Jutes

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Possible locations of the Angles, Saxons and Jutes before their migration to Britain
Map of Scandinavia

Jutes were a Germanic people. Jutes were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of their time in the Nordic Iron Age.

Variants of Jutes

Origin

According to Bede,[1] the Jutes were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of their time in the Nordic Iron Age,[2] the other two being the Saxons and the Angles.[3]

The Jutes are believed to have originated from the Jutland Peninsula (called Iutum in Latin) and part of the North Frisian coast. In present times the Jutlandic Peninsula consists of the mainland of Denmark and Southern Schleswig in Germany. North Frisia is part of Germany as well.

The Jutes invaded and settled in southern Britain in the late 4th century during the Age of Migrations, as part of a larger wave of Germanic settlement in the British Isles.


Dalip Singh Ahlawat[4] writes that Jat Blood flows in the people of England as the Celts, Jutes, Angles, Saxons and Danes were descendants of Scythian Jats. This is evident from Jat Clans surnames still prevalent in England though they follow Christianity. [5]

History

Alistair Moffat[6] writes...Vortigern is a title which is version of Vawr Tigherna, or Overlord, a Celtic description of a man who may have High King of southern Britain. Vortigern invited then Germanic Warriors of Horsa and Hengest, as the Picts of the North had been raiding in Britannia for at least a century - Gildas called them ‘transmarini’ - and the Vortigern or overlord needed mercenaries to contain them. It has been characterized as one of the most spectacular misjudgments in British history. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives a more complete report of events:

449. In this year Mauricius and Valentinian obtained the Kingdom and reigned seven years. In their days, Hengest and Horsa, invited by Vortigern, King of Britain, came to Britain at a place which is called Ypwines fleot (Ebbsfleet) at first to help the Britons, but later they fought against them. They then sent to Anglein, ordered them to send more aid and to be told off the worthlessness of the Britons and of the excellence of the Land. They then sent them more aid. These men came from three nations of Germany: from the Old Saxons, from the Angles, and from the Jutes.

Alistair Moffat[7] writes... The Vortigern wanted the Germanic warriors to go away from Britain. But they did not go. A Barbarians Rebellion flared in the South East, and it seems that three battles fought around London and Kent were lost by the British. The Germanic incomers seized more land and began to settle. Bede is clearest on the territory they took:

From the Jutes are descended the people of Kent and the Isle of Wight and those in the province of the West Saxons opposite the Isle of Wight who are called Jutes to this day. From the Saxons - that is, the country now known as the land of the Old Saxons - came the East, South and West Saxons. And from the Angles - that is, the country known as Angulus, which lies between the province of the Jutes and Saxons and is said to remain unpopulated to this day - are descended the east and the Middle Angles, the Mercians, all the Northumbrian stock (that is, those people living north of the River Humber), and other English peoples.

Homeland of the Jutes

Map of Jutland

Bede places the homeland of the Jutes on the other side of the Angles relative to the Saxons, which would mean the northern part of the Jutland Peninsula. Tacitus portrays a people called the Eudoses living in the north of Jutland and these may have been the later Iutae. The Jutes have also been identified with the Eotenas (ēotenas) involved in the Frisian conflict with the Danes as described in the Finnesburg episode in the poem Beowulf (lines 1068–1159). Others have interpreted the ēotenas as jotuns ("ettins" in English), meaning giants, or as a kenning for "enemies".

Disagreeing with Bede, some historians identify the Jutes with the people called Eucii (or Saxones Eucii) who were evidently associated with the Saxons and dependents of the Franks in 536. The Eucii may have been identical with an obscure tribe called the Euthiones (Ευθίωνες in Ancient Greek) and probably associated with the Saxons. The Euthiones are mentioned in a poem by Venantius Fortunatus (583) as being under the suzerainty of Chilperic I of the Franks. This identification would agree well with the later location of the Jutes in Kent, since the area just opposite to Kent on the European mainland (present-day Flanders) was part of Francia. Even if Jutes were present to the south of the Saxons in the Rhineland or near the Frisians, this does not contradict the possibility that they were migrants from Jutland.

