- For details See Lohara dynasty
The seat of the Lohara dynasty was a hill-fortress called Loharakotta, or Lohkot, the precise location of which has been the subject of academic debate over a prolonged period. Stein, a translator of Kalhana, has discussed some of these theories and concludes that it lay in the Pir Panjal range of mountains, on a trade route between western Punjab and Kashmir. As such, it was not itself in Kashmir but in the kingdom of Lohara, centred around a group of large villages collectively known as Lohrin, which itself was a name shared by the valley in which they were situated and a river that ran through it. The Lohara kingdom probably extended into neighbouring valleys.
Bhim Singh Dahiya has described about the history of Lohar clan. This clan is famous in Kashmir history and gave it a whole dynasty called Lohar dynasty. Their settlement in India was Loharin, in Pir Pantsal range. The Lohar Kot-fort of Lohars-is named after them. The famous queen Didda, married to Kshemagupta, was daughter of Lohar Kong Simha Raja, who himself was married to a daughter of Lalli (Jat Clan) Sahi king Bhima of Kabul and Udabhanda (Und, near modern Attock).
Kotta - Mahavansa/Chapter 32 tells...`Ninety-nine viharas have been built by the great king, and, with (the spending of) nineteen kotis, the Maricavattivihara; the splendid Lohapasada was built for thirty kotis. But those precious things that have been made for the Great Thupa were worth twenty kotis; the rest that, was made for the Great Thüpa by the wise (king was worth) a thousand kotis, O great king.' Thus did he read. As he read further: `In the mountain-region called Kotta, at the time of the famine called the Akkhakhayika famine, two precious ear-rings were given (by the king), and thus a goodly dish of sour millet- gruel was gotten for five great theras who had overcome the asavas, and offered to them with a believing heart; when, vanquished in the battle of Culaganiya, he was fleeing he proclaimed the hour (of the meal) and to the ascetic (Tissa), free from the Asavas, who came thither through the air he, without thought for himself, gave the food from his bowl.
Rajatarangini mentions that The king Sussala, who was indifferent in mind and wished to resign his kingdom brought from Lohara, his son Simhadeva, who had just then passed his boyhood. He had made Bhagika, Prajji's brother's son, lord of Mandala and employed him at Lohara, and thus guarded the country and its treasury. When his beloved son Simhadeva arrived at Varahamula, he advanced and embraced him with joy as well as with grief....His father (Sussala) crowned him (Simhadeva) on the first of Ashada, and with tears in his eyes he taught him in the ways and policies of kings. It is in 1125 AD. [VIII (i),p.105]
Rajatarangini tells us ....The king Bhikshachara by taking away from Sujji his possessions plainly showed that he no longer felt for Sujji as he used to feel before. Sujji's followers became few and he himself apprehended evil. This proud man, thus insulted, went out of the capital with the bones of king Sussala in order to proceed to the river Ganges. Out of love for the king, Sujji asked his permission for undertaking this journey : and when he set out, neither the king nor his officers prevented his going. With a view to parade his pride, the Pratihara, when sending Sujji to exile, sent his own son to protect Sujji's wealth. It grieved Lakshmaka to find that the Pratihara thought that it rested with him to punish or to favor, so that the Pratihara sent his son as a protector. Lakshmaka returned from Dvara and went to Parnotsa without rising against the king ; and then drove Bhagika from the hills of Lohara. The Pratihara sent Prema, son of the (king's) nurse, to the king, and the king bestowed the possession of Kotta on him. Lakshmaka left Lohara and thereby removed the fear of the king, and spent the fierce summer season at Rajapuri. The king who had under him the Damaras, and could raise or put down the ministers like balls, appointed Lakshmaka at Dvara, in order to set up a rival to Sujji and also for the safety and dignity of his dynasty. Thus the king enviously believed that the valorous Sujji, born in this country and fed from his treasury, would deprive him of his glory. By this appointment at Dvara, Lakshmaka was made uneasy and became an object of ridicule. [VIII (i),p.140-141]
Rajatarangini tells us that ... Udaya, lord of Kampana, waited before the king, and then went after the prime minister, the Pratihara. The army consisted of the Rajputs, and the Damara horsemen and was led by ministers, and accompanied by troops who looked terrible in their arms. A part of the force which was within the palace (at Lohara) surrounded a large tract of country and tried to seize the enemy. Lalla , and others remained at Phullapura adjoining Kotta, and made the enemy's soldiers tremble by spreading alarm and dissension among them, and also by skirmishes. (p.161)
