Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats

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Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)

Book by Bhim Singh Dahiya, IRS

First Edition 1980

Publisher: Sterling Publishers Pvt Ltd, AB/9 Safdarjang Enclave, New Delhi-110064

The digital text of this chapter has been developed into Wiki format by Laxman Burdak


The Jats

Page 1

Jat ! The very word symbolises bravery, action and forward march! Sounding like the splash of a whip, it reflects spot decision, instant action and speedy execution of work at hand. Wielders of the sword and handlers of the plough, with equal adroitness, the brave Jats wrote their names, with arrow and the ara, on the soils of Asia and Europe, from Mongolia and China in the east, to Spain and England in the West, from Scandinavia and Nogord in the North, to India, Iran, and Egypt in the south.

Variants of Jat

Jats are called by different variant names in different countries:

The Jats never changed their -name, so proud are they of their ancient nomenclature, which means 'king'. Though historians in their ignorance or otherwise, gave them many other names which puzzled and baffled the students of history, the Jats called themselves nothing but Jats, or by the name of their numerous clans, such as the Nandal/Nanders, Mores, Kashvans, Bains/ Tukhars, Jauhls, Mans, Kangs, Dahiyas, Ghangas, Gills, Sibias, and so on. In names like Dahistan, Tukharistan, Jabulistan, Jutland, Sakasthan, Goraia (of the Greeks), Hyrcania, Khairizao, Mannai, Gelan, Manda (Media)-the Jats have left their marks on scattered land areas in Asia and Europe. Worshippers of the sun in the morning, the moon in the evening and the Sthanu (Siva) in between, they built the sun temples of Multan, Mathura,

[p.2]: Gandhara and Gwalior. Their lofty monument at Peshawar (called the stupa of Kanishka) was a wonder of the world, as per Alberuni. "Born believers in blood and iron, the Hunas swooped down upon the smiling plains of Asia and Europe and carried death and devastation with them. They ascended and came like a storm, like a cloud to cover the different lands, riding upon horses, a great company and a mighty army. Their violent outburst resembled something like volcanic eruption in the history of the human race and like a veritable strain of lava they issued forth from their homelands and spread over Europe and Asia. Their fierce yells spread terror wherever they were heard and they engaged all the civilized peoples of the world in fearful cataclysmic wars." 1

Destroyers of the Mahajanapadas in India, the Sassanid empire in Iran, the Roman Empire in Rome and the Holy lands of Khalifs and Byzantine-there is no battle worth its name in the world history where the Jat blood did not irrigate the mother earth. According to the Greek historian, Herodotus and others, there was no nation in the world equal to the Jats in bravery provided they had unity!

Builders of Van, Ecbatana, Musasir, Delhi and other cities; builders of the Guti empire, overlords of Sumer, Babylon, Akkad and Lagash; destroyers of Assyria and Nineveh, their first historic ruling clans were the Virk, More, Ven, Man, Manda and Dahiya. Expert agriculturists, they were the first to build canals from Armenia to Archosia, under their Ven and Kang clans. The hanging gardens of Babylonia were created by a Nazzar (Nebu Chad Nezar) for his wife, Amithia, a Madra lady. The official Indian era, the Saka era, as well as the popular Vikram era, are directly or indirectly connected with the Jats. Under their More, Kasuan, Dharan and Bains (or Virk) clans, they gave India the only four centralized stable governments, in the historical period, prior to the Arabs. Under Yaudheyas, Sibias, Khaks, Salkalans, Malavas-they become the harbingers of republicanism in India.

According to Hewitt, "The Getae of the Balkans are said by Herodotus to be the bravest and most just of the Thracians.

1. Upendra Thakur, The Hunas in india.

[p.3]: These Thracian Getae, must, as a northern race of individual proprietors, have held their lands on the tenure existing in the Jat villages and these Indian Jats or Getae, have not degenerated from the military prowess of their forefathers, for the Jats who have become Sikhs, in the Punjab, are known as some of the best and most reliable Indian soldiers." 2

With their irresistible might, they earned the name 'Massa Getae' from the ancient Greeks, and Ta-Yue-che from the Chinese both words meaning “the Great Jats”. Massa in Pehlavi language means 'Great' and the Chinese word 'Ta' also means 'Great'. The destroyers of Cyrus the Great, the scourge of Chinese Han emperors, who were forced to build the Great wall in order to escape them, they lived but a simple, down-to-earth, practical life. Inseparable from their horses, riding them awake and asleep, the first bowmen to shoot accurately from the horsebacks, they defeated Tamerlane the Great (Taimur Lung) whom they forced to become the "adviser" of their crown Prince, Khoja Oghlan-A Jat from the Ojhlan clan. Born rulers, haters of dependence" quick-tempered, an odd mixture of happy-go-lucky and the sanguinary talents, they adopted but Royal names-all their clan names mean, 'royal', 'prince', 'head', 'high' or 'chief'. Breathing war and battle every moment of their life, they had no time to mourn their dead. They deliberately hid and covered the graves of their kings so that nobody could know their burial place and it was for this purpose that they sometimes killed the grave diggers and made rivers flow over the sacred graves of their kings. Like the Great Pandava, Prince Bhima (who vowed to drink the blood of Dusasana and did so), they vowed to drink blood from cups made out of their enemies' skulls, and to be constantly reminded of their vows, they mixed their own blood with the blood of their dead. Most secular and open-minded people in the world, their lack of religious fanaticism is reflected in their easy adoption of Mithraism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, and Christianity. Their coins, too reflect the symbols of practically all these religions of the world. From Ashtavegu to Attila to Akun to Ellok, from Balameer to Basana, from Maodun to Mihirkula, from Hapthal Katariya to

2. F.Hewitt, The Ruling Races of Pre-Historic Times, p. 482

[p.4]: Toramana Jauhla, from Ghangas to Kasavan-