Rahul Sankrityayan

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Rahul Sankrityayan (9.4.1893 – 14.4.1963) is called the Father of Hindi Travelogue Travel literature because he is the one who played a pivotal role to give travelogue a 'literature form'.

Variants of name


He was born as Kedarnath Pandey to a Bhumihar Brahmin[1] family on 9 April 1893 in Pandaha village. His ancestral village was Kanaila Chakrapanpur, Azamgarh district, in Eastern Uttar Pradesh.[2] He went to a local primary school. Later he studied and mastered numerous languages independently, as well as learning the art of photography.

He spent several years in the "Parsa Gadh" village in the Saran district in Bihar. The village's entry gate is named "Rahul Gate".

Became a Buddhist monk

Initially, he was a keen follower of Arya Samaj of Swami Dayananda Saraswati. Then Buddhism changed his life. After taking Diksha in Sri Lanka he became Rahul (son of Buddha) also used his Gotra (Sankritya) with his name and finally called “Rahul Sankrityayan”. He lost faith in God's existence but still retained faith in reincarnation. Later he moved towards Marxist Socialism and rejected the concepts of reincarnation and afterlife. The two volumes of Darshan-Digdarshan, the collected history of the World's philosophy give an indication of his philosophy when we find the second volume much dedicated to Dharmakirti's Pramana Vartika. This he discovered in Tibetan translation from Tibet.

Sankrityayan was also an Indian nationalist, having been arrested and jailed for three years for creating anti-British writings and speeches.

His Travels

He was one of the most widely travelled scholars of India, spending forty-five years of his life on travels away from his home. He travelled many places and wrote many travelogue approximately in the same ratio. He also famously known for his authentic description about his travels experiences, for instance- in his travelogue "Meri Laddakh Yatra" he presents overall regional, historical and cultural specificity of that region judiciously.

Sankrityayan's travels took him to different parts of India including Ladakh, Kinnaur, and Kashmir. He also travelled to several other countries including Nepal, Tibet, Sri Lanka, Iran, China, and the former Soviet Union. While travelling, he mostly used surface transport, and he went to certain countries clandestinely; he entered Tibet as a Buddhist monk. He made several trips to Tibet and brought valuable paintings and Pali and Sanskrit manuscripts back to India. Most of these were a part of the libraries of Vikramshila and Nalanda Universities. These objects had been taken to Tibet by fleeing Buddhist monks during the twelfth and subsequent centuries when the invading Muslim armies had destroyed universities in India. Some accounts state that Rahul Sankrityayan employed twenty-two mules to bring these materials from Tibet to India. Patna Museum, Patna, has a special section of these materials in his honour, where a number of these and other items have been displayed.

His Books

Sankrityayan was a polyglot, well versed in several languages and dialects, including Hindi, Sanskrit, Pali, Bhojpuri, Magahi, Urdu, Persian, Arabic, Tamil, Kannada, Tibetan, Sinhalese, French and Russian. He was also an Indologist, a Marxist theoretician, and a creative writer. He started writing during his twenties and his works, totalling well over 100, covered a variety of subjects, including sociology, history, philosophy, Buddhism, Tibetology, lexicography, grammar, textual editing, folklore, science, drama, and politics. Many of these were unpublished. He translated Majjhima Nikaya from Prakrit into Hindi.[3]

His most important travelogue literature is

  • Tibbat Me Sava Varsha (1933)
  • Meri Europe Yatra(1935)
  • Athato Ghumakkad Jigyasa
  • Volga Se Ganga
  • Asia ke Durgam Bhukhando Mein
  • Yatra Ke Panne
  • Kinnar Desh Mein

Volga Se Ganga: One of his most famous books in Hindi is Volga Se Ganga (A journey from the Volga to the Ganges) – a work of historical fiction concerning the migration of Aryans from the steppes of the Eurasia to regions around the Volga river; then their movements across the Hindukush and the Himalayas and the sub-Himalayan regions; and their spread to the Indo-Gangetic plains of the subcontinent of India. The book begins in 6000 BC and ends in 1942, the year when Mahatma Gandhi, the Indian nationalist leader called for the Quit India movement. It was published in 1942. A translation into English of this work by Victor Kiernan was published in 1947 as From Volga to Ganga.[4]

He maintained daily diaries in Sanskrit which were used fully while writing his autobiography. In spite of profound scholarship, he wrote in very simple Hindi that a common person could follow. He wrote books of varied interest. He was aware of limitations of Hindi literature and singularly made up the loss in no small measure.