Rajatarangini tells us.... Mallarjjuna's coronation at Kotta in 1130 AD: On the other hand, the wise king Jayasimha, within a short time, deceived Lothana, as he had deceived Prema. He said to the people : — " We will make Mallarjjuna, son of king Sussala by queen Sahaja, king of this Lohara for your benefit." When the king had said these deceitful words, the people did not believe him, yet they consented to his proposal with the object of possessing Kotta. Lothana knew his brother's son Mallarjjuna to be first among the conspirators, and imprisoned him as also the other conspirators of whom Mallarjjuna was the chief. Afraid of the son of Sussala (Mallarjjuna) who was imprisoned, Lothana made Vigraharaja accept the office of the Pratihara. The king who was fertile in expedients, concluded peace with the brother of his father by stratagem and by various other means, and hastened to bring the lost kingdom (Lohara) under his control. Through the labors of Sujji, the kingdom became stable, and for a few
[p.171]: months Lothana could discard Shura, and was able, without fear, to engage himself in his own work. When Sujji heard that the mother of the unmarried daughter of Padmaratha, whom he had invited for marriage of her daughter with Lothana, had arrived with great pomp, he went to Darpitapura to receive her men. At this unguarded time Mallarjjuna was released from prison by Majika and others, and was unanimously anointed king of the kingdom of Kotta by them and by the Thakkuras who had been brought to the place before. They opposed the entrance into the fort, of the, servants of Jayasimha who had approached the castle gate and were wishing to get into it.
In the year 6 (=1130 AD), on the thirteenth day of the bright moon, in the month of Phalguna, Lothana was deprived of his kingdom, as speedily as he had obtained it. The foolish and unfortunate Lothana lamented that the unmarried girl and his unspent wealth should go for the enjoyment of another. His power was now broken, he passed through Attalika and other places, and obtained what little remained in the treasury, through Sujji's influence.When the dependants of king Jayasimha, who had been invited before, arrived, Majika reproached them and made king Mallarjjuna supreme in the country. [VIII (i),pp.170-171]
Rajataranginitells....Sussala's plan of usurpation: Sussala, though possessed of wealth of all kinds, planned the usurpation of the kingdom and meditated an attack on his brother. The king heard all of a sudden that his brother had crossed Varahavartta and had fallen on him with the speed of a hawk. The active king issued out for battle before his opponent could gain a firm footing, and 'ell on him with his large army and did him much harm. The younger brother fled towards his quarters, leaving his baggage behind. The king returned with success but heard that his brother had returned on the following day, bent on mischief. By his orders Gaggachandra marched out with a large army to crush the force of Sussala. The battle raged for a long time and innumerable hardy soldiers of Sussala departed to heaven, and assuaged the fatigue of the women in the garden of that place. In this battle Sahadeva and Yudhishthira, two Rajputs, paid with their lives the debt of favor they owed to their master. Gagga captured the fleeing horsemen of the enemy who rode on beautiful horses which excited the curiosity even of the king who had many horses. The king marched with his army, quickly pursued his brother towards Kramarajya by the way of Selyapura road. Thus pursued by his elder brother, Sussala with his handful followers entered the country of Darad. The king killed Loshtaka, the Damara inhabitant of Selyapura, because he gave passage to Sussala, and entered the city Selyapura. When Sussala had gone far away, the king though polluted with sins, did not try to possess the hills of Lohara out of love for his brother. Sussala was married to the pure Meghamanjari, daughter of Vijayapala. She had lost her father and had been affectionately brought up by her mother's father Kahla, king of Kalindara, as his own child. Such was the power of Sussala that though it was then winter yet his enemies at Lohara could not oppose him. (p.17-18)
Gulhana made king of Lohara
Rajatarangini tells.... The king (Jayasimha) then anointed Gulhana, the eldest of the sons of Raḍḍādevī, as king of the prosperous kingdom of Lohara. That prince was aged six or seven years, and he surpassed older kings, as a young mango tree surpasses worn out trees. As the queen Raḍḍā went to anoint her son, the feudatory kings bowed to her, and reddened her feet by the rays of the rubies on their heads, as if by red paint. When the prince was anointed, the clouds, as if in compliance with, the wishes of the queen, drenched the earth which had been dried up by a fearful drought. (p.306)
Rajatarangini tells.... After the king of Lohara (Gulhana), queen Radda's four sons, clever and eminent on account of their virtues, became kings. As Lakshmana bore inseparable love towards Rama, so Gulhana is loved by Aparāditya, and lives in prosperity in Lohara. As Shatrughna was brought up by Bharata, even so Jayapida lives under the fostering care of Lalitaditya. King Ahaskara was renowned on account of humility and was the fifth virtuous king, and rose like the young sun. He was restless on account of his young age, graceful on account of his reverence and power, and although like the beautiful sun, he softened men. His fair face with eyes lined with collyrium, and his lower lip red as copper, appeared like a golden lotus on which the rays of the newly risen sun were reflected. Though
[p.314]: young, his conversation was clear and full of magnanimity, and was as grateful to men as the source of the nectar, (the moon), churned out of the ocean. " He is horn of a great family, and the graceful dignity of his infancy indicates future expansion.
