Etymology of Jat

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Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क

Jat People find a mention in most ancient Indian literature like Mahabharata and Rig Veda. Over sixty clans are named in the Rig Veda.[1] In the Mahabharata as they are mentioned ‘Jartas’ in ‘Karna Parva’. The famous Sanskrit scholar Panini (traditionally dated 520-460 BCE, with estimates ranging from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE) has mentioned in his Sanskrit grammar known as Aṣṭādhyāyī in the form of shloka as जट झट संघाते or “Jat Jhat Sanghate”.[2] This means that the terms 'Jat' and 'democratic federation' are synonymous. He has mentioned many Jat clans as settled in Punjab and North west areas. They are mentioned in the grammar treatise of Chandra of the fifth century in the phrase sentence अजय जर्टो हुणान or “Ajay Jarto Huṇān”, which refers to the defeat of Huns by the Jartos under the leadership of Yasodharman. The inscriptions of Mandsaur and Bijayagadh theorise on phonetic grounds that Yasodharman, the ruler of Malwa, may have been a Jat of the Virk gotra (clan).[3][4][5]

The other view about the origin of the word, 'Jat' with regards to Jat people, is that it has originated from Jeat (also spelt Geat) which is an Central Asian tribal name. Professor J. A. Leake states Jat is dervied from the old Gothic word from Jaet.[6][7]

Jat in Indian epics

Main article: Jats in Indian epics

Jats are the earliest kshatriyas and find mention in the Indian epics like Ramayana, Rigveda (1700–1100 BCE), Mahabharata (3102 BC), Deva Samhita. The mention of Jat word by the famous Sanskrit scholar Panini of 900 BCE in his Sanskrit grammar known as Aṣṭādhyāyī in the form of shloka as जट झट संघाते or “Jat Jhat Sanghate”. Which means the terms 'Jat' and 'democratic federation' are synonymous. It proves that the Jats are the most ancient people.

Jat historian Thakur Deshraj writes that the word Jat is derived from sanskrit word jñāta (ज्ञात). This later on changed to Jat in prakrart language. Panini's Mention of Aṣṭādhyāyī in the form of shloka as जट झट सङ्घाते confirms it. [8] Deshraj mentions that Krishna formed a federation of Vrishni and Andhaka clans which was known as jñātisaṃgha (ज्ञातिसंघ). Shanti Parva Mahabharata Book XII Chapter 82 gives details about this sangha. [9]

The Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44 mentions Jata (जट) who brought tributes all of them came to that ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo, Shalya Parva (IX.44.54):

एकाक्षॊ द्वादशाक्षश च तदैवैक जटः परभुः
सहस्रबाहुर विकटॊ वयाघ्राक्षः कषितिकम्पनः (IX.44.54)

Jat People find mention in Ramayana period. In Sarg 42 of Kishkindha Kanda in Ramayana - Directions to Westward Party in search of Sita are given as under:

Further, you will find a sea (Arabian Sea) in which many sharks and crocodiles live in. Near that sea, you will find a forest where Ketakee, Tamaal, Kaarikel (coconut) trees grow. After that you will find Murachee and Jatapura cities. Next you go to Avanti (this Avantee is another Avantee), Anglepaa and Alakshitaa.

किष्किन्धाकाण्डे द्विचत्वारिंशः सर्गः ॥४-४२॥ in Ramayana mentions Jat in Sanskrit as under:

वेलातल निवेष्टेषु पर्वतेषु वनेषु च ।
मुरची पत्तनम् चैव रम्यम् चैव जटा पुरम् ॥४-४२-१३॥

Ancient Central Asian

Asia in 323 BC, showing various Central Asian tribes including the Massagetae, Scythians, Dahae and their neighbors.

Archaeologists and history scholars have connected the name with that of the ancient Getae and Massagetae.[10][11]

Sir John Marshall, J. F. Hewitt and S. M. Latif identified and believed the word Jat is derived from the ancient Central Asian words for the Massagetae, or great (massa) Getae tribes.[12][13][14]

The following archaeologists and history scholars have identified the word Jat with the Scythians and their associated tribes. Sir Alexander Cunningham (Xanthii)[15], Sir John Marshall (Massagetae)[16], Syed Muhammad Latif (Massagetae)[17], James Francis Katherinus Hewitt (Massagetae)[18], Bhim Singh Dahiya (Dahae)[19], Sir Henry Miers Elliot (Saka)[20], James Tod (Scythians)[21], Arthur Edward Barstow (Scythians)[22], A. H. Bingley (Scythians)[23], Horace Arthur Rose (Scythians)[24], Ujagir Singh Mahil (Scythians)[25], I. Sara (Scythians)[26], Gopal Singh (Scythians)[27] and N. Singh (Scythians)[28], Tadeusz Sulimirski (Massagetae)[29], Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff (Scythians)[30], Sir George Fletcher MacMunn (Scythians)[31], Arnold Joseph Toynbee (Massagetae)[32], George Rawlinson (Massagetae)[33], Satya Shrava (Massagetae)[34].