The historian Kashi Prasad Jayaswal compared Rahul Sankrityayan with Buddha. Rahul's personality was as impressive and memorable as are his achievements. He travelled widely and wrote in five languages – Hindi, Sanskrit, Bhojpuri, Pāli and Tibetan. His published works span a range of genres, which include autobiography, biography, travelogue, sociology, history, philosophy, Buddhism, Tibetology, lexicography, grammar, text editing, folklore, science, fiction, drama, essays, politics, and pamphleteering.


In Hindi


  • बाईसवीं सदी (Baaeesween Sadi) – 1923
  • जीने के लिए (Jeeney ke Liye) – 1940
  • सिंह सेनापति (Simha Senapathi) – 1944
  • जय यौधेय (Jai Yaudheya) – 1944
  • भागो नहीं दुनियाँ को बदलो (Bhago Nahin, Duniya ko Badlo) – 1944
  • मधुर स्वप्न (Madhur Swapna) – 1949
  • राजस्थानी रनिवास (Rajasthani Ranivas) – 1953
  • विस्मृत यात्री (Vismrit Yatri) – 1954
  • दोवोदास (Divodas) – 1960
  • विस्मृति के गर्भ में (Vismriti Ke Garbh Me)

Short Stories

  • सतमी के बच्चे (Satmi ke Bachche) – 1935
  • वोल्गा से गंगा (Volga Se Ganga) – 1944
  • बहुरंगी मधुपुरी (Bahurangi Madhupuri) – 1953
  • कन्हैया की कथा (Kanaila ki Katha) – 1955–56


  • मेरी जीवन यात्रा-I Meri Jivan Yatra I – 1944
  • मेरी जीवन यात्रा-II Meri Jivan Yatra II – 1950
  • मेरी जीवन यात्रा-III, IV, V (Meri Jivan Yatra III, IV, V) – published posthumously


  • सरदार पृथ्वीसिंह (Sardar Prithvi Singh) – 1955
  • नए भारत के नए नेता (Naye Bharat ke Naye Neta (2 volumes)) – 1942
  • बचपन की स्मृतियाँ (Bachpan ki Smritiyan) – 1953
  • अतीत से वर्तमान (Ateet se Vartaman-Vol I) – 1953
  • स्टेलिन (Stalin') – 1954
  • लेनिन (Lenin) – 1954
  • कार्ल मार्क्स (Karl Marx) – 1954
  • माओत्से तुंग Mao-Tse-Tung – 1954
  • घुमक्कड़ स्वामी (Ghumakkar Swami) – 1956
  • मेरे असहयोग के साथी (Mere Asahayog ke Sathi) – 1956
  • जिनका मैं कृतज्ञ (Jinka Main Kritajna) – 1956
  • वीर चन्द्रसिंह गढ़वाली (Vir Chandrasingh Garhwali) – 1956
  • महामानव बुद्ध (Mahamanav Budha) – 1956
  • अकबर (Akbar) – 1956
  • सिंहल घुममकद जयवर्धन (Simhala Ghumakkar Jaivardhan) – 1960
  • कप्तान लाल (Kaptan Lal) – 1961
  • सिंहल के वीर पुरुष (Simhal ke Vir Purush) – 1961

Some of his other books are:-

  • मानसिक गुलामी (Mansik Gulami)
  • ऋग्वेदिक आर्य (Rhigvedic Arya)
  • घुमक्कड़ शास्त्र (Ghumakkar Shastra)
  • किन्नर देश में (Kinnar desh mein)
  • दर्शन दिग्दर्शन (Darshan Digdarshan)
  • दक्खिनी हिन्दी का व्याकरण (Dakkhini Hindi ka Vyaakaran)
  • पुरातत्व निबंधावली (Puratatv Nibandhawali)
  • मानव समाज (Manava Samaj)
  • मध्य एशिया का इतिहास (Madhya Asia ka Itihas)
  • साम्यवाद ही क्यों (Samyavad hi Kyon)

Related to Tibetan

  • तिब्बती बाल शिक्षा (Tibbati Bal-Siksha) – 1933
  • पथवाली (Pathavali) (Vol. 1,2 & 3) – 1933
  • तिब्बती व्याकरण (Tibbati Vyakaran) – 1933
  • तिब्बत में बुध धर्म (Tibbat May Budh Dharm) -1948
  • ल्हासा की ओर (Lhasa ki or)
  • हिमालय परिचय भाग-1 (Himalaya Parichay Bhag 1)
  • हिमालय परिचय भाग-2 (Himalaya Parichay Bhag 2)

In Bhojpuri


  • Japaniya Rachhachh
  • Des Rachchhak
  • Jarmanwā ke hār nihichay
  • ī hamār laṛāi'"
  • Dhunmum Netā
  • Naiki Duniya
  • Jonk
  • Mehrarun ke Durdasa

Volga Se Ganga

Volga Se Ganga (वोल्गा से गंगा), A journey from the Volga to the Ganges, is a 1943 collection of 20 historical non-fiction short-stories by scholar and travel writer Rahul Sankrityayan. A true vagabond, Sankrityayan traveled to far lands like Russia, Korea, Japan, China and many others, where he mastered the languages of these lands and was an authority on cultural studies.