Asser in his Life of Alfred claims that Alfred's mother, Osburga, was descended from the Jutes of the Isle of Wight,[8] whom he identifies with the Goths. Another modern hypothesis (the so-called "Jutish hypothesis"), accepted by the Oxford English Dictionary, states that the Jutes are identical with the Geats of southern Sweden.

In primary sources the Geats are referred to as Eotas, Iótas, Iútan, and Geátas. However, in both Widsith and Beowulf, the Eotenas in the Finn passage are neatly distinguished from the Geatas. It may be that the two tribal names happened to be confused, which occurred in the sources about the death of the Swedish king Östen for example.

It is possible that the Jutes were related to the Geats and a Gothic people, as it is mentioned in the Gutasaga that some inhabitants of Gotland left for mainland Europe. Large grave sites were found at Willenberg, Prussia (now Wielbark, Poland). The finds were attributed to Goths or Gepids.

Jutes invaded Great Britain

Jutes in England

The Jutes, along with some Angles, Saxons and Frisians, sailed across the North Sea to raid and eventually invade Great Britain from the late 4th century onwards, either displacing, absorbing, or destroying the native Celtic peoples there. According to Bede, they finally settled in Kent (where they became known as the Cantuarii), Hampshire (in Wessex), and the Isle of Wight (where they became known as the Uictuarii). There is some evidence that the Haestingas people who settled in the Hastings area of Sussex, in the 6th century, may have been Jutish in origin.[9] There are also a number of toponyms that attest to the presence of the Jutes in the area, such as Ytene, which Florence of Worcester states was the contemporary English name for the New Forest. Also the Meonwara who settled the Meon Valley area of Hampshire.[10]

While it is commonplace to detect their influences in Kent (for example, the practice of partible inheritance known as gavelkind), the Jutes in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight vanished, probably assimilated to the surrounding Saxons, leaving only the slightest of traces. One recent scholar, Robin Bush, even argued that the Jutes of Hampshire and the Isle of Wight became victims of a policy of ethnic cleansing by the West Saxons. This has been the subject of debate amongst academics, with the counter-claim that only the aristocracy might have been wiped out. Bede is the only historical evidence and he clearly implies that this was so, in 686.

The culture of the Jutes of Kent shows more signs of Roman, Frankish, and Christian influence than that of the Angles or Saxons. Funerary evidence indicates that the pagan practice of cremation ceased relatively early and jewellery recovered from graves has affinities with Rhenish styles from the Continent, perhaps suggesting close commercial connections with Francia. The Quoit Brooch Style has been regarded as Jutish, from the 5th century.

Jutes in Jat History

Prof. B.S. Dhillon[11] writes - As per Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary [12], the word "Jute" is defined as "a member of a Germanic [13] tribe, probably from the mouth of the Rhine, who settled (5th century A.D.) In England In Kent, Hampshire, and the Isle of Wight". Professor Wilson [14] said Jutish warriors under their leaders, Henglst and Horsa, arrived In Kent around 450 A.D. at the Invitation of a British ruler in Kent known as Vortlgern to defend him from the Scots and Plcts.

After a number of years of service to Vortlgern, they (Jutes) turned against him and killed many Britons and then took possession of Kent. This opened the door for the arrival of more Jutes from the Continental Europe. Many historians believe that Jutes came to Kent from the lower Rhine area and their agriculture system resembled the one used In Gaul [15]. This judgment appears to be correct and we must also remember that the Alans, a branch of Massagetae ("great Jats") were also well settled by 450 A.D in Gaul. Furthermore, as per Professor Bachrach [16], "After their defeat Alans and Vandals apparently moved northward and east Into Germany beyond the Rhine frontier and outside the Roman Empire. The Rhine frontier was largely undefended; both (for Romans) the Franks, who dwelt along the river, and the second-line defenders, the Sarmatians military colonists (known as laetl), who had been settled further to the west during the fourth century ".

