Chattha

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Chatta (चट्टा)[1] Chatha Chattha (चत्ता) Chatta (चत्ता) Chagta (चगता)/Chagtai/Chagatai (चगताई)[2] Chhatha (छता), Chhatta (छत्ता) Chadda (चड्डा) is Gotra of Jats in Punjab, India and Pakistan. [3] Chaddha (चड्ढा) is a sept of Khatris and of Jats. [4] Chhatta (छटटा), a tribe of Muhammadans found in Montgomery and, as Jats, in Amritsar. Probably identical with the Chatta.[5]

Origin

Chhatta (छटटा) may be prakrat form of Ṣhaṣhṭha of Rajatarangini. [6]

History

H.A. Rose[7] writes that Chattha (चत्ता), A Jat tribe apparently confined to Gujranwala, in which district they hold 81 villages. They claim to be descended from Chatta, a grandson of Prithi Rai, the Chauhan King of Delhi, and brother of the ancestor of the Chima. In the 10th generation from Chatta or, as otherwise stated, some 500 years ago, Dahru came from Sambhal in Moradabad, where the bards of the Karnal Chauhans still live, to the banks of the Chenab and married among the Jat tribes of Gujranwala. They were converted to Islam about 1600 A.D. They rose to considerable political importance under the Sikhs; and the history of their leading family is told by Sir Lepel Griffin at pages 402 ff of his Punjab Chiefs. [8]

“ They claim to be by origin Chohan jats and to have emigrated to the Punjab from the Delhi District. The date of the emigration is not exactly known , but it was probably about 300 years ago . They rapidly increased in numbers , spreading along the banks of the Chaanab , and founded Naddhala , Manchar , Bangli , Pandorian , and other villages . One Gagu seems to have been the first to adopt the Muhammadan faith , about the year 1600 , and his example was followed by the remainder of the tribe [9]


Chatha was a fierce tribe under warlord Pir Mohd Khan of Rasulnagar, and Alipur Chatha held considerable tracts of land under his control until he lost to Ranjit Singh of Lahore of Sukerchakia. [10]

In Mahavansa

Chatta: - Mahavansa/Chapter 36 tells....At the festival of (consecrating) the chatta the ruler of men distributed the six garments to the brotherhood (in number) forty thousand. As he (one day) when listening to the khandhakas' heard from the thera Mahadeva, dwelling in Damahalaka, the sutta that sets forth the merit of (a gift of) rice-gruel, he, joyfully believing, distributed to the brotherhood at the four gates of the city an abundant and well-prepared gift of rice-gruel.

Mahavansa/Chapter 25 tells....When the king Dutthagamani had provided for his people and had had a relic put into his spear' he marched to go to the land on the further side of the river to bring glory to the doctrine. ....With the one end yet in Mahagama the train of the army reached to Guttahalaka.

Arrived at Mahiyangana he overpowered the Damila Chatta. When he had slain the Damilas in that very place he came then to Ambatitthaka, which had a trench leading from the river, and (conquered) the Damila Titthamba; fighting the crafty and powerful foe for four months he (finally) overcame him by cunning,' since he placed his mother in his view. When the mighty man marching thence down (the river) had conquered seven mighty Damila princes in one day and had established peace, he gave over the booty to his troops. Therefore is (the place)called Khemäräma.

Ṣhaṣhṭha in Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[11] tells.... Lothana bent down his head to touch the king's feet, in order to crave assurance of safety, the king touched the hairs on Lothana's head with the feet of the image of a god. " I am not worthy of respect " said the uncle (Lothana), but the king compelled him to take the betel which the king had in his hand. To the humble lord of Dvara he said smiling that he had undergone fatigue, and he touched the principal personages, Dhanya and Ṣhaṣhṭha with his left hand. [VIII (ii), p.241]


Rajatarangini[12] tells.... The uncle (Lothana) rode in a vehicle between the vehicles of Dhanya and Shashtha, but owing to the great distance he could not be distinguished. [VIII (ii), p.243]


Rajatarangini[13] tells.... ...The Shashtachandra, son of Garga, opposed the proud Rajavadana. Jayachandra and Shrichandra, younger brothers of Shashtha fled from the camp and went to Rajavadana. ... Rajavadana who wished to obtain the wealth of past kings caused Bhuteshwara to be plundered by the Khashakas who were travelling the hill road in great number.... The king then ordered Udaya, lord of Kampana and Rilhana to fight with Chatushka. (p.250)


