonium, during the twelfth century. We have seen what is the composition of the Ghilji tribe of Afghanistan, and how largely it is made up of Indian elements.[18]

H. W. Bellew writes The Furmuli are situated between the Vaziri and the Kharoti, and are reckoned as Tajik ; their language is the old Persian of the Shah Nama ; they are quite distinct from both the Afghan and Pathan, but claim to be of common descent with the Khiliji, whose capital, they say, was the city of Khilij, to the westward of the Helmand and Kala Bost. Perhaps there is here some hazy reference to the ancient Kilikia in Asia Minor. [19]

Karmir Jat clan :

Karmir (करमीर)[20] Kirmara (किरमरा) Karmit (करमीट) is a gotra of Jats. [21] Karmir are said to have originated from Nagavanshi King Krimira (क्रीमीर). These people were inhabitants of place called Karmania, which gave this name to the gotra. [22]

References

  1. Gábor Ágoston; Bruce Masters (2009). Encyclopaedia of the Ottoman Empire. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1
  2. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan,p.3
  3. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan,p.44
  4. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter VI, p.193-194
  5. Pliny XI 110.
  6. The Anabasis of Alexander/6b, Ch.27
  7. The Anabasis of Alexander/6b, Ch.28
  8. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VII (i), p.262
  9. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VII (i),p.268
  10. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII, p.85
  11. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii),p.17-18
  12. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII,p.22-24
  13. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i)]],p.122-123
  14. Worlscat identities
  15. Sir Francis Beaufort:Karamanya, (tr:Ali Neyzi-Doğan Türker), Akdeniz medeniyetleri Araştırma Enstitüsü, ISBN 975-7078-15-8
  16. Sir Francis Beaufort:Karamanya, (tr:Ali Neyzi-Doğan Türker), Akdeniz medeniyetleri Araştırma Enstitüsü, ISBN 975-7078-15-8
  17. Sir H. M. Elliot:The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/Note (C).- Ethnological,pp.507-508
  18. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.58
  19. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.126
  20. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. क-94
  21. Dr Pema Ram:‎Rajasthan Ke Jaton Ka Itihas, p.296
  22. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 230

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