The stories collectively trace the migration of Aryans from the steppes of the Eurasia to regions around the Volga river; then their movements across the Hindukush and the Himalayas and the sub-Himalayan regions; and their spread to the Indo-Gangetic plains of the subcontinent of India. The book begins in 6000 BC and ends in 1942, the year when Mahatma Gandhi, the Indian nationalist leader called for the quit India movement.

Volga Se Ganga is about the history of Indo–European people who were later known as the Aryans. The 20 stories are woven over a span of 8000 years and a distance of about 10,000 km.

The first story, "Nisha", is about cavemen living in Caucasia (southern Russia) about 6000 BC. The society or its precursor at that time was matriarchal and so the story is named after the leader of the family 'Nisha'. Although all the 20 stories are independent, the sequence in which they are arranged nevertheless serves a very important purpose. Here one can find a gradual transformation from a matriarchal society (the first two stories) to a patriarchal one (the rest), a gradual change from freedom to slavery, from acceptance of slavery to its loathing and the likes. If one is to believe Sankrityayan, then an apprehension for technological advancement is nothing new. People were wary of the newly better armament which was fast replacing the older stone equipment (fourth story – "Puruhoot" (Tajikistan 2500 BC)). The same story tells how an arms race was started during that period and how southerners amassed great wealth at the expense of the northerners.

The sixth story, "Angira" (Taxila 1800 BC), is about a man who wants to save the Aryan race from losing its identity to other races by teaching about their true culture (precursor to Vedic Rishis).

The eighth story (Pravahan (700 BC. Panchala, U.P.). is about the upper class manipulating religion for their own vested interests and conspiring to keep people in dark for at least 2000 years). One can see how easily and frequently the Indians, the mid easterners and the Greeks mingled with each other in the times of Chanakya and Alexander by reading the tenth story Nagdatt, which is about a philosopher classmate of Chanakya who travels to Persia and Greece and learns how Athens fell to Macedonia.

The eleventh story (Prabha, 50 AD) is about the famous (also the first Indian) dramatist Aśvaghoṣa, who adopted the Greek art of drama into Indian culture in a very beautiful and authentic way, and his inspiration.

Baba Noordeen (1300), the 15th story is about the rise of Sufism.

The 17th story Rekha Bhagat (1800 is about the barbarous rule of the East India company and the anarchy it brought to parts of India.

The last story ("Sumer", 1942) is about a man who goes on to fight the Japanese because he wants Soviet Russia to triumph, for this nation according to him is the only hope left for humanity.


Rahul accepted a teaching job at a Sri Lankan University, where he fell seriously ill. Diabetes, high blood pressure and a mild stroke struck him. Most tragic happening was the loss of memory. He died in Darjeeling in 1963. Rahul's Tombstone at Darjeeling.This tombstone is established at a place called "Murda Haati" which is a cremation ground downtown in the lower altitudes of Darjeeling around 25 minutes drive from the Chow-Rasta.The same place also has the tombstone of Sister Nivedita.

Honours and Awards

He is referred to as the 'Greatest Scholar' (Mahapandit) for his scholarship.

Although he had little formal education, in view of his knowledge and command over the subject, University of Leningrad appointed him Professor of Indology in 1937–38 and again in 1947–48.

Many of Rahul's personal collections including the ones he gathered from his multiple trips to Tibet were distributed across to multiple Universities and Museums. Patna Museum has an extensive collection of Buddhist scrolls which he assimilated through his journeys across Tibet. Many of these are considered rare gems of Indian scriptures translated into Tibetan.

He was awarded the Padmabhushan in 1963, and he received the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1958 for his book Madhya Asia Ka Itihas.

राहुल सांकृत्यायन

डॉ. कृष्णा जाखड़[5] ने लिखा है....किसी देश और समाज को सही तरीके से समझने के लिए डॉ. घासीराम वर्मा राहुल सांकृत्यायन का उदाहरण देते हैं. राहुल सांकृत्यायन ने एक पुस्तक लिखी है वोल्गा से गंगा. वोल्गा रूस की एक नदी है तथा गंगा भारत की. इस पुस्तक में कोई 8000 वर्ष पहले लोग कैसे रूस से चले और भारत पहुंचे इसका वर्णन किया है.

