Sujal

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Sujal is a Muslim Jat clan found in Pakistan. Sujāl is a Gotra of the Anjana Jats in Gujarat.

Origin

Sujal clam may probably originated from Chief Sujji mentioned in Rajatarangini. Sujji's son was Sujjaka.

History

Sujji in Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[1] tells ...Uchchala was reduced to much difficulty on the day of full moon in the month of chaitra, but on the fifth day of the dark moon he fearlessly set out for battle. He allowed Vattadeva and others to take their own course that they might create confusion in the kingdom. He intended to enter Kashmira by the way which led through Kramarajya. Kapila, grandson of Kshema, whom the king had placed at Lohara after Udayasiha, fled as Uchchala entered the place. Uchchala moved before his army with sword and shield, and arrived at Parnotsa, and there compelled the royal army to fly. He captured Sujjaka, Lord of Dvara, who was reposing at ease and apprehended no danger, and soon entered Kashmira. Some of the Damaras and the people of Khasha, who inhabited the mountains and who were enemies of the king, now joined Uchchala.[VII (i),p.268]


Rajatarangini[2] mentions that ....The king lost his intellect in his anger and impaled Simba and Simba's younger brothers Simha and Thakkanasimha. He made Shrivaka, lord of Kampana, and having confined Janakasimha, he appointed Sujji, brother of Prajji, in the Rājasthāna (palace.) Year 1121 AD (VIII,p.89)


Rajatarangini[3] tells us that when Sussala became king of Kashmir second time in 1121 AD he had to face defeat but continued the renewal of war. .... Although the king Sussala's army was destroyed, yet with twenty or thirty men of the royal blood and of his own country, Sussala faced the enemies.

Udaya and Dhanyaka, Kshatriyas, born of Ichchhita family, and Udayabrahma and Jajjala, lords of Champa and Vallapura; Tejahsalhana, the chief of the Hamsa family, who lived at Harihaḍa, and Savyaraja and others of Kshatrikabhinjika ; Nila and others, sons of Viḍāla, born of the family of Bhāvuka ; Ramapala of Sahaja and his young son ; — these and other warriors of renowned


[p.93]: families were eager for the well contested battle, and opposed on all sides the enemies who besieged the city.

Rilhana who was, as if he was the king's son, first advanced in battle accompanied by Vijaya and other horse men. As an iron mail defended his arm, so the energetic king protected Sujji and Prajji who were well versed in battle. The king who had shared his kingdom with them was now, in this time of peril, able by their help, to sustain the weight of his misfortunes. Bhagika, Sharadbhasi, Mummuni, Mungata, Kalasha and other men of the king's party harassed the enemies. Kamalaya, son of Lavaraja king of Takka, took the king's side in this war. (VIII,p.92-93)


Rajatarangini [4] tells us that ...Sujji quietly issued from the field of battle at the close of the day, like a serpent issuing from a hill, covered with forest-fire. He was in the village of Meghāchakrapura, when he heard of the fate king's death ; and after consultation, he stopped there for the night. He waited for Rihlana and other leaders of armies at Shurapura &c, and entered the town with them without opposition. They lighted lamps over their dwellings in the darkness, in order to convey information to the infantry as to their position. But there was difference of opinion among the infantry, they were, tired and they got separated during the night, and could not reach the place. On the morning Sujji marched out, but the Damaras never left him, they hung on his rear and attacked


[p.121]: him here and there. But, as a cowherd protects his animals, so Sujji went on protecting his army, keeping in the front those who were with him, and there wore many old persons, women and boys in his train. With fifty horsemen, he turned round and stood, and was for a short while able to protect his charge. The passage was obstructed by heaps of vine creepers and many trees, and infested by his fearless enemies. He lost his men at every step. But with a wish to pay off the debt which he owed to his late master, and to his master's son who was in danger, he saved his own life. [VIII (i) ,p.120-121]


Rajatarangini[5] tells us ..The Pratihara's machinations against Sujji: The first minister, the Pratihara, unable to bear the pride of Sujji, began to find some pretext against him. Now at this time, the elder brother of Dhanya had purified himself by bathing in the Ganges, and returned to this country, and came to the king when he was walking alone. He and his party were welcomed by the king who talked long with them. But they had no appointments and were oppressed with anxiety. In time of work, the king depended on his father's ministers, but they too had their hidden purpose, and they waited for opportunity. The Pratihara who was bent on ruining the great Sujji persuaded them that violent acts were commendable. [VIII (i),p.138]


Rajatarangini[6] tells us ....When the king recovered, Sujji out of etiquette came to the palace, and was seen to distribute wealth to the people, and afterwards to go towards the houses of the beggars. But the king did not favor him but devised plans to attack him. Sujji had a large body of retainers. The king then judged that if he deposed Sujji from his posts, his followers would become broken-hearted and would desert him, and he bestowed Sujji's posts on others without delay. He gave the government of Rajasthana (palace ) to Dhanya, Kampana to Udaya and the office at Kheri to Rilhana. [VIII (i) ,p.140]