Other factors pointing to the Scythian origin of the Jutes are as follows:

  • In the early records relating to Germany and the North, Jutes have been called by different names : Gothi, Gutae, Gaeta, Jutae, Gothini and etc. In the sixth century A.D., Byzantine (Roman) Emperor was aware that the Goths were well settled In England [17].
  • "King Alfred on his mother's side was descended from the Goths and Jutes of the Isle of Wight" [20].
  • The Kentish man's 'liberty was his very important characteristic in the Middle Ages [21] (This characteristic is very dear to Jat Sikhs as per Major Barstow [22]).
  • Kentish ceorl was a freeman and it was proudest privilege of birth in Kent during the middle ages, as per Ammlanus Marcellinus [23] all Alans were equal.
  • As per Kentish custom [24]: "that of being marshaled in the van of the national army when being led to war, this claim was one of the warlike privileges of the men of Kent".

History and study of the Jats: End of p.97


Scythian people were well known warriors. Jutes used oxen to plough their fields [25]. Scythians also used oxen for domestic purposes and for heavy work [26].

A Kentish custom [27] in the Middle Ages practiced "extreme individualism and the division of the tenement into separate holdings among each generation of heirs". Furthermore, in the division of father's property [48], the youngest son, appear to have been entitled to the family hearth or homestead on making compensation to his brothers". Similar customs are also practiced even today among South Asian Jats.

The actual word used in Punjab for Jats is "Juts" are almost identical. Furthermore, some English family names such as Gill, Bain, and Mann are identical to the family names of the Jat Sikhs in particular.

British elites such as Gen. Sir MacMunn [28], Col. Sleeman [29], and Col. Tod [30] must have had some reasons to believe that the" Jats" and Jutes were the identical people.

Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alans who traveled thousands of miles from their homeland in Central Asia to settle in Europe make it quite impossible to believe if their descendants did not venture into British Isles, without even taking Into consideration any historical record; especially in the case of the Alans who not only went as far as Spain and Portugal but also crossed Into north Africa and then attacked Rome. As per Professor Bachrach [31] some Alans also settled in Brittany (nineteen miles from the English coast!).

Even if we overlook all the above overwhelming evidence and still conclude that the Jutes originated from Scandinavia, a Scandinavian chronicler [32], stated, regarding the Scythian origin of the Scandinavian people, "certain tribes when they had migrated from Scythia Into this region, called It Scythia, as If it were worthy of the name of their first country. Moreover, those tribes I don't know why for some reason they were called "Getae" were also called "Massagetae" ("great" Getae or Jats) after they entered this region. Then, as is usual, when the name had been changed, those who were formerly called "Getae" and afterwards "Gothi".

In conclusion, it appears the Jets or the Scything people entered British Isles in ancient times at least at three different occasions: Jutes, Samartian cavalrymen to serve Roman Interests [33] and the Alan of Corlai [34]. Even after hundreds of years of their assimilation into the local population, strangely, some of the British family names are Identical or very similar to that of the South Asian Jats. Today, there are at least half million Jat Sikhs (some of them fourth generation) who reside in Great Britain and the native British people find It quite strange to have similar or identical family names with some of them.


History and study of the Jats: End of p.98


ब्रिटेन पर जूट्स, सेक्सन्स एंगल्स की विजय (410 ई० से 825 ई०)

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[35] लिखते हैं: जूट्स, सेक्सन्स और एंगल्स लोग जर्मनी की एल्ब नदी के मुहाने और डेन्मार्क के तट पर रहते थे। ये लोग बड़े बहादुर थे तथा लूटमार किया करते थे। ये क्रिश्चियन धर्म के विरोधी थे।

ब्रिटेन से रोमनों के चले जाने के बाद ब्रिटेन के लोग बहुत कमजोर और असहाय थे। इन लोगों पर स्काटलैंड के केल्टिक कबीलों, पिक्ट्स और स्काट्स ने हमला कर दिया। ब्रिटेन निवासियों की इसमें भारी हानि हुई। इनमें इतनी शक्ति न थी कि वे इन हमलों करने वालों को रोक सकें। इसलिए मदद के लिए इन्होंने जूट लोगों को बुलाया। जूट्स ने उसी समय ब्रिटिश सरदार वरटिगर्न के निमन्त्रण को स्वीकार कर लिया। जटलैण्ड से जाटों की एक विशाल सेना अपने जाट नेता हेंगिस्ट और होरसा के नेतृत्व में सन् 449 ई० में केण्ट (Kent) में उतर गई। इन्होंने पिक्ट्स और स्कॉट्स को हराया और वहां से बाहर निकाल दिया। उन्हें भगाने के बाद जाट ब्रिटेन के लोगों के विरुद्ध हो गये और उन्हें पूरी तरह से अपने वश में कर लिया और 472 ई० तक पूरे केण्ट पर अधिकार कर लिया। यहां पर आबाद हो गये। इसके अतिरिक्त जाटों ने अपना निवास व्हिट द्वीप में किया1