वोल्गा से गंगा पुस्तक में 1940 तक का वर्णन है. राहुल ने मार्क्स की पुस्तकें पढ़ी थी, वह कम्युनिस्ट हो गया था. वह गांधी के भी कुछ विचारों से सहमत नहीं थे. प्रारंभ के दो अध्याय में उसने लिखा है कि आदमी भी उस समय पशुओं की तरफ थे. आज की तरह मां, बाप, बेटी, भाई, बहन जैसा कोई सामाजिक रिश्ता नहीं था. मातृ-प्रधान युग था. सबसे ताकतवर स्त्री यह निर्णय करती थी कि वह किस पुरुष के साथ लैंगिक संबंध बनाएगी. पसंद का पुरुष अगर बुड्ढा व असहाय हो जाता था तो उससे अलग हो जाती थी. तथा अन्य लड़का जो सबसे युवा होता था, उसको साथ रखने लगती थी. उसकी बेटियां उसका स्थान लेने के लिए वही पशुवाली सी लड़ाई करती. इस लड़ाई में कभी उसे मार भी दिया जाता. इसी प्रकार बेटे भी अपने बाप का स्थान लेने के लिए आपस में लड़ते व एक दूसरे को मार भी देते थे. अर्थात आदमी और पशुओं में कोई अंतर नहीं था. जब यह पुस्तक लिखी गई तो लोगों ने बड़ी आलोचना की.

डॉ. कृष्णा जाखड़[6] ने लिखा है....राहुल सांकृत्यायन एक रूढ़िवादी ब्राह्मण परिवार में पैदा हुआ था. उसके घरवाले जजमानी का काम करते थे जो उसको अच्छा नहीं लगता था. वह घर छोड़कर साधु बन गया. उसने बौद्ध-धर्म के बारे में पढ़ा तो बहुत प्रभावित हुआ और वह बौद्ध बन गया. रामोदर साधु का 'रा' और 'सा' रख लिया और राहुल बन गया. राहुल बुद्ध के बेटे का नाम था. अपने मित्र भदंत आनंद कौशल्यायन के साथ घूमता-घूमता लंका पहुंच गया. वहां से वह बहुत सारे बौद्ध ग्रंथ लाया. तिब्बत से भी कुछ बौद्ध ग्रंथ लाया.

राहुल सांकृत्यायन ने बहुत सी पुस्तक लिखी. एक पुस्तक घुमक्कड़ शास्त्र के नाम पर है. उसमें किसी ने उससे पूछा कि स्त्री को साथ लेकर घूमा जाए तो कैसा रहे? जवाब था- द्विपद करना ही ठीक है चतुष्पद होने पर षट्पद होने में देर नहीं लगती. उसी पुस्तक में ख्वाजा मीर दर्द का एक शेर है- 'सैर कर दुनिया की गाफिल जिंदगानी फिर कहां?, जिंदगी गर कुछ रही तो यह जवानी फिर कहां?

एक बार बनारस के पंडितों ने राहुल सांकृत्यायन को विद्वान समझकर भाषण के लिए बुलाया था. उसका पहला वाक्य था- 'मैं जब ईरान पहुंचा तो हिंदू धर्म के कुसंस्कारों के कारण गौमांस का आनंद नहीं ले सका.' सुनकर सभी ने कहा- इस म्लेछ को किस ने बुला लिया.

राहुल सांकृत्यायन जैसे लोगों का जिक्र जरूरी हो जाता है. क्योंकि जो पूर्वाग्रह से ग्रसित होकर किसी भी देश में जाते हैं वे वहां कमियां ही ढूंढते हैं, खूबियां नहीं देखते. राहुल सांकृत्यायन वह घुमक्कड़ व्यक्ति था, जो अपनी कुंठाओं से मुक्त होकर दुनिया खोज रहा था. बहुत सारे यात्री इसी तरीके से दुनिया के हर कोने में जाते हैं और वहां की अच्छाइयां खोजते हैं. जब तक हम अपनी कुंठाओं से मुक्त होकर दुनिया की अच्छाइयां कबूल नहीं करते तब तक हम कहां अच्छे हो पाते हैं?

1937-38 के बीच हिन्दी के मूर्धन्य विद्वान राहुल सांकृत्यायन ने किसान आन्दोलन की नींव सिवान में रखी थी। स्वतंत्रता की लड़ाई में यहाँ के मजहरुल हक़, राजेन्द्र प्रसाद, महेन्द्र प्रसाद,रामदास पाण्डेय फूलेना प्रसाद जैसे महान सेनानियों नें समूचे देश में बिहार का नाम ऊँचा किया है। (संदर्भ: सीवान-विकिपीडिया)