Rajatarangini[14] tells....The king knew the danger to which Shashtha was exposed, and with the remainder of the army sent Udaya, lord of Dvara, and Dhanya. [VIII (ii), p.243]


Rajatarangini[15] tells....Not knowing that Bhoja was coming that day, Rajavadana concluded peace with the lord of Dvara and with Dhanya. He then returned and welcomed Shashtha, the chief among the noble minded, Shashtha came on horseback and entered the presence of the king, but when the Rajaviji Bhoja, who received no wounds, refused to come out either owing to vanity or ignorance or grief, the king became very anxious and repeatedly invited Rilhana. [VIII (ii), p.266]


Rajatarangini[16] tells....When Shashtha died and the lord of Dvara was laid up with illness, Dhanya, employed by tile king, went to Taramulaka. [VIII (ii), p.271]

History Chagatai clan

James Tod[17] writes that Raja Baland had seven sons : Bhatti, Bhupati, Kullur, Jinj,3 Surmor, Bhynsrecha, Mangreo.

The second son Bhupati had a son, Chakito, from whom is descended the Chakito (Chagitai) tribe.

Chakito had eight sons, viz., Deosi, Bharoo, Khemkhan, Nahur, Jeipal, Dharsi, Beejli-Khan, Shah Summund.

Balund, who resided at Salivahanapura, left Gujni to the charge of his grandson Chakito ; and as the power of the barbarian (Mlechchha) increased, he not only entertained troops of that race, but all his nobles were of the same body. They offered, if he would quit the religion of his fathers, to make him master of Balich Bokhara, where dwelt the Oosbek race, whose king had no offspring but one daughter. Chakito married her, and became king of Balich Bokhara, and lord of twenty-eight thousand horse. Between Balich and Bokhara runs a mighty river, and Chakito was king of all from the gate of Balichshan to the face of Hindusthan ; and from him is descended the tribe of Chakito Moguls.

This is a most important admission of the proselytism of the ancient Indo Scythic- Yadu princes to the faith of Islam, though there can be no reasonable doubt of it. Temugin, better known by his nomme de guerre Jungees, the father of Chagitai, according to the Mahomedan historians, is termed an infidel, and so was Tacash, the father of Mahomed of Khwarezm : the one was of the Getic or Yuti race ; the other, as his name discloses, of the Tak or Takshac, the two grand races of central Asia. The insertion of this pedigree in this place completely vitiates chronology : yet for what purpose it could have been interpolated, if not founded on some fact, we cannot surmise.

चट्ठा-चगता जाटवंश

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[18] के अनुसार चट्ठा-चगता जाट जाटवंश का प्रचलन महाभारतकालीन वीर पुरुष चेकितान के नाम पर हुआ। चेकितान महाभारत युद्ध में पाण्डव पक्ष की 7 अक्षौहिणी सेनाओं में से एक का सेनापति था। (उद्योगपर्व, अध्याय 51)। इस वंश का राज्य मंगोलिया के एक प्रान्त पर रहा था। बौद्धधर्म के अन्त के समय ये लोग काबुल में आये और वहां से पंजाब पर आक्रमण आरम्भ कर दिये और कई स्थानों पर अधिकार कर लिया। सिकन्दर महान् के समय मुलतान, झंग, मघियाना और गुजरात (पाकिस्तान) पर चट्ठा जाटों का अधिकार था। भारत में इस्लाम के प्रवेश होते ही इन जाटों ने मुसलमान धर्म ग्रहण कर लिया। इस वंश के लोग हिन्दू, सिक्ख जाट और पठान हैं। पठानों की संख्या बड़ी है जो अपने को चगताई कहते हैं, जैसे गिल पठान अपने को गिलजई औरकाक पठान काकजई कहते हैं। इन चट्ठा मुसलमानों के निकट क्षेत्र में अधिकतर मानपूनिया जाट रहते थे जो अब भी हैं। वहां पर एक कहावत प्रचलित है कि -