जटलैण्ड के जाटों की विजय सुनकर उनके दक्षिणवासी सेक्सन्स तथा एंगल्स भी ललचाये। सर्वप्रथम सेक्सन्स ब्रिटेन में पहुंचे और उन्होंने ऐस्सेक्स, मिडिलसेक्स और वेस्सेक्स नाम से तीन राज्य स्थापित किये। वहां पर इन्होंने कुछ बस्तियां आबाद कर दीं। ब्रिटेन की जनता ने बड़ी वीरता से सेक्सन्स का मुकाबला किया और 520 ई० में मोण्डबेडन ने उन्हें करारी हार दी। इस तरह से


1. आधार लेख - इंगलैण्ड का इतिहास पृ० 16-17, लेखक प्रो० विशनदास; हिस्ट्री ऑफ ब्रिटेन पृ० 21-22, लेखक रामकुमार लूथरा, अनटिक्विटी ऑफ जाट रेस, पृ० 63-66, लेखक: उजागरसिंह माहिल; जाट्स दी ऐन्शन्ट रूलर्ज पृ० 86 लेखक बी० एस० दहिया तथा जाट इतिहास अंग्रेजी पृ० 43, लेखक ले० रामसरूप जून


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-399


सेक्सन्स का बढ़ना कुछ समय के लिए रुक गया। परन्तु 577 ई० में डियोरहम की लड़ाई में सेक्सन्स ने केब्लिन के नेतृत्व में ब्रिटेन लोगों पर पूरी विजय प्राप्त कर ली तथा उनको अपना दास बनाए रखा। यह कामयाबी जूट्स (जाटों) की सहायता से हुई थी जिसके लिए सेक्सन्स ने उनसे मांग की थी1

अब प्रश्न पैदा होता है कि उन जूट्स (जाटों) का क्या हुआ जिन्होंने हेंगिस्ट और होरसा के नेतृत्व में ब्रिटेन के एक बड़े क्षेत्र पर अधिकार कर लिया था और सेक्सन्स को सहायता देकर उनका ब्रिटेन पर अधिकार करवाया। इसका उत्तर यही हो सकता है कि ब्रिटिश इतिहासकारों ने इनके इतिहास को लिखने में पक्षपात किया है।

सेक्सन्स के बाद एंग्ल्स पहुंचे जो जूट्स और सेक्सन्स की तरह ही लड़ाके तथा लुटेरे थे। सन् 613 ई० में नार्थम्ब्रिया के एंग्ल राजा ने ब्रिटेन पर आक्रमण करके विजय प्राप्त की। इसके बाद इन्हीं एगल्स के नाम पर ब्रिटेन का नाम इंग्लैंड हो गया। ये एंगल्स लोग भी जाट थे जैसा कि पिछले पृष्ठों पर लिखा गया है। इंग्लैंड में रहने वालों को अंग्रेज कहा गया।

एंगल्स लोग संख्या में दूसरों से अधिक थे इसी कारण से ब्रिटेन को एंगल्स की भूमि एवं इंग्लैंड कहा गया। इस तरह से ब्रिटेन पर जूट्स, सेक्सन्स और एंगल्स का अधिकार हो गया। इसी को ब्रिटेन पर अंग्रेजों की जीत कहा जाता है। इन तीनों कबीलों ने अपने अलग-अलग राज्य स्थापित किए। जूट्स ने केण्ट (Kent); सैक्सन्स ने सस्सेक्स (Sussex), एस्सेक्स (Essex), वेसेक्स (Wessex) और एंगल्स ने ईस्ट एंगलिया (East Anglia), मर्शिया (Mercia) और नार्थम्ब्रिया (Northumbria) के राज्य स्थापित किये। ये सातों राज्य सामूहिक रूप से हेपटार्की कहलाते थे। परन्तु ये राज्य स्वतन्त्र नहीं थे। इन सातों में जो शक्तिशाली होता था वह दूसरों का शासक बन जाता था।