महापण्डित राहुल सांकृत्यायन पुरस्कार

मानव संसाधन विकास मंत्रालय (भारत सरकार) की हिन्दी सेवी सम्मान योजना के अंतर्गतगत 19 अप्रैल 2016 डॉ. पूर्ण सिंह डबास को “महापण्डित राहुल सांकृत्यायन” पुरस्कार से महामहिम राष्ट्रपति श्री प्रणव मुर्खी द्वारा राष्ट्रपति भवन में सम्मानित किया गया। यह पुरस्कार उन्हें शोध तथा पर्यटन साहित्य के क्षेत्र में उनके उल्लेखनीय योगदान के लिए प्रदान किया गया। डॉ. डबास अनेक सामजिक, शैक्षिक तथा धार्मिक संस्थाओं से सम्बद्ध हैं। वे दक्षिणी दिल्ली की प्रमुख समाज सेवी संस्था आर्य समाज साकेत के संस्थापक सदस्य हैं तथा पिछले बीस वर्षो से उसके सर्वसम्मतिसे निवाचित प्रधान चले आ रहे हैं।

Rahul Sankrityayan on Jat History

Following Jat clans find mention by Rahul Sankrityayan.

Antal/Benhwal/Sikarwar - दलीप सिंह अहलावत[7] लिखते हैं कि....रूसी लोगों की अनेक जातियों के नाम भारतीय जाटों से मिलते हैं जैसे रूस के आंतस (Antas) भारतीय आंतल (Antals) तथा रूस के वैन (Ven), भारतीय बैनीवाल-वैन (Benhwal-Venwal) आदि। रूस की बड़ी आबादी के लोग स्लाव (Sláv) कहलाते हैं। यह स्लाव शब्द सकलाव से निकला है जो कि भारतीय पुराणों में सकरवाक लिखा है और भारतीय जाटों का गोत्र सकरवार/सिकरवार है (मध्य एशिया का इतिहास, हिन्दी खण्ड 2, पृ० 563), लेखक राहुल सांकृत्यायन1। सिकरवार, शक जाट थे जिनका मध्य एशिया में सोगदियाना प्रदेश पर शासन छठी शताब्दी ईस्वी पूर्व में था तथा जिनके राज्य में बुखारा, समरकन्द, ताशकन्द आदि नगर थे। (American Journal of Semetic Languages and Literature, 1940, P. 354)2

1. जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट् रूलर्ज लेखक बी० एस० दहिया, पृ० 61-62
2. जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट् रूलर्ज लेखक बी० एस० दहिया, पृ० 271

Bhim Singh Dahiya[8] writes....The Russian "Antas" are the same as the Indian Antals and the Russian "Ven" seems to be the same as the Indian Benhwal/Venwal. Even the Russian word, Slav, which is the name of a major population of Russia is a derivative from Sakalav which is Sakaravak of the Indian Puranas and the Sakawar/Sikarwar of Indian Jats.169 The love of Central Asian people for 'L' as against 'R' is well- known.

To conclude this section on identity of the Indian, the Central Asian and the European Jats, I must refer to the excavation work carried out in Crimea and other western parts of Soviet Russia. In the excavations at Tovsta (in Ukraine) in 1971; many articles of the Sakas were unearthed. One of the articles was gold pectoral

169. See Madhya Asia Ka Itihas, Vol. II, p. 563,

[p.62]: weighing 2½ pounds. On this pectoral there were figures of 44 cows and mares. In the centre there were two Sakas, with matted hair and full beards-exactly like the present-day Sikh Jats of Punjab. A gold drinking vessel of fourth century, B.C. and another drinking cup were also found at Solokha in Ukraine. It depicted a Saka hunter on horseback, killing a lion with his spear. A gold - comb was also found. The heavy necklace of solid gold or silver, which the Sakas were very fond of, are exactly the same as the present Hansla/Kantha of the Indian Jats which is even now worn in the countryside. The earrings of the males called "Murki" are stil1 current in the Indian Jats in the Rajasthan area, although these are now on the wayout.

Therefore, we can say with full confidence that the Indian Jats, the Russian: Slavs and many north European people belong to the same Jat race. The following quotation is given from R. Sankrityayana is worth noting: "The ancient Sakas have reappeared in the form of Russian slavs and are present even today. The western Sakas, after migrating from Sakadvipa, entered many countries and were absorbed in India as the Saka Brahmins, Rajputs, Jats, Gujjars etc., of the Hindus. The close similarity of Sanskrit - with the Russian language will be clear from a look at their history. This is because the Russians are the descendants of the same Sakas, whose brothers, the Aryans, settled in India and Iran in ancient times. Their mutual contracts were not broken. On the 'other hand, after a lapse of centuries, a large number of Sakas again came to India" 170

170. Madhya Asia Ka Itihas, Vol. II, p. 565. (Translated from the original in Hindi).

Bhim Singh Dahiya[9] writes.... 67. Sikarvar/Sagarwar/Sakarwar - They are the same as Sakaravakas of the Puranas. In Mathura, they call themselves Sagarvar which is the same. They are called Sacaravcae by the Greeks and this name is the same as the Puranic name. In about 100 B.C. the Sakarwars began to play an important part in the politics of Persia.