मान-पूनिया-चट्ठे खान-पान में अलग-अलग, लूटने में कट्ठे।

वहां पर इन लोगों ने बहुत गांव आबाद किये जिनमें से बड़े-बड़े गांव कोटमियां, अलीपुर, नाईवाला, कोटसलीम, कोट अलीमुहम्मद, फतहपुर और जामका चट्ठा आदि हैं। इस वंश के मुसलमानों ने अपने शासन के लिए सरदार महानसिंह शिशि गोत्री जाट एवं उनके पुत्र पंजाब केसरी महाराजा रणजीतसिंह और सिखराज्य का अन्त तक लड़कर विरोध किया। पंजाब तथा पश्चिमोत्तर सीमाप्रान्त के मुसलमान चट्ठों का इतिहास विशुद्ध रूप से इस्लाम धर्म विस्तार का इतिहास है।

इस्लाम धर्म का अनुयायी न होने वाला चट्ठा जाटों का दल पंजाब से आकर मेरठ जिला में गढ़मुक्तेश्वर के पास आबाद हो गया। वहां से बाबूगढ़, यादनगर, ढाना, सौल्दा, गेसूपुर, मुरादपुर, सादुल्लापुर, नवादा, मीरपुर आदि गांव बसे हैं।

महाभारतकाल में जाटवंश का राज्य मौटे तौर पर लिख दिया है। इस काल में जाटवंश तथा उनका देश-विदेशों में राज्य, इनके अतिरिक्त और भी होने की सम्भावना से इन्कार नहीं किया जा सकता जो कि एक खोज का विषय है।

इससे आगे अध्याय चार में महाभारत युद्ध के बाद विदेशों में जाटवीरों के राज्य का वर्णन किया जायेगा।

Distribution in Punjab

Villages in Gurdaspur district

Chatha named village in Batala tahsil in Gurdaspur district in Punjab.

Villages in Sangrur district

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Villages in Hapur district

Chattha (चट्ठा) Jats lives in: Dhana Hapur, Babugarh, Garhmukteshwar, Meerpur Kalan, Muradpur (मुरादपुर), Nawada Kalan, Sadullapur Lodi, Yadnagar,

Villages in Meerut district

Ghassupur,

Villages in Muzaffarnagar district

Mirapur, Tikola ,

Distribution in Pakistan

Chatha - The Chatha are found in Sialkot, Gujranwala, and Sargodha districst. They are the largest Jat clan in Rawalpindi District. A few Muslim Chatha were also found in Patiala.

According to 1911 census, the Chatha were one of the principal Muslim Jat clans with population in districts Gujranwala (2,804) and Lyalpur District (Faisalabad District) (967).

Historically Chathas have been confined to the Gujranwala district, in which they have 84 villages. They marry among the Jat tribes of Gujranwala. The Chatha clan is also found south-east of Rawalpindi District, with Hakim Chatha and Chatha Bakhtawar being the most important. Many Chathas migrated to Lyallpur Faislabad and Montgomery Sahiwal districts during the build-up of the canal network by the British.

The group of six Chatha villages of Faisalabad is situated near the town of Chak Jhumra. People of these villages are peculiar in the sense that they are not direct migrants from Gujranwala. They come from Gurdaspur and are the progeny of one Chatha person who migrated to Gurdaspur from Gujranwala. When the Rakh Branch canal was dug they were allocated agricultural land by the British Indian Government. They came to Faisalabad in 1888 from Gurdaspur. The Rakh Branch canal is the same canal that irrigates much of the Tehsil Samundri passes from Abdullah pur in Faisalabad, and also irrigates the six Chatha villages. The canal originates at Head Khanki. The towns of Sangla Hill and Salarwala are also situated along this canal.

After the partition of the Punjab in 1947, many Sikh Chathas from Gujranwala district migrated to East Punjab.

Notable persons

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. च-74
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.376
  3. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p.243
  4. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/C , p.145
  5. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/C, p.164
  6. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii), p.241,243
  7. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/C , p.154
  8. Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1911 AD, Page 155, Vol II,
  9. The Punjab Chiefs , WD cONRAN AND HD Criak , Griffin Sang e Meel Publications Pakistan 127
  10. The Punjab Chiefs by Sir Lepel H. Griffin (1865)
  11. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii), p.241
  12. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii), p.243
  13. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii), p.250
  14. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii), p.253
  15. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii), p.266
  16. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii), p.271
  17. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.201-202
  18. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ-315
  19. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204

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