The Getae etymology has been taken up in the Jattan Da Ithihas. It has also been mentioned by Jat historian Bhim Singh Dahiya.[35] Jat people have many surnames common to Central Asian & German people even to this day.

Ancient Pali

The sixth century Pali inscription (dated samvat 597-56 = 541 AD) mentions the race as Jit. Thus, the term 'Jit' probably derives its nomenclature after the epithet of the founder of the tribe Jit Shalindra.[36] According to James Tod, in Rajasthan and Punjab, the tribe retained their ancient name Jit.[37][38]

Ancient literature

The Mahabharata mentions in chapter 25, shloka 26 that Lord Krishna founded a federationGana-sangha’ of the Andhak and Vrishni clans. This federation was known as ‘ jñāti-sangh’. Natthan Singh theorises that over a period of time jñāti to became jāṭ.[39]

According to Ram Lal Hala, the word Jat is derived from word 'Yat'. He proposes that there was a Chandra Vanshi king named Ushana (उशना), ancestor of Lord Krishna. Ushana was born after nine generations of Yadu. Ushana performed hundred Ashvamedha Yagyas and got the title of 'yat'. The word 'Yat' later may have changed to 'Jat'.[40]

Early Arabic

Painting of Al-Biruni, an early Arab writer, who wrote about the Jats. Painting showing him writing one of his books.

In Arabian form, the term is mentioned as Zath or Zutt (in Arabic 'J' changes for 'Z') by the Arab geographers.[41][42][43] Thus the nomenclature of the tribe is of post-Sanskrit Indian origin and belongs to the Indo-Aryan language.[44] Sir Alexander Cunningham wrote that the early Arab writers called the Jats - Zaths. He believed the Jats/Zaths were the Scythian Xanthii.[45]

In his etymological discussion the learned author, Quzi Athar Mubarakprui, has pointed out that the word Zutt or Zutti used in the Arabic Sources is an arabicised form of Jat as explained in several Arabic and Persian dictionaries including Lisan –al-Arab of lbn Manzur, the most famous and voluminous Arabic lexicon.[46][47] This is arabicised from the Indian (Hindi) word Jat and its singular is Zutti. He has also given opinion of some other lexicographers who thinks that this is the Arabic form of the Indian word Chat.[48] With reference to the well known geographical work, Taqwin al-Buldan, he observed that in the ancient period the Jats were also found in Baluchistan in a large number in addition to Sind.[49][50]

The Jatt (जट्ट) is generally referred by the Ghaznavid chronicler of the eleventh century (Gardezi, Al-Biruni, and Baihaqi)[51][52][53] in the history of Sind (Chachnama and Tarikh-i-Masumi); by the Delhi Sultanate’s chronicler’s Isami[54] and by the 18th century mystic writer Shah Wali Allah in his political letters.[55] Thus in the Indus Valley up to Saurashtra, the tribes are known as Jat.[56]

The author of Majmulat-Tawarikh tends to believe that the Arabs called the Sind people Jat.[57] In Sindhi dialect, the term is pronounced as ‘Yat’ and means ‘a camel-driver or breeder of camels’ [58] While the author of Dabistan-i-Mazahib (c. 1665) states that ‘Jat’ in the language of Punjab (read Jataki) means ‘a villager, a rustic’ (dahistani, rusta’i).[59][60]

Medieval Mughal

Mughal literature

During the Mughal period, phonetic and dialectic changes occurred, thus Deccan chronicler Firishta mentions them as ‘Jat (जट)’ with short vowel and hard ‘t’.[61] Finally, the term gained the present day phonetic in Ain-i-Akbari, when Abul Fazl mentions the tribe as ‘Jāt (जाट)’ with long vowel ‘a’ and hard ‘t’. It is said that the term derives from middle Indo-Aryan term 'Jata'.[62][63]

In view of O’Brien in Jataki language the ‘Jat (जात)’ – the herdsmen and camel grazer is spelt with soft ‘t’, while the ‘Jat (जाट)’- the cultivator with hard ‘t’.[64] However in present day the tribes, almost all the cultivators, are known as Jāt (जाट) especially in the Yamuna-Ganges Valley.[65]

Modern Urdu, Punjabi & Hindi

In modern Punjabi, Urdu and Hindi there are various pronunciations of the term Jat. In the Punjabi, the phonetic sound is "Jutt" or "Jatt (जट्ट)." The nomenclature of the word Jat is variously spelt, in different periods, as Jit (in ancient times), Jat (pl. Jatān), Jat, finally Jāt. The Persian form of the name is jatt, with short vowel and double short ‘t’.[66]


Religious Etymology of Jat

There are many variations of the term Jat. In the Punjab, the phonetic sound is "Jutt" or "Jatt (जट्ट)." Some historians consider Jats, along with Kayasthas and Gujars, out of purview of varna system.[67]

The nomenclature of the word Jat is variously spelt, in different periods, as Jit, Jat (pl. Jatān), Jat, finally Jāt. The sixth century Pali inscription (dated samvat 597-56 = 541 AD) mentions the race as Jit. Thus the term ‘Jit’ probably derives its nomenclature after the epithet of the founder of the tribe Jit Shalindra.