Dahiya: B S Dahiya[10] writes: R. Sankrityayana says that the Dahae are the same as the Ansi of the Chinese. They are mentioned as excellent horse-riders and marksmen. He further says that the Iranian Parthi, was a Dahae tribe.[11]

कैप्टन दलीप सिंह अहलावत[12] ने लेख किया है कि ... दहिया जाटों का ईरान (फारस) में भी निवास एवं राज्य था, इसके कुछ प्रमाण निम्नलिखित हैं - राहुल सांकृत्यायन ने लिखा है कि “दहिया लोग उच्च कोटि के घुड़सवार एवं निशाने बाज थे। ईरान में कहे जाने वाले पार्थी, एक दहिया जाति थी।”[13]

Kang (कंग/कांग वंश) - दलीप सिंह अहलावत[14] ने लिखा है.... 700 ई० पू० में इन जाटों का राज्य बल्ख पर था। चीनी इतिहासकारों ने इनको किअंगनू लिखा है। राहुल सांकृत्यायन ने लिखा है कि “कांग लोग मस्सागेटाई की शाखा हैं जिसका अर्थ है महान् जाट। मध्य एशिया में इन कांग लोगों ने 700 ई० पू० में नहरों का निर्माण किया। ये नहरें पांचवीं शताब्दी ईस्वी में रेत से भर गईं थीं। ये नहरें आज रूस के किजीलकुत प्रान्त की मरुभूमि में विद्यमान हैं।”

जाटों की बनवाई हुई ये नहरें अब रूस सरकार द्वारा खुदवाई जा रही हैं। कांग लोगों के अनेक नगर खोदे गए हैं जिनमें इनके राजाओं के सिक्के, मूर्तियां और कांग भाषा के शिलालेख मिले हैं। ये वस्तुएं तोपरक काला में मिली हैं। op. cit. p. 162 and Archaeology in USSR).

वीर कांग जाटों को सम्राट साईरस अपने अधीन न कर सका। इससे इनकी वीरता का पता लग जाता है। (जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट रूलर्ज पृ० 75-76, 131, लेखक बी० एस० दहिया)। (अधिक जानकारी के लिए देखो तृतीय अध्याय, कांग-कंग प्रकरण)।

Bhim Singh Dahiya[15] writes.... The Kangs: The Kang Jats are also a clan of remote antiquity. They are mentioned as early as seventh century B.C. The Chinese mention them as, Kiang-nu. R. Sankrityayana says that the Kangs were branch of Massagetae. 214 He traces the word Massagetae from Massaga which in turn is taken from Mahasaka. In the Ramayana

214. MAKI, p. 75; also see Bergermann, Les Scythes.

[p.76]: the Mahi-Sakas are mentioned with Rishikas.215 Kasika on Panini says: ऋषिकेषु जात आर्षिक:, महिषिकेषु जात: महिषिक (Arshikas are born of Rishikas and Mahi-Sakas are born of Mahishikas). This also establishes the connection of the Massagetae, viz., the great Jats with the Sakas. About the Kangs, R. Sankritayayana says that the founders of the canal system in Central Asia were the ancestors of the Kangs, viz., Massagetae.216 These canals of the Jats in Central Asia are now being excavated by the Russians. The ancient canals are practically intact, only filled with sand of the nearby deserts. Numerous cities of the Kangs are being uncovered. Coins, images, and even inscriptions of the Kang language have been found in Toprak Kala.217

These findings refute the theories of the barbaric nature and nomadic living habits of the Jats in Central Asia. Cities, languages, coins, images and canals, presuppose a well settled population in seventh century B.C. Of course, as is well known, the Jats had only two professions, viz., war or fighting and agriculture-cum-cattle breeding. That is why they had dug up a huge canal system for irrigation and that is why they had developed the stepped well and the Persian wheel well are mentioned by Agarwala.218 Of course, for grazing the cattle, the people used to cover extensive areas. This habit is still there and we find huge herds of cows, etc., coming to U.P., Haryana and Punjab areas from Jodhpur, Jaisalmer side almost every year during the dry seasons. Therefore, although a large portion of the population was definitely settled in villages and cities, a fairly large section were constantly on the move with their cows and horses and of course, their arms.