ऊपर कहे हुए तीनों कबीले संगठित नहीं थे। नॉरमनों ने जब तक इस देश को नहीं जीता, इंग्लैंड में शक्तिशाली केन्द्रीय राज्य की स्थापना नहीं हो सकी। इन कबीलों ने देश से क्रिश्चियन धर्म और रोमन सभ्यता को मिटा दिया। आधुनिक इंग्लैंड एंग्लो-सैक्सन्स का बनाया हुआ है। आधुनिक अंग्रेज किसी न किसी रूप में इंग्लो-सैक्सन्स के ही वंशज हैं।

अंग्रेज जाति की उत्पत्ति और बनावट के सम्बन्ध में दो प्रतिद्वन्द्वी सिद्धान्त हैं।

  1. पलग्रोव, पियरसन और सेछम आदि प्रवीण मनुष्य रोमन केल्टिक सिद्धान्त को मानते हैं। उनका यह विचार है कि आधुनिक इंग्लैंड में रोमन-केल्टिक रक्त और संस्थाएं मौजूद हैं।
  2. ग्रीन और स्टब्स जैसे दूसरे प्रवीन मनुष्य ट्यूटानिक सिद्धान्त को मानते हैं। उनका यह विचार है कि ट्यूटानिक अर्थात् जूट, एंगल, सैक्सन और डेन लोगों का रक्त और संस्थाएं बहुत कुछ आधुनिक इंग्लैंड में पाई जाती हैं। इन दोनों में से ट्यूटानिक सिद्धान्त अधिक माना जाता

1. आधार लेख - इंग्लैण्ड का इतिहास पृ० 16-17, लेखक प्रो० विशनदास; ए हिस्ट्री ऑफ ब्रिटेन पृ० 21-22, लेखक रामकुमार लूथरा; अनटिक्विटी ऑफ जाट रेस, पृ० 63-66, लेखक: उजागरसिंह माहिल; जाट्स दी ऐन्शन्ट रूलर्ज पृ० 86 लेखक: बी० एस० दहिया तथा जाट इतिहास अंग्रेजी पृ० 43, लेखक ले० रामसरूप जून


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-400


है और आमतौर पर यह स्वीकार किया जाता है कि ब्रिटिश जाति मिले-जुले लोगों की जाति है। जिनमें ट्यूटानिक तत्त्व प्रधान है, जबकि केल्टिक तत्त्व भी पश्चिम में और आयरलैंड में बहुत कुछ बचा हुआ है1

इसका सार यह है कि इंगलैंड द्वीपसमूह के मनुष्यों की रगों में आज भी अधिकतर जाट रक्त बह रहा है। क्योंकि केल्टिक आर्य लोग तथा जूट, एंगल, सैक्सन और डेन लोग जाटवंशज थे। आज भी वहां पर अनेक जाटगोत्रों के मनुष्य विद्यमान हैं जो कि धर्म से ईसाई हैं।