The Persian form of the ancient term Jit is Jat (जट्ट) with short vowel and double short ‘t’. [68]

The Jatt (जट्ट) is generally referred by the Ghaznavid chronicler of the eleventh century (Gardezi, Al-Biruni, and Baihaqi); [69], [70], [71] in the history of Sind (Chachnama and Tarikh-i-Masumi); by the Delhi Sultanate’s chronicler’s Isami; [72] and by the 18th century mystic writer Shah Wali Allah in his political letters. [73] Thus in the Indus Valley up to Saurashtra, the tribes are known as Jat. [74] The author of Majmulat-Tawarikh tends to believe that the Arabs called the Sind people Jat. [75] In Sindhi dialect, the term is pronounced as ‘Yat’ and means ‘a camel-driver or breeder of camels’ [76] While the author of Dabistan-i-Mazahib (c. 1665) states that ‘Jat’ in the language of Punjab (read Jataki) means ‘a villager, a rustic’ (dahistani, rusta’i). [77], [78]

During Mughal period, phonetic and dialectic changes occurred, thus Deccan chronicler Firishta mentions them as ‘Jat (जट)’ with short vowel and hard ‘t’. [79] Finally the term gained the present day phonetic in Ain-i-Akbari, when Abul Fazl mentions the tribe as ‘Jāt (जाट)’ with long vowel ‘a’ and hard ‘t’. It is said that the term derives from middle Indo-Aryan term 'Jata'. [80], [81] In view of O’Brien in Jataki language the ‘Jat (जात)’ – the herdsmen and camel grazer is spelt with soft ‘t’, while the ‘Jat (जाट)’- the cultivator with hard ‘t’. [82] However in present day the tribes, almost all the cultivators, are known as Jāt (जाट) especially in the Yamuna-Ganges Valley. [83]

In Arabian form, the term is mentioned as Zat or Zutt (in Arabic 'J' changes for 'Z') by the Arab geographers. [84], [85], [86] Thus the nomenclature of the tribe is of post-Sanskrit Indian origin and belongs to the Indo-Aryan language. [87]

In his etymological discussion the learned author, Quzi Athar Mubarakprui, has pointed out that the word Zutt or Zutti used in the Arabic Sources is an arabicised form of Jat as explained in several Arabic and Persian dictionaries including Lisan –al-Arab of lbn Manzur, the most famous and voluminous Arabic lexicon [88], [89] Quoting the same work, he states that Zut are people of race from Sind who are of black colour. [90]This is arabicised from the Indian (Hindi) word Jat and its singular is Zutti. He has also given opinion of some other lexicographers who thinks that this is the Arabic form of the Indian word Chat. [91] With reference to the well known geographical work, Taqwin al-Buldan, he observed that in the ancient period the Jats were also found in Baluchistan in a large number in addition to Sind [92], [93]

The Mahabharata mentions in chapter 25, shloka 26 that Lord Krishna founded a federationGana-sangha’ of the Andhak and Vrishni Clans. This federation was known as ‘Gyati-sangh’.

Dr Natthan Singh, a Jat historian theorises, that over a period of time ‘Gyati’ became ‘Gyat’ and it may have changed to Jat.[94]

According to Jat people historian Ram Lal Hala, the word Jat is derived from word 'Yat'. He proposes that there was a Chandra Vanshi king named Ushana (उशना), ancestor of Lord Krishna. Ushana was born after nine generations of Yadu. Ushana performed hundred Ashvamedha Yagyas and got the title of 'yat'. The word 'Yat' later may have changed to 'Jat'.[40]

jaT(a) [ जट ] — सङ्घाते (Saṅghāte) IAST: Jaṭa Saṅghāte

See on the site

http://sanskrit.sai.uni-heidelberg.d.../i_jaTa_a.html

jhaT(a) [ झट ] — सङ्घाते (Saṅghāte) IAST: Jhaṭa Saṅghāte

http://sanskrit.sai.uni-heidelberg.d...i_jhaTa_a.html

||स्वरांकित पाणिनीयधातुपाठः ||

||अथ पाणिनीयधातुपाठः||

अथ भ्वादयः |

१. १ भू सत्तायाम् | उदात्तः परस्मैभाषः ||

अथ टवर्गीयान्ताः | Meaning words ending with 't'

३४२ जटऽ

३४३ झट सङ्घाते

URL address is

http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/...atha_unic.html




||पाणिनीयधातुपाठः सूची स्वरविरहित ||

||अथ धातुपाठसूची ||

जट् | भ्वा० सेट् प० | जट- [सङ्घाते]१. ३४२ ||

झट् | भ्वा० सेट् प० | झट सङ्घाते १. ३४३ ||

URL address is

http://sanskritdocuments.org/all_sa/...ndex_unic.html




Meaning of Jata jhata sanghate is that jata and jhata dhatus are used for sangha

Some more links are as under http://sanskritdocuments.org/doc_z_m...%20manjusa.doc

http://nt.med.ncku.edu.tw/biochem/ls...%20manjusa.doc जैसा कि ऊपर बताया गया है जाट शब्द जट् धातु से बना है. यह उसी प्रकार है जैसे पठ धातु से पाठ बना है. यहाँ जट का अर्थ है जुड़ना. इसकी पुष्टि निम्न शब्द कोष से होती है