According to MAKI, the canals laboriously constructed by the Messagetae were covered by sand in 5th century A.D. or later. These were constructed prior to Akhamenian Empire or Persia and the Kangs refused to be defeated by Cyrus the Great. These canals are now lying in the womb of the desert of Kizilkun. 219 The same author says that Yue-che were linguistically Sakas. Further, Wusun, Saiwang, Kang and Parthian (Pahlva) are dialects

215. Kishkindha Kanda, 41.10. अब्रवंतीम् अवंतीम् च सर्वम् एव अनुपश्यत । विदर्भान् ऋष्टिकान् चैव रम्यान् माहिषकान् अपि ॥४-४१-१०॥

216. op. cit.

217. ibid., p. 162, and Archaeology in USSR.

218. op. cit.

219. MAKI, p. 160.

[p.77]:of Saka language.220 That is why the Chinese traveller, Changkian writes that from Fargana to Parthia, the same language was spoken.221 Parthian was in fact a minor Saka tribe and helped by the Kangs and other clans, the Parthians established their empire up to Caspian sea.222 It was during this Parthian Empire that many Sakas from the Yue-che lands were established in Eastern Iran and the area of their settlement was named after them as Sakasthan, modern Siestan. That is why the Sakas and , the Parthians, though bitterly fighting among themselves outside and inside India also, were treating each other as brothers during peace time. After the start of the Christian era, they gave many royal houses to India such as the Sahravat, the Kasvans, the Dharan (Guptas), etc. And it is not only to India that they gave such royal dynasties. At least three dynasties of China were established by these people. As is well known, a number of Chinese ladies were married by these people and for centuries this process was continued. It was due to the mixing of Chinese blood in this manner that these people acquired in the later periods of history some Mongoloid features.

220. ibid., p. 186.

221. JAOS, 1917, p. 89.

222. op. cit., p. 189.

Kuninda - There have been numerous different claims of origin back to the Kunindas, having found coins from the Kuninda period (Kuninda Kingdom). Rahul Sankrityayan traces their ancestry to Sakas, who were in India before the first century BCE; he further identifies these Shakas with the Khashas.[16]

Massagetaeans - Rahul Sankrityayan suggested that the Massagetaeans are none other than the "Great Jits or Jats" of Asia. Some of the Indian writers including Rahul Sankrityayan and Ujagar Singh Mahil in his book "Antiquity of Jat Race" say that Jats inhabiting the northern India are the descendants of Massagetae, or Maha (great) Getae or Jat."[17]

Yaudheyas: कैप्टन दलीप सिंह अहलावत[18] ने लेख किया है कि ...जय यौधेय में लेखक राहुल सांकृत्यायन ने पृ. 5 पर लिखते हैं कि - भावलपुर रियासत से मुलतान तक फैला एक इलाका जोहियावार कहा जाता है और बहुसंख्यक निवासी जोहिया (यौधेय) कहे जाते हैं। कराची के कोहिस्तान में जोहियार रहते हैं, बल्कि उनके सरदार को ‘जोहिया-जोजन्म’ कहा जाता है। अलवर और गुड़गांव के मेव अब भी यौधेय भूमि में ही बसते हैं और उनकी वीरगाथायें सुनकर आज भी रोमांच हो उठते हैं।

कैप्टन दलीप सिंह अहलावत[19] ने लेख किया है ...राहुल सांकृत्यायन के लेख अनुसार चन्द्रगुप्त का यौधेयों से युद्ध - विक्रमादित्य ने यौधेयों पर आक्रमण की अपनी पूरी तैयारी कर ली थी। यौधेयगण के महासेनापति ‘जय’ ने यौधेयानियों की एक विशाल सभा में भाषण देते हुए कहा था -

“यौधेय-यौधेयानियो! तुम यौधेय मां, बहिन और बेटियां हो। आज हमारे सामने जैसा संकट आया है, वैसा संकट शायद हमारे सारे इतिहास में कभी नहीं आया था। चन्द्रगुप्त हमें इस शर्त पर जीने देना चाहता है कि हम यौधेय नाम छोड़ दें, यौधेय धर्म छोड़ दें। यदि हमारा नाम और धर्म चला गया तो जीना किस काम का? शत्रु बहुत बलवान् है। आधे भारतखण्ड का धनबल, जनबल उसके पास है। लेकिन यौधेयों ने चन्द्रगुप्त को एक बार हराया था। उसे फिर ताजा करना होगा। ‘सुनन्दा’ ने तुम्हें रास्ता दिखलाया है। यौधेयानियां ही नहीं, कुणिन्दानियां और आर्जुनायनियां भी आज सुनन्दाएँ हैं। यौधेय नर-नारी से वीर के कर्त्तव्य पालन की बात कहना उनका अपमान करना है। अब की बार यौधेयानियों को भी हथियार उठाने का पूरा अधिकार होगा।”