External links

See also

References

  1. The Saxon Invasion British Isles - past and present. IslandGuide.co.uk (by Alan Price)
  2. Jutes Channel 4
  3. The Germanic invasions of Britain Universität Duisburg-Essen
  4. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.401
  5. Ujagar Singh Mahil: Antiquity of Jat Race, p.66-70
  6. Alistair Moffat: The British: A Genetic Journey, Birlinn, 2013,ISBN:9781780270753, p.173
  7. Alistair Moffat: The British: A Genetic Journey, Birlinn, 2013,ISBN:9781780270753, p.174
  8. "The British Museum Quarterly". The British Museum. March 1937. pp. 52–54.
  9. R. Coates. On the alleged Frankish origin of the Hastings tribe in Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol 117. pp. 263-264
  10. Smith, L. (2009). G.E.Jeans, ed. Memorials of Old Hampshire: The Jutish Settlements of the Meon Valley
  11. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 6, pp. 97-98
  12. Jute. In Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary, Canadian Edition, Lexicon Publications. Inc.. New York. 1988, pp. 532.
  13. Tod. J. (Lt. Col.). Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.. London. 1972. pp. 51. 89. first published in 1829.
  14. Wilson, D.H. (Professor), A History of England. The Dryden Press. Inc., Hinsdale. Illinois. 1972, pp. 15.
  15. Wilson, D.H. (Professor), A History of England. The Dryden Press. Inc., Hinsdale. Illinois. 1972, pp. 15.
  16. Bachrach, B.S., A History of the ~ns in the West, Univeristy of Minnes()ta Press, Minneapolis, 1973, pp. 90, 1-25,59,52.
  17. Shore. T.W.. The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen (Chapter IV) and the Jutish Settlers In Kent (Chapter XI). In Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race, Kennlkat Press, London. 1971, pp. 49-65. 181-195.
  18. Shore. T.W.. The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen (Chapter IV) and the Jutish Settlers In Kent (Chapter XI). In Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race, Kennlkat Press, London. 1971, pp. 49-65. 181-195.
  19. Shore. T.W.. The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen (Chapter IV) and the Jutish Settlers In Kent (Chapter XI). In Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race, Kennlkat Press, London. 1971, pp. 49-65. 181-195.
  20. Shore. T.W.. The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen (Chapter IV) and the Jutish Settlers In Kent (Chapter XI). In Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race, Kennlkat Press, London. 1971, pp. 49-65. 181-195.
  21. Shore. T.W.. The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen (Chapter IV) and the Jutish Settlers In Kent (Chapter XI). In Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race, Kennlkat Press, London. 1971, pp. 49-65. 181-195.
  22. Barstow, A.E. (Major), The Sikhs: An Ethnology, reprinted by B.R. Publishing Corporation, Deihl, India, 1985, pp. 152-155, 66, 89, first published In 1928.
  23. Ammianus. Marcellinus (born around A.D. 330). Translated by J.C. Rolfe. Vol. 3. Harvard University Press. Cambridge. Massachusetts, 1956. pp. 387-395.
  24. Shore. T.W.. The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen (Chapter IV) and the Jutish Settlers In Kent (Chapter XI). In Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race, Kennlkat Press, London. 1971, pp. 49-65. 181-195.
  25. Jolliffee. J.E.A.. Pre-Feudal England: The Jutes, Oxford University Press. London. 1962. pp. 19-20. 104.
  26. Talbot-Rice, T., The Scythians, F.A. Praeger, New York, 1961, pp. 43-44,145, 70.
  27. MacMunn (Lt. Gen. and Sir). The Martial Races of India. reprinted by Mittal Publications. Deihl. India. 1979. pp. 123. 126. first published in 1932.
  28. MacMunn (Lt. Gen. and Sir). The Martial Races of India. reprinted by Mittal Publications. Deihl. India. 1979. pp. 123. 126. first published in 1932.
  29. MacMunn (Lt. Gen. and Sir). The Martial Races of India. reprinted by Mittal Publications. Deihl. India. 1979. pp. 123. 126. first published in 1932.
  30. Tod. J. (Lt. Col.). Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.. London, 1972. (reprint & Vol. 1), first published in 1829.
  31. Bachrach, B.S., A History of the ~ns in the West, Univeristy of Minnes()ta Press, Minneapolis, 1973, pp. 90, 1-25,59,52.
  32. Leake. J.A.. The Geats of Beowulf. The University of Wisconsin Press. Madison. Wisconsin. 1967, pp. 93-94.
  33. Sullmirski. T.. The Sarmatlans. Praeger Publishers New York. 1970~ pp. 27.81. 197, 187.34. 175-176.202-203. 19.
  34. Bachrach, B.S., A History of the ~ns in the West, Univeristy of Minnes()ta Press, Minneapolis, 1973, pp. 90, 1-25,59,52.
  35. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, pp.399-401

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