जट से जटित शब्द बना है

जटित भू.कृ. [सं.Öजट्(जुड़ना)+क्त+इतच्] जड़ा हुआ। जैसे-रत्नजटित मुकुट या सिंहासन।

See the link

http://pustak.org/bs/home.php?mean=31437 ट का एक अर्थ केंद्र भी है। इसका उदाहरण संस्कृत में जट् धातु है। ज का अर्थ गति होता है ट का अर्थ बीच में, केंद्र में होना है।

इस तरह जट् का अर्थ होगा ‘ऐसी स्थिति’ जो बीच में या केंद्र की ओर गति करने से बनती है- ज= गति, ट= केंद्र इस तरह जट् का अर्थ हुआ परिधि से केंद्र की ओर आना। इस उदाहरण से आसानी से यह बात समझी जा सकती है। परिधि से केंद्र की ओर गति होने से संकुचन हो रहा है। अत: ट का अर्थ संकुचन के अर्थ को प्रकट करता है।

More meanings of words related with Jat

More meanings of words related with Jat from John T. Platts: A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1884. Available on the site

http://hu.wiktionary.org/wiki/F%C3%B...3%A9k:platts/7

  1. जट jaṭ
  2. H जट jaṭ, s.m.=jāṭ, q.v.
  3. जट jaṭ
  4. H जट jaṭ, s.f.=next, q.v.:--jaṭ-malang, s.m. A pot-herb, the many-spiked amaranth.
  5. जटा jaṭā
  6. S जटा jaṭā, s.f. Matted, or twisted, or tangled "hair;" the hair matted and twisted together (as worn by the god Śiva, and by ascetics and persons in "mourning);" long tresses of hair twisted or braided together and coiled in a knot over the head so as to project like a horn from the forehead (or at other times allowed to fall carelessly over the back and "shoulders);--a" fibrous root, a root in general "(=jaṛ);" thread-like stems shooting from the trunk of a "tree;" a runner:--jatājinī (jatā+aj˚), s.m. One who wears matted hair and the hide of an ante- lope:--jaṭā-jūṭ, s.f. The matted and braided hair of Śiva rolled on his "head;" long tresses of hair twisted on the top of the head:--jaṭā-dhar, jaṭā-dhārī, adj. & s.m. Wearing matted or twisted or braided "hair;--one" whose hair is matted, "&c.;" any mendicant or ascetic wearing the "jaṭā;" an epithet of "Śiva;" an old serpent:--jaṭā-dhārī, s.f. The cockscomb flower, amaranth, Celosia cristata:--jaṭā-māsī, jaṭā-māṅsī, s.f. Spikenard, Valeriana "jatamasi;" or the plant Nardostachys jatamansi.
  7. जटा jaṭā
  8. H जटा jaṭā, s.m.=jāṭ, q.v.
  9. जटाल jaṭāl
  10. S जटाल jaṭāl, adj. Wearing a coil of twisted or matted hair.
  11. जटाला jaṭālā
  12. S जटाला jaṭālā, s.f.=jaṭā-māṅsī, q.v.s.v. jaṭā.
  13. जटालक jaṭālak
  14. S जटालक jaṭālak, adj.=jaṭāl, and jaṭī, qq.v.
  15. जुटाना juṭānā
  16. H जुटाना juṭānā (caus. of juṭnā), v.t. To unite closely together, to "combine;" to con- glutinate, congeal, form into a concrete mass.
  17. जटायुस jaṭāyus
  18. S जटायुस jaṭāyus,
  19. s.m. Name of a fabulous bird, the king of the vul- tures (the son of Garuḍ, according to the Rāmā- "yaṇ);--bdellium." जटायु jaṭāyu
  20. S जटायु jaṭāyu,
  21. s.m. Name of a fabulous bird, the king of the vul- tures (the son of Garuḍ, according to the Rāmā- "yaṇ);--bdellium." जटित jaṭit
  22. S जटित jaṭit, part. adj. Matted, tangled, "clotted;--set" or studded with "jewels;--s.f." Set-work or inlay of jewels.
  23. जुटक juṭak
  24. S जुटक juṭak, s.m. (f.?) A braid of hair, any knot or fillet of "hair;" the matted hair of Śiva or of ascetics.
  25. जटल jaṭal
  26. H जटल jaṭal [Prk. "जडिला;" S. "जटिला;" or jaṭ = juṭ˚, rt. of juṭnā+Prk. अडो=S. लः], s.f. FALSE or idle tale, a yarn, fabrication, &c.=zaṭal, q.v.
  27. जटिल jaṭil
