Susharma

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Susharma (सुशर्मा) was an ancient king mentioned in Mahabharatha (VI.47.18), (VI.112.28). He was king of Trigarta and brother of Duryodhana's wife, Bhanumati. [1]

Variants of name

Mention by Panini

Susharma (सुशर्म) is a place name mentioned by Panini under Arihanadi (अरीहणादि) (4.2.80.1) group. [2]

History

Alexander Cunningham[3] writes that The royal family of Jalandhara and Kangra is one of the oldest in India, and their genealogy from the time of the founder, Susarma Chandra, appears to have a much stronger claim to our belief than any one of the long strings of names now shown by the more powerful families of Rajasthan. All the different scions of this house claim to be of Somavanshi descent ; and they assert that their ancestors held the district of Multan and fought in the Great War on the side of Duryodhan against the five Pandu brothers. After the war they lost their country, and retired under the leadership of Susarma Chandra to the Jalandhar Doab, where they established themselves, and built the stronghold of Kangra.


V. S. Agrawala[4] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Sālveyaka (शाल्वेयक) - Shālveyakas are mentioned as separate people in Mahabharata, grouped with Matsyas in their fight with the King Susharma of Trigarta (Virataparva.29.2). They must be same as Shalvaputra mentioned in Udyogaparva (4.24). The name Sālvaputra may still be traced in Alwar region. The Sālveyas stood in relation to Shalvas as the Mādreyas to Madras.


V. S. Agrawala[5] tells that the Janakis are mentioned as helpmates of Suśarmā of Trigarta (Adiparva, 61.17, Udyogaparva, 4.17).


Brihadratha Dynasty (c. 1700–799 BC), Semi-legendary rulers in Purana accounts include King Susharma Chand.

Kurukshetra War Day-1: Susharma clashed with Chekitana.

Kurukshetra War Day-12: The king of Trigartadesa, Susharma along with his 3 brothers and 35 sons who were fighting on the Kaurava side made a pact that they would kill Arjuna or die. They went into the battle field on the twelfth day and challenged Arjuna. Arjuna gave them a fierce fight in which the brothers fell dead after fighting a brave fight.

He led a huge army and concentrated on fighting Arjuna during the Kurukshetra war, having taken a vow to kill him. He was slain by Arjuna.[6]

Early history of Chamba reveals that One significant happening during the time of the great war of Mahabharata (circa 1400BC) was the founding of the Katoch monarchy of Kangra by King Susharma Chandra. This Susharma Chandra is supposed to have sided with the Kaurava brothers in their war against the Pandavas. Kangra was probably named as Bhim Kot (fort of Bhim) after Bhima, one of the Pandavas.

In Mahabharatha

Susharma is mentioned in Mahabharatha (VI.47.18), (VI.112.27, 28).

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 47 describes immeasurable heroes assembled for Kurukshetra War. Trigartas were protecting Bhishma. And Somadatta, and Susarma, and Sudakshina, the ruler of the Kambojas and Satayus, and Srutayus, were on the right flank. Susharma is mentioned in verse (VI.47.18). [7]


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 112 mentions another Susarman, who was not the king of the Trigartas but another person who was on the Pandava side.

"Chitrasena, having pierced Susarman with many arrows made wholly of iron, once more pierced him with sixty arrows and once more with nine. Susarman, however, excited with wrath in battle, pierced thy son, with hundreds of arrows. Chitrasena then, excited with rage, pierced his adversary with thirty straight shafts. Susarman, however, pierced Chitrasena again in return." [8]

In Bhagavata Purana

Lambodara ancestry

'A study of the Bhagavata Purana; or, Esoteric Hinduism' by Purnendu Narayana Sinha, pp 226-227 mentions that (10) ten kings of the Sunga dynasty shall reign for 112 years. These are:Pushyamitra → Agnimitra → Sujyestha → (Vasumitra + Bhadraka + Pulinda): Pulinda → Utghosha → Vajramitra → Bhagavata → Devabhuti


Vasudeva, the minister of Devabhuti, shall kill his master and become himself the king.

Vasudeva
Bhumitra
Narayana
Susarman

These four kings shall be called Kanvas. They shall reign for 345 years. Susarman shall be killed by his servant Balin, a King of the Andhra clan, who shall himself usurp the throne. Balin shall be succeeded by his brother Krishna.

External links

References

  1. Brief biographies of some main characters in the Mahâbhârata and Bhâgavata Purâna (S'rîmad Bhâgavatam)
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.501
  3. The Ancient Geography of India,p.138
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.56
  5. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.444-445
  6. Brief biographies of some main characters in the Mahâbhârata and Bhâgavata Purâna (S'rîmad Bhâgavatam)
  7. सौमदत्तिः सुशर्मा च काम्बॊजश च सुदक्षिणः, शतायुश च शरुतायुश च दक्षिणं पार्श्वम आस्दिताः Mahabharatha (VI.47.18)
  8. चित्रसेनः सुशर्माणं विथ्ध्वा नवभिर आशुगैः,पुनर विव्याध तं षष्ट्या पुनश च नवभिः शरैः Mahabharatha (VI.112.27) सुशर्मा तु रणे करुथ्धस तव पुत्रं विशां पते, थशभिर थशभिश चैव विव्याध निशितैः शरैः Mahabharatha (VI.112.28).