Netherlands

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Map of Netherlands

Netherlands is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a small, densely populated country, lying mainly in Western Europe, but also includes three islands in the Caribbean.

Origin of name

The Netherlands' name literally means "Low Country", inspired by its low and flat geography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding one metre above sea level.[1]

Location

The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom and Germany.[2] The largest and most important cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague and Rotterdam. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of government.[3] The port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe – as large as the next three largest combined.[4]

History

Germanic groups and Romans (500 BC – 410 AD):

Deteriorating climate in Scandinavia around 850 BC and later faster around 650 BC might have triggered migration of the Germanic tribes. By the time this migration was complete, around 250 BC, a few general cultural and linguistic groupings had emerged.[5][6] The North Sea Germanic (or Ingvaeones) inhabited the northern part of the Low Countries. They would later develop into the Frisii and the early Saxons.[7]

A second grouping, the Weser-Rhine Germanic (or Istvaeones), extended along the middle Rhine and Weser and inhabited the Low Countries south of the great rivers. This group consisted of tribes that would eventually develop into the Salian Franks.[8]

Also the Celtic La Tène culture (c. 450 BC up to the Roman conquest) had expanded over a wide range, including into the southern area of the Low Countries. Some scholars have speculated that even a third ethnic identity and language, neither Germanic nor Celtic, survived in the Netherlands until the Roman period, the Iron Age Nordwestblock culture,[9][10] that eventually was being absorbed by the Celts to the south and the Germanic peoples from the east.

During the Gallic Wars, the area south of the Oude Rijn and west of the Rhine was conquered by Roman forces under Julius Caesar from 57 BC to 53 BC.[11] Caesar describes two main tribes living in what is now the southern Netherlands: the Menapii and the Eburones. The Rhine became fixed around 12 AD as Rome's northern frontier.

Notable towns would arise along the Limes Germanicus: Nijmegen and Voorburg. At first part of Gallia Belgica, the area south of the Limes became part of the Roman province of Germania Inferior. The area to the north of the Rhine, inhabited by the Frisii, remained outside Roman rule (but not its presence and control), while the border tribes Batavi and Cananefates served in the Roman cavalry.[12] The Batavi rose against the Romans in the Batavian rebellion of 69 AD, but were eventually defeated. The Batavi later merged with other tribes into the confederation of the Salian Franks, which identity emerged at the first half of the 3rd century.[13] Salian Franks appear in Roman texts as both allies and enemies. The Salian Franks were forced by the confederation of the Saxons from the east to move over the Rhine into Roman territory in the 4th century. From their new base in west Flanders and southwest Netherlands, they were raiding the English Channel. Roman forces pacified the region, but did not expel the Franks, who continued to be feared at least until the time of Julian the Apostate (358), when Salian Franks were allowed to settle as foederati in Toxandria.[14] After deteriorating climate conditions and the Romans withdrew, the Frisii disappeared from the northern Netherlands, probably forced to resettle within Roman territory as laeti in c. 296. The coastal lands remained largely unpopulated for the next two centuries.[15]

Jat connections

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[16] tells us that The descendents of the Nordics are confined not only to the North west India and Pakistan, but are also found in the Baltic and Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands and the Great Britain. The eastern Nordics i.e. the Jats are much higher in B than in A whereas the West-European Nordics are much higher in A than B (See -The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Appendices/Appendix No.3) As we have already pointed out, the most convincing illustration of such, a separation of certain groups from the common 'ancestral stock is that of the ancient Anglo-Saxons, Teutonic Goths, Jutes, Danes, Vilkas (Virkas) etc. in very remote prehistoric times[17]. It is, therefore, hardly surprising that, on account of resemblance of facial features, to a European the Jats look European and unmistakably Vice versa.

References

  1. "Netherlands Guide – Interesting facts about the Netherlands". Eupedia. 19 April 1994.
  2. [http://www.defensie.nl/english/topics/hydrography/contents/maritime-zones-and-boundaries/netherlands-boundaries-in-the-north-sea Netherlands boundaries in the North Sea]
  3. Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the UN. "General Information".
  4. "Port Statistics 2013" (Press release). Rotterdam Port Authority. 1 June 2014. p. 8.
  5. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, 22:641–642
  6. de Vries, Jan W., Roland Willemyns and Peter Burger, Het verhaal van een taal, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2003, pp. 12, 21–27
  7. de Vries, Jan W., Roland Willemyns and Peter Burger, Het verhaal van een taal, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2003, pp. 12, 21–27
  8. de Vries, Jan W., Roland Willemyns and Peter Burger, Het verhaal van een taal, Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2003, pp. 12, 21–27
  9. Hachmann, Rolf, Georg Kossack and Hans Kuhn, Völker zwischen Germanen und Kelten, 1986, pp. 183–212
  10. Lendering, Jona, "Germania Inferior", Livius.org.
  11. Lendering, Jona, "Germania Inferior", Livius.org.
  12. Roymans, Nico, Ethnic Identity and Imperial Power: The Batavians in the Early Roman Empire, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2005, pp 226–227
  13. Previté-Orton, Charles, The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, vol. I, pp. 51–52, 151
  14. Previté-Orton, Charles, The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, vol. I, pp. 51–52, 151
  15. Grane, Thomas (2007), "From Gallienus to Probus – Three decades of turmoil and recovery", The Roman Empire and Southern Scandinavia–a Northern Connection! (PhD thesis), Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, p. 109
  16. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/An Historico-Somatometrical study bearing on the origin of the Jats,pp.128-129
  17. MacNeish, RS., "Early Man in the Andes", Scientific America, 224, 1971, pp. 36-64. According to C-14 test, modern man reached W. Hemisphere 40,000 to 100,000 years ago, in Canada 23,000 to 28,000 B.C.;Garn, op. cit., pp. 128. See also Suniti Kumar Chatterji, Balts and Aryans, Simla, 1968, Ch. XII. Panchanan Mitra, Prehistoric Ind., Delhi, 1979, pp. 49-50, 229.