  28. S जटिल jaṭil, adj. & s.m. Wearing the "jaṭā;" having matted or entangled "hair;--one" who wears the jaṭā, "&c.;--a" lion.
  29. जटुल jaṭul
  30. S जटुल jaṭul, s.m. A freckle, mole, mark.
  31. जटला jaṭlā
  32. H जटला jaṭlā [Prk. जडिलओ=S. जटिल+ "कः;" or jaṭlā = "juṭlā;" see jaṭal], s.m. "Collection;" meeting, "assembly;" union, "junction;" combination, confederacy, "league;" concourse, crowd (syn. "sanghaṭṭ;" bhīr).
  33. जटिला jaṭilā
  34. S जटिला jaṭilā, s.f. Indian spikenard "(=jaṭā-māṅsī);" long "pepper;" orris root.
  35. जटली jaṭlī
  36. H जटली jaṭlī, s.f.=jāṭal, jāṭlī, q.v.
  37. जटिन् jaṭin
  38. S जटिन् jaṭin, s.m.=jaṭi, and jaṭī, qq.v.
  39. जटना jaṭnā
  40. H जटना jaṭnā [jaṭ˚ = S. जट(ति), rt. जट्], v.n. To become clotted or "entangled;" to become rusty (as iron, &c.).
  41. जटना jaṭnā
  42. H जटना jaṭnā (jaṭ˚, prob.=jhaṭ˚, or jhapaṭ˚), v.t. To snatch away, to seize or carry off by "force;" to snatch, "seize;" to "pilfer;" to defraud, cheat.
  43. जुटना juṭnā
  44. H जुटना juṭnā [juṭ˚ = Prk. जुट्ट(इ) or जुट्टे(इ) fr. जुट्ट=S. युक्त p.p.p. of rt. युज्], v.n. To unite, join, co- "here;" to close (as an open "wound);" to close (with, -se), engage in close "fight;" to adhere, "stick;" to be "stitched;" to copulate "(with);" to stick "fast;" to stay, "wait;" to wait (for), expect.
  45. जटुआ jaṭuʼā
  46. H जटुआ jaṭuʼā, जटवा jaṭwā [jāṭ, q.v.+S. कः], s.m. A community of "jāṭs;--a" branch of the ćamār or cobbler caste.
  47. जटवाड़ा jaṭwāṛā
  48. H जटवाड़ा jaṭwāṛā [jāṭ+S. वाट+कः], s.m. A place where jāṭs reside, the quarter or district of the jāṭs.
  49. जुठ juṭh
  50. H जुठ juṭh [Prk. जुत्तं or "जुट्टं;" S. युक्तं], s.m. A match, pair (=joṛā):--juṭh-milāʼo, s.m. Two pieces coming together in the game of ćausar.
  51. जुठ juṭh
  52. H जुठ juṭh, s.m.=jāṭh, q.v.
  53. जिठानी jiṭhānī
  54. H जिठानी jiṭhānī [Prk. "जेट्ठाणी;" S. ज्येष्ठ+ आनी], s.f. The husband's elder brother's wife (see jeṭh).
  55. जठर jaṭhar
  56. S जठर jaṭhar, s.m. The stomach, belly, abdomen, "bowels;" the womb:--jaṭharāgni, vulg. jaṭhar-agni, s.f. The digestive fire of the stomach, the gastric juice:--jaṭharām, jaṭharāmay (˚ra+ām˚), s.m. Water in the abdomen, dropsy:--jaṭharānal (˚ra+an˚), s.m.=jaṭharāgni:--jaṭhar-nud, s.m. The plant Cathartocarpus fistula.
  57. जठरा jaṭharā
  58. H जठरा jaṭharā [S. जठर+कः], adj. Hard, "firm;" bound, tied.
  59. जट्ठी jaṭṭhī
  60. H जट्ठी jaṭṭhī [S. ज्येष्ठ+ई(इन्)+कः], s.m. A professional wrestler (=jeṭhī).
  61. जट्ठी jaṭṭhī
  62. H जट्ठी jaṭṭhī, s.f.=jaṭṭī, q.v.
  63. जठेरा jaṭherā
  64. H जठेरा jaṭherā, adj. & s.m. jeṭh, jeṭhā, jyeshṭha, qq.v.
  65. जटि jaṭi
  66. S जटि jaṭi, s.f. The waved-leafed fig-tree, Ficus venosa.
  67. जट्टी jaṭṭī
  68. H जट्टी jaṭṭī [S. यष्टिका], s.f. Liquorice (=jeṭhī madh).
  69. जुट्टी juṭṭī
  70. H जुट्टी juṭṭī [Prk. "जुट्टिआ;" S. युक्त+इका], s.f. A "couple;--two" "rupees;--a" bundle of tobacco leaves.
  71. जटी jaṭī
  72. S जटी jaṭī,
  73. adj. & s.m. Having matted "hair;" wearing a "jaṭā;--a" person with matted or tangled hair. जटिया jaṭiyā
  74. H जटिया jaṭiyā,
  75. adj. & s.m. Having matted "hair;" wearing a "jaṭā;--a" person with matted or tangled hair. जट्टी बुट्टी jaṭṭī-buṭṭī
  76. H जट्टी बुट्टी jaṭṭī-buṭṭī, s.f. Medicinal roots and herbs (=jaṛī-būṅṭī).