यौधेयों ने अपनी पूर्वी और दक्षिणी सीमा पर अपने दुर्ग स्थापित किए। यौधेयों के पास घुड़सवार तथा पैदल सेनायें ही थीं जबकि चन्द्रगुप्त के साथ रथों और बहुत बड़ी संख्या हाथियों की थी। ‘जय’ की आयु 50 वर्ष की थी जो गणसंघ का महासेनापति था। युद्ध बड़े जोरों से आरम्भ हो गया। पहला आक्रमण स्रुघ्नपुर (अंबाला) सुह्य की ओर से हुआ। यौधेयों ने उन्हें यमुना पार नहीं होने दिया। विक्रम स्वयं मथुरा में बैठा वहां से सारी सेना का संचालन कर रहा था। उसकी सेना वहां से आगे बढ़ रही थी। यौधेयगण ने वहां उन से सख्त टक्कर ली।

जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-502

पूरे 2½ महीने के घमासान युद्ध के बाद शत्रुसेना यमुना पार करने और आर्जुनायन भूमि में घुसने में सफल हुई। परन्तु यौधेय एक-एक अंगुल भूमि के लिए मरे।

इन्द्रप्रस्थ के पास गुप्त सेना ने यौधेयों को सब से करारी हार दी। उनकी सबसे बड़ी क्षति हुई, उनका महासेनापति मारा गया। विक्रम का आदेश था कि किसी भी तरह ‘जय’ महासेनापति को पकड़ लाओ। ‘जय’ युद्ध में बुरी तरह घायल होकर रणभूमि में गिर गया। यौधेयों ने फिर-फिर हमला करके घायल सेनापति को रणभूमि से ले जाना चाहा, मगर गुप्त सेना ने ऐसा न करने दिया। ‘जय’ के पास आकर जब वीरसेन ने प्रणाम किया तो वह केवल इतना ही कह सका कि “यौधेय-भूमि से मेरे शव को ही ले जा सकते हो।” वीरसेन ने अपने बड़े-बड़े चिकित्सकों को बुलाया। परन्तु ‘जय’ थोड़ी देर बाद चल बसा। यौधेय पुरुष तथा स्त्रियां भी लड़े। विस्तृत यौधेय भूमि युद्ध क्षेत्र बन गई थी।

Vasati (वसाति)/Vais (वैस) - दलीप सिंह अहलावत[20] लिखते हैं कि....भोगवतीपुरी का शासक नागराज वासुकि नामक सम्राट् था। यह वसाति या वैस गोत्र का था जो कि जाट गोत्र है। इस वंश का राज्य वसाति जनपद पर भी था जो रामायणकाल में पूरी शक्ति पर था। इस वंश का वैभव महाभारतकाल में और भी चमका। द्रोण पर्व में कई स्थानों पर वसाति क्षत्रियों का वर्णन है जिस से यह प्रमाणित है कि ये भी महाभारत युद्ध में सम्मिलित हुये थे[21]। कुछ लेखकों को वसाति के अपभ्रंश शब्द वैस से वैश्य (बनिया) का भ्रम हो गया है। कनिंघम और मिश्रबन्धु द्वारा ऐसे लेखकों का खण्डन किया गया है। (जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 319, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री, जाट इतिहास उर्दू पृ० 355, लेखक ठा० संसारसिंह)। राहुल सांकृत्यायन ने अपनी पुस्तक ‘वोल्गा से गंगा’ पृ० 243 पर लिखा है कि “हर्षवर्धन का वंश वैस है जो कि क्षत्रिय वंश है। यह वंश वैश्य बनिया नहीं।”

External links

See - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rahul_Sankrityayan


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  2. Prabhakar Machwe (1 January 1998). Rahul Sankrityayan (Hindi Writer). Sahitya Akademi. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-81-7201-845-0.
  3. Sharma, R.S. (2009). Rethinking India's Past. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-569787-2.
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  9. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Jat Clan in India,p.271
  10. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Jat Clan in India,p. 252
  11. Madhya Asia Ka Itihas, Vol. I, p. 74.
  12. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III,p.213
  13. Madhya Asia Ka Itihas Vol. 1, P. 74, in Hindi by Rahul Sankrityayana.
  14. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV,p.351
  15. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,pp.75-76
  16. Handa, O.C. (Omacanda) (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing. pp. 22–26. ISBN 9788173871344.
  17. Rishi, Weer Rajendra (1982). India & Russia: linguistic & cultural affinity. Roma Publications. p. 95.
  18. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III (Page 199)
  19. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter V, p.502-503)
  20. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.243-244
  21. 1. वसाति क्षत्रिय महाभारत युद्ध में कौरवों की तरफ से लड़े थे। (द्रोण पर्व व भीष्म पर्व 51वां अध्याय)।

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