Four daughters, — Menila, Rajalakshmi, Padmashri and Kamala, — all bent on good deeds, were born to the king of Kashmira.
King and the queen: Always surrounded by beautiful children in the pleasure garden made for enjoyment? the unblemished king and queen look graceful like two gardens in the rainy season. By the reduction of the expenditure of the kingdom, hallowed by holy temples, the riches of queen Radda were augmented. The queen was followed by the king and petty chiefs and ministers in her pilgrimage to shrines of gods, and she beamed like the goddess of Royal Fortune. When she bathed, her companions in pilgrimage touched the person of that chaste lady and instantly abandoned their desire to touch the image of Sati. When she marched, the rain clouds in the sky always followed her, in order to see her, as they follow the rainy season ; no doubt, because, when she bathed in the shrines of this world, the shrines of heaven bathed her too, out of jealousy, in the guise of rain clouds. In her eagerness to go to shrines, the queen with her tender limbs does not think even the cloud-touching hills and the bank-breaking rivers in her way to be insurmountable. By setting up many images and repairing worn out temples, the wise and clever queen surpassed the
[p.315]: " Idle " (Nirjjitavarmma) and Didda. She set up a beautiful image of Rudra named Rudreshvara, made of white stone grateful as the source of the nectar, (the moon), and beauteous as the melting sea of cream. It shines to the day and destroys hunger, thirst, poverty and all disturbances. Set with pure gold, it is the graceful ornament of Kashmira, the essence of all beautiful things in the world. She also repaired the building named Shāntāvasāda.
Influence of the queen over the king: When the king is ruffled with anger, as the sea is by the sub-marine fire, the queen is the shelter of the servants, as the Ganges is of aquatic creatures. When the king is in even temper, punishments or favors on [subordinate] kings were awarded at her desire. She favored king Bhupala, son of Somapala, by marriage with the honorable Meniladevi. The dignity inherited from noble birth is easily discerned, and is, never, completely lost. The fiery sun has the power to destroy darkness, and the disk (moon) receives the power from the sun, and so destroys darkness. This kingdom, wonderful among all kingdoms on earth, and purified and full of jewels, displays in a befitting manner the virtues of the king. After Meniladevi was married, her father sincerely forgot his former displeasure against the bridegroom and bestowed on him a kingdom.
The king had, by his vigour, killed king Prājidhara and other enemies in battle. The powerful Ghatotkacha, younger brother of Prajidhara now tried to heal up his enmity with the king. He took shelter of Radda and
[p.316]: obtained a beautiful kingdom, and enjoyed a kingly fortune. Panchavata, helped by the ministers of the king, caused the kingdom of Angada including Prajji to he taken away from its owner who behaved with hostility towards his brother. His [ Panchavata's] prowess was as great as that of the Sohāradānā river, when full of water ; but by crossing it, he (Ghatotkacha) eluded that river as well as Panchavata's black sword flashing before enemies. The latter [ Panchavata ] created a bad name for the king, and by the prowess of the gods, took possession of Atyugrapura full of combatants. Under the beams of the white umbrella, beautiful is the moon, many joyful leaders of armies thus attained fame.
In this year 25 (=1149 AD), twenty-two years have now passed since the king obtained the kingdom. Owing to the .... of the subjects, the happiness attained by this king in the end was not equalled in any other place for many years and cycles. Water which naturally fows is, by n certain plant, consolidated, and it becomes like stone. Solid stone (sun-jewel) melts at the rising of the sun, and flows. Whose work can shine unchanged against the irresistible power of time, as long as such resistible power endures? Such is the power of Fate !