  1. जातना jātnā
  2. H जातना jātnā [S. यातना], s.f. Requital, retaliation, "return;" acute pain, torment, anguish, agony, hell-torment.
  3. जातु jātu
  4. H जातु jātu [S. यातुः], s.m. Goer, traveller, "wayfarer;" "time;" a kind of evil spirit, a rākshas, goblin, demon.
  5. जातू jātū
  6. H जातू jātū, s.m. Name of a Rājpūt tribe in Karnāl (of whom many have now become Musal- māns).
  7. जाति jāti
  8. S जाति jāti, s.f. See jāt, s.f.
  9. जाती jātī
  10. S जाती jātī (for jāti), s.f. The great-flowered jas- mine, Jasminum "grandiflorum;" mace, nutmeg:--jātī-patrī, s.f. Mace:--jātī-phal, s.m. Nutmeg:--jātī-ras, s.m. Gum myrrh.
  11. जाती jātī
  12. H जाती jātī [S. जातीयः], adj. Relating or belonging to any species, genus, class, kind, caste, family, race, &c.
  13. जात्यन्ध jātyandh
  14. S जात्यन्ध jātyandh (i.e. jāti+andha). For this and other compounds see s.v. jāt, 'birth,' &c.
  15. जात्य jātya
  16. S जात्य jātya, adj. Belonging to a family or "caste;" of the same family, "related;" sprung from a noble family, noble, "well-born;" (in Math.) right-angled, rectangular, "oblong;--s.m." A person of noble "descent;--a" rectangle:--jātyāyat, adj. & s.f. Rectangular, "oblong;--a" rectangle:--jātya-tribhuj, s.m. A right-angled triangle.
  17. जाट jāṭ
  18. H जाट jāṭ, s.m. Name of a tribe of Rājpūts (who are mostly "cultivators);" a member of the tribe.
  19. जाट jāṭ
  20. H जाट jāṭ, s.m.=jāṭh, q.v.
  21. जाटल jāṭal
  22. H जाटल jāṭal,
  23. s.m. The plant Bignonia suaveolens. जाटलि jāṭli
  24. S जाटलि jāṭli,
  25. s.m. The plant Bignonia suaveolens. जाटली jāṭlī
  26. H जाटली jāṭlī (jāṭ, q.v.+dim. aff. lī), s.f. Name of a subdivision of the Gūjar tribe.
  27. जाटु jāṭu
  28. H जाटु jāṭu, जाटू jāṭū, s.m.=jāṭ, "q.v.;" cf. also jātū.
  29. जाटुआ jāṭuʼā
  30. H जाटुआ jāṭuʼā, जाटवा jāṭwā [jāṭ, q.v.+S. अ +कः], s.m. A community of "Jāṭs;" a branch of the ćamār tribe.
  31. जाठ jāṭh
  32. H जाठ jāṭh [S. यष्टिः], s.m. The axis or roller (of an oil or sugar mill, which presses the grain or the canes), the upright beam (which moves in the "mill);--a" post placed in the centre of a tank (to mark its being dedicated to a deity or married to a grove: cf. "lāṭh;" laṭh).
Meaning of सङ्घात , संघात saṅ-ghāt

meaning of word सङ्घात from John T. Platts: A Dictionary of Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English

London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1884. Available on the site

http://hu.wiktionary.org/wiki/F%C3%B...3%A9klatts/7

at 0687

  1. S सङ्घात , संघात saṅ-ghāt, s.m. Union, combination, association, "confederacy;" an assemblage, a collection, quantity, heap, cluster, multitude, "band;" society, "companionship;" collection of mucus, "phlegm;" composition of words, formation of "compounds;--striking," killing, "hurting;--name" of a division of the infernal regions.
  1. संघातिन sanghātin
  1. H संघातिन sanghātin, संघातन sanghātan, vulg. sangātan [S. सङ्घात+इनी], s.f. Female companion, a woman's companion or associate.
  1. संघाती saṅghātī
  1. H संघाती saṅghātī, vulg. saṅgātī [S. सङ्घात #NAME? (इन्+कः)], s.m. Associate, companion, comrade, friend, "ally;" an accessory.