Rajatarangini[7] tells us ....The king Bhikshachara by taking away from Sujji his possessions plainly showed that he no longer felt for Sujji as he used to feel before. Sujji's followers became few and he himself apprehended evil. This proud man, thus insulted, went out of the capital with the bones of king Sussala in order to proceed to the river Ganges. Out of love for the king, Sujji asked his permission for undertaking this journey : and when he set out, neither the king nor his officers prevented his going. With a view to parade his pride, the Pratihara, when sending Sujji to exile, sent his own son to protect Sujji's wealth. It grieved Lakshmaka to find that the Pratihara thought that it rested with him to punish or to favor, so that the Pratihara sent his son as a protector. Lakshmaka returned from Dvara and went to Parnotsa without rising against the king ; and then drove Bhagika from the hills of Lohara. The Pratihara sent Prema, son of the (king's) nurse, to the king, and the king bestowed the possession of Kotta on him. Lakshmaka left Lohara and thereby removed the fear of the king, and spent the fierce summer season at Rajapuri. The king who had under him the Damaras, and could raise or put down the ministers like balls, appointed Lakshmaka at Dvara, in order to set up a rival to Sujji and also for the safety and dignity of his dynasty. Thus the king enviously believed that the valorous Sujji, born in this country and fed from his treasury, would deprive him of his glory. By this appointment at Dvara, Lakshmaka was made uneasy and became an object of ridicule. [VIII (i),p.140-141]


Rajatarangini[8] mentions that ....Sujji whose avarice had destroyed his dexterity in all business, now threw off his disguise and became the minister of king Lothana. He bestowed on king Lothana, the daughter of Bhagika and removed the mistrust which existed between him and Lothana, and also soothed the grief caused by the death of his beloved ones. The able Sujji requested king Padmaratha, and brought Padmaratha's daughter named Somaladevi for marriage with Lothana. Having thus by high, connections established the stability of king Lothana, Sujji paid off the debt of receiving the post of the minister which he had sought. The new king, at the repeated request of the Damaras and others, sent Sujji to Kashmira, and Sujji prepared his plan for entering that country. [VIII(i), p.169]


Rajatarangini [9] tells us that ....At this opportunity the king [Jayasimha] brought over the fiery-tempered Sujji to his side, with the view that Mallarjjuna might not get his assistance. The king displayed a great power for seasonable artifice, both at the time of exiling Sujji from his service and at the time of bringing him over to his side. (p.175) (SujjiSujal )


Rajatarangini [10] tells us about Murder of a Brahmana by Sujji: Either on account of destiny or on account of his haughtiness, Sujji became ungovernable and committed many censurable acts according to his pleasure. While he was in the Māḍava kingdom, a Brahmana, who had been plundered by his followers, spoke harsh words in anger. Sujji killed him by a dart, as one kills a jackal. By this deed he irritated the people who collected outside the town, and the people within the town were also estranged from him on account of this terrible act. (p.182)(SujjiSujal )


Rajatarangini[11] mentions that The king of Kashmir did not know any other way of overcoming the troubles except battle, and employed Sanjapala to chastise the powerful Sujji. The king sent Kularaja in the guise of a betol-bearer to Sujji. Kularaja Murdered Sujji, the lord of Kampana. He cut off Sujji's head from his trunk and threw it in the courtyard at their enemies. (pp.185-192) (SujjiSujal )


Rajatarangini[12] tells us....After Kularaja murdered Sujji, there were further disturbances and murders.....The soldiers who were sent by the king of Kashmir, in their fury, killed Sujji's servants, great and small, who displayed befitting valor. Lakshaka, the younger brother of Sujji, was taken, bound, and some cruel men, on seeing the king angry, killed him in the court-yard of the palace. Sankata, son of Lakshaka's father's brother, and a worthy man, limped like an actor in the king's court-yard and yielded his life as he should have done. His mad brother Mummuni, as he entered the house, was, by some wicked men of the line of Vāṇa, killed in his own house. Chitriya, Sujji's wife's brother, born of noble family, was killed by red lead ( poison ). The wounded door-keeper named Sangika was slowly killed and the other dependants of Sujji were killed in different places. .... And then, Sajjala son of Sujji, Shvetika, son of Sujji's elder brother, and the son of Ulhana were thrown into prison with him. Thus when the king and the minister were under the influence of the wicked, this commotion happened in the year 9 (=1133 AD), on the fifth bright lunar day of summer. (p.193-194) (SujjiSujal )


Rajatarangini[13] tells us....Sujji who oppressed the Brahmanas was killed by a Brahmana, and Chitraratha who insulted the Brahmanas was murdered by a Brahmana. The heart of Vijayaraja was full of grief for the action of the twice-born [in burning themselves,] and he thought of destroying Chitraratha, even by giving up his own life, though he was not compelled to do that act at each a sacrifice. At the time that the Brahmanas burnt themselves, the disgust of Vijayaraja knew no bounds. [VIII (i), pp. 200]

Distribution in Pakistan

According to 1911 census the Sujal were the principal Muslim Jat clan in:

  • Shahpur (Sargodha District) District - Sujal (2,594)

Notable persons

References

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