List of Kings of Loharkot
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-295
उसने लोहित (लोहत) जनपद को भी जीत लिया। यह जनपद कश्मीर में था (सभापर्व अध्याय 26-27-28)। भीमसेन ने पूर्व दिशा के देशों को जीत लिया। उसने लोहित देश (ब्रह्मपुत्र क्षेत्र) पर भी विजय प्राप्त की (सभापर्व अध्याय 29-30)।
कश्मीरी कवि कह्लण ने अपनी पुस्तक राजतरंगिणी में इस राजवंश को लोहर राजवंश लिखा है जो कि कश्मीर के इतिहास में एक प्रसिद्ध राजवंश था। ये लोग कश्मीर में पीरपंजाल पहाड़ी क्षेत्र में आबाद थे। इन लोगों के नाम पर लोहर कोट (लोहरों का दुर्ग) है। सुप्रसिद्ध महारानी दीद्दा का विवाह Ksemagupta (कस्मगुप्त) के साथ हुआ था। वह लोहर नरेश सिमहाराज का पुत्र था, जिसका विवाह जाटवंशज लल्ली साही नरेश भीम की पुत्री से हुआ था। यह भीम काबुल और उदभंग (अटक के निकट औन्ध) का शासक था। अतः दीद्दा लोहरिया जाट गोत्र की थी और काबुल के लल्ली (लल्ल) वंशी जाट नरेश की दुहोतरी थी। इस राजवंश की सन्तान आज भी साही जाट कहलाते हैं1।
महारानी दीद्दा ने अपने भाई उदयराज के पुत्र संग्रामराज को अपना उत्तराधिकारी बनाया। उनकी मृत्यु सन् 1028 ई० में हो गई। (कह्लण की राजतरंगिणी, लेखक ए) स्टीन, vi 335, vii, 1284) इसके बाद लोहर जनपद का नरेश विग्रहराज हुआ (देखो कह्लण की राजतरंगिणी Vol. II P. 293, Steins note Ex.)2।
फरिश्ता लिखता है कि “महमूद की नाकामयाबी का कारण यह था कि इस दुर्ग की ऊंचाई एवं शक्ति अदभुत थी।” (देखो, ‘लोहर का किला’ इण्डियन एक्टिक्योरी, 1897)3
महमूद गजनवी ने भारतवर्ष पर 1001 ई० से 1026 ई० तक 17 आक्रमण किये थे। उसने नगरकोट और कांगड़ा को सन् 1009 ई० में जीत लिया। उसके आक्रमण से भयभीत होकर कश्मीर में तत्कालीन शासन इतना अस्थिर हो गया था कि बिना आक्रमण ही अधिकारहीन हो उठा। तब लोहर क्षत्रियों (जाटवंश) ने ही वहां की सत्ता को स्थिर किया। ऐतिहासिक डफ् के लेखानुसार लोहर वंशज राज कलश ने संवत् 1120 (सन् 1063 ई०) से संवत् 1146 (सन् 1089) तक शासन किया। और संवत् 1159 (सन् 1102 ई०) तक राजा हर्ष, जो लोहर वंशज था, ने शासन किया4।
सन् 1258 ई० में खान नल्व तातार ने जब कश्मीर पर आक्रमण करके श्रीनगर को लूटा तथा जलाया तब वहां लोहरवंशी जयसिंह उपनाम सिंहदेव राज्य करता था। उसके भाग जाने पर उसके भाई उदयनदेव ने राज्य सम्भाला। किन्तु उसके सेनापति रामचन्द्र ने राज्य छीन लिया। तिब्बती रैवनशाह ने रामचन्द्र की पुत्री कुतरानी से विवाह करके अपना शासन 2½ वर्ष चलाया। उसकी मृत्यु हो जाने पर लोहरवंशी उदयनदेव ने विधवा कुतरानी से विवाह करके 15 वर्ष अपना शासन चलाया। इस शासक की मृत्यु होते ही इस वंश का राज्य कश्मीर से समाप्त हो गया। तब से आज तक यह
- 1, 2, 3. जाट्स दी ऐनशनट् रूलर्ज पृ० 263, लेखक बी० एस० दहिया आई० आर० एस०।
- 4. जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 365, लेखक कविराज योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री। इसी लेखक ने इस जाटवंश को लोहर क्षत्रिय या खत्री लिखा है।
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-296
वंश सर्वथा राज्यहीन है (जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 365-366, ले० योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री)।
- Stein, Mark Aurel (1989) . Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2 (Reprinted ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0370-1, pp. 293-294.
- James Todd Annals/Chapter 7 Catalogue of the Thirty Six Royal Races ,p. 116, fn-2
- Stein, Rajatarangini, i. Introd. 108, ii. 293 ff.
- RAJAT, VI, 355 and VII, 1284
- For details see, RAJAT, Vol II, p. 293; Steins note.
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i),p.105
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i) ,p.140-141
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i) , p.161
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i),pp.170-171
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii),p.17-18
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii),p.306
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii),p.313-316
- जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.295-296
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