See the link - http://www.rajasthanpatrika.com/yatr...=3&artical=113

जाट शब्द कैसे बना

जाट शब्द का निर्माण संस्कृत के 'ज्ञात' शब्द से हुआ है. अथवा यों कहिये की यह 'ज्ञात' शब्द का अपभ्रंश है. लगभग 1450 वर्ष इस पूर्व में अथवा महाभारत काल में भारत में अराजकता का व्यापक प्रभाव था. यह चर्म सीमा को लाँघ चुका था. उत्तरी भारत में साम्राज्यवादी शासकों ने प्रजा को असह्य विपदा में डाल रखा था. इस स्थिति को देखकर कृष्ण ने अग्रज बलराम की सहायता से कंस को समाप्त कट उग्रसेन को मथुरा का शासक नियुक्त किया. कृष्ण ने साम्राज्यवादी शासकों से संघर्ष करने हेतु एक संघ का निर्माण किया. उस समय यादवों के अनेक कुल थे किंतु सर्व प्रथम उन्होंने अन्धक और वृष्नी कुलों का ही संघ बनाया. संघ के सदस्य आपस में सम्बन्धी होते थे इसी कारण उस संघ का नम 'ज्ञाति-संघ' रखा गया. [95] [96] [97]

ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि महाभारत युद्ध के पश्चात् राजनैतिक संघर्ष हुआ जिसके कारण पांडवों को हस्तिनापुर तथा यादवों को द्वारिका छोड़ना पड़ा. ये लोग भारत से बाहर इरान, अफगानिस्तान, अरब, और तुर्किस्तान देशों में फ़ैल गए. चंद्रवंशी क्षत्रिय जो यादव नाम से अधिक प्रसिद्द थे वे इरान से लेकर सिंध, पंजाब, सौराष्ट्र, मध्य भारत और राजस्थान में फ़ैल गए. पूर्व-उत्तर में ये लोग कश्मीर, नेपाल, बिहार तक फैले. यही नहीं मंगोल देश में भी जा पहुंचे. कहा जाता है कि पांडव साइबेरिया में पहुंचे और वहां वज्रपुर आबाद किया. यूनान वाले हरक्यूलीज की संतान मानते हैं और इस भांति अपने को कृष्ण तथा बलदेव की संतान बताते हैं. चीन-वाशी भी अपने को भारतीय आर्यों की संतान मानते हैं. इससे आर्यों को महाभारत के बाद विदेशों में जाना अवश्य पाया जाता है. ये वही लोग थे जो पीछे से शक, पल्लव्ह, कुषाण, यूची, हूण, गूजर आदि नामों से भारत में आते समय पुकारे जाते हैं. [98]

यह संघ व्यक्ति प्रधान नहीं था. इसमें शामिल होते ही किसी राजकुल का पूर्व नाम आदि सब समाप्त हो जाते थे. वह केवल ज्ञाति के नाम से ही जाना जाता था.[99] प्राचीन ग्रंथो के अध्ययन से यह बात साफ हो जाती है की परिस्थिति और भाषा के बदलते रूप के कारण 'ज्ञात' शब्द ने 'जाट' शब्द का रूप धारण कर लिया. महाभारत काल में शिक्षित लोगों की भाषा संस्कृत थी. इसी में साहित्य सर्जन होता था. कुछ समय पश्चात जब संस्कृत का स्थान प्राकृत भाषा ने ग्रहण कर लिया तब भाषा भेद के कारण 'ज्ञात' शब्द का उच्चारण 'जाट' हो गया. आज से दो हजार वर्ष पूर्व की प्राकृत भाषा की पुस्तकों में संस्कृत 'ज्ञ' का स्थान 'ज' एवं 'त' का स्थान 'ट' हुआ मिलता है. इसकी पुष्टि व्याकरण के पंडित बेचारदास जी ने भी की है. उन्होंने कई प्राचीन प्राकृत भाषा के व्यकरणों के आधार पर नविन प्राकृत व्याकरण बनाया है जिसमे नियम लिखा है कि संस्कृत 'ज्ञ' का 'ज' प्राकृत में विकल्प से हो जाता है और इसी भांति 'त' के स्थान पर 'ट' हो जाता है. [100] इसके इस तथ्य कि पुष्टि सम्राट अशोक के शिला लेखों से भी होती है जो उन्होंने २६४-२२७ इस पूर्व में धर्मव्लियों के स्तंभों पर खुदवाई थी. उसमें भी कृत के सतह पर कट और मृत के स्थान पर मट हुआ मिलाता है. अतः उपरोक्त प्रमाणों के आधार पर सिद्ध होता है कि 'जाट' शब्द संस्कृत के 'ज्ञात' शब्द का ही रूपांतर है.अतः जैसे ज्ञात शब्द संघ का बोध करता है उसी प्रकार जाट शब्द भी संघ का वाचक है. [101]

इसी आधार पर पाणिनि ने अष्टाध्यायी व्याकरण में 'जट' धातु का प्रयोग कर 'जट झट संघाते' सूत्र बना दिया. इससे इस बात की पुष्टि होती है कि जाट शब्द का निर्माण इस पूर्व आठवीं शदी में हो चुका था. पाणिनि रचित अष्टाध्यायी व्याकरण का अध्याय 3 पाद 3 सूत्र 19 देखें:

