Gaṇa (गण), (fem. Gaṇi (गणी), means "flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series, class" (Monier Williams's dictionary). It can also be used to refer to a "body of attendants" and can refer to "a company, any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims"
Pāṇini in his Sanskrit grammar used gana as:
संघोद्घौ गण प्रशंसयो Sanghoddhau gaṇa praśansayo
Narada smriti in Sanskrit mentions as:
It shows that the ganatantra (republic) system of rule was prevalent in India since ancient period.
Ganas in Shanti Parva
- how ganas increase ?
- how they defend themselves from the dividing-policy of enemies ?
- what are the techniques to conquer enemies and making the ganas friends ?
- how they hide their secret mantras being in majority?
Ganas in Vedas
व्रातं व्रातं गणम् गणम् Vrātam Vrātam gaṇam gaṇam
Gana in brief means an assembly. Ganatantra (republic) means a state run by assemblies.
Ganas in Buddhist literature
The Buddhist literature Mahabagga mentions that:
गण पूरकोवा भविस्सामीति Gaṇa pūrkovā bhavissāmīti
It indicates that there was an officer who used to see the number of ganas and their koram in the Rajasabha (state assembly).
During Buddhist period, the Buddhist books like ‘Pali-pitaka’, Majjhamnikaya, mahabagga]], [[Avadana shataka have mentioned ganas and sanghas many times. During Buddhas period there were 116 republics or ganasanghas in India.
In Buddhist times, Gaṇas were assemblies of the Sanghas, early democratic republics known as Gaṇa-rājyas, literally "rule of the assembly".
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