३. ३. १९ अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायां

अकर्तरि च कारके संज्ञायां से जट् धातु से संज्ञा में घ ञ् प्रत्यय होता है. जट् + घ ञ् और घ ञ प्रत्यय के घ् और ञ् की इति संज्ञा होकर लोप हो जाता है. रह जाता है अर्थार्त जट् + अ ऐसा रूप होता है. फ़िर अष्टाध्यायी के अध्याय ७ पाद २ सूत्र ११६ - ७. २. ११६ अतः उपधायाः से उपधा अर्थार्त जट में के अक्षर के के स्थान पर वृद्धि अथवा दीर्घ हो जाता है. जाट् + अ = जाट[102]


व्याकरण भाष्कर महर्षि पाणिनि के धातु पाठ में जाट व जाट शब्दों की विद्यमानता उनकी प्राचीनता का एक अकाट्य प्रमाण है. इसके बाद ईसा पूर्व पाँचवीं शदी के चन्द्र के व्याकरण में भी इस शब्द का प्रयोग हुआ है.[103]

द्वारिका के पतन के बाद जो ज्ञाति-वंशी पश्चिमी देशों में चले गए वह भाषा भेद के कारण गाथ कहलाने लगे तथा 'जाट' जेटी गेटी [104] के नाम से उन देशों में चिन्हित हुए.

जाट संघ में शामिल वंश

श्री कृष्ण के वंश का नाम भी जाट था. इस जाट संघ का समर्थन पांडव वंशीय सम्राट युधिस्ठिर तथा उनके भाइयों ने भी किया. आज की जाट जाति में पांडव वंश पंजाब के शहर गुजरांवाला में पाया जाता है. समकालीन राजवंश गांधार, यादव, सिंधु, नाग, लावा, कुशमा, बन्दर, नर्देय आदि वंश ने कृष्ण के प्रस्ताव को स्वीकार किया तथा जाट संघ में शामिल हो गए. गांधार गोत्र के जाट रघुनाथपुर जिला बदायूं में तथा अलीगढ़ में और यादव वंश के जाट क्षत्रिय धर्मपुर जिला बदायूं में अब भी हैं. सिंधु गोत्र तो प्रसिद्ध गोत्र है. इसी के नाम पर सिंधु नदी तथा प्रान्त का नाम सिंध पड़ा. पंजाब की कलसिया रियासत इसी गोत्र की थी. नाग गोत्र के जाट खुदागंज तथा रमपुरिया ग्राम जिला बदायूं में हैं. इसी प्रकार वानर/बन्दर गोत्र जिसके हनुमान थे वे पंजाब और हरयाणा के जाटों में पाये जाते हैं. नर्देय गोत्र भी कांट जिला मुरादाबाद के जाट क्षेत्र में है. [105]


पुरातन काल में नाग क्षत्रिय समस्त भारत में शासक थे. नाग शासकों में सबसे महत्वपूर्ण और संघर्षमय इतिहास तक्षकों का और फ़िर शेषनागों का है. एक समय समस्त कश्मीर और पश्चिमी पंचनद नाग लोगों से आच्छादित था. इसमें कश्मीर के कर्कोटक और अनंत नागों का बड़ा दबदबा था. पंचनद (पंजाब) में तक्षक लोग अधिक प्रसिद्ध थे. कर्कोटक नागों का समूह विन्ध्य की और बढ़ गया और यहीं से सारे मध्य भारत में छा गया. यह स्मरणीय है कि मध्य भारत के समस्त नाग एक लंबे समय के पश्चात बौद्ध काल के अंत में पनपने वाले ब्रह्मण धर्म में दीक्षित हो गए. बाद में ये भारशिव और नए नागों के रूप में प्रकट हुए. इन्हीं लोगों के वंशज खैरागढ़, ग्वालियर आदि के नरेश थे. ये अब राजपूत और मराठे कहलाने लगे. तक्षक लोगों का समूह तीन चौथाई भाग से भी ज्यादा जाट संघ में शामिल हो गए थे. वे आज टोकस और तक्षक जाटों के रूप में जाने जाते हैं. शेष नाग वंश पूर्ण रूप से जाट संघ में शामिल हो गया जो आज शेषमा कहलाते हैं. वासुकि नाग भी मारवाड़ में पहुंचे. इनके अतिरिक्त नागों के कई वंश मारवाड़ में विद्यमान हैं. जो सब जाट जाति में शामिल हैं.[106]

जाट संघ से अन्य संगठनों की उत्पति

जाट संघ में भारत वर्ष के अधिकाधिक क्षत्रिय शामिल हो गए थे. जाट का अर्थ भी यही है कि जिस जाति में बहुत सी ताकतें एकजाई हों यानि शामिल हों, एक चित हों, ऐसे ही समूह को जाट कहते हैं. जाट संघ के पश्चात् अन्य अलग-अलग संगठन बने. जैसे अहीर, गूजर, मराठा तथा राजपूत. ये सभी इसी प्रकार के संघ थे जैसा जाट संघ था. राजपूत जाति का संगठन बौद्ध धर्म के प्रभाव को कम करने के लिए ही पौराणिक ब्राहमणों ने तैयार किया था. बौद्धधर्म से पहले राजपूत नामका कोई वर्ग या समाज न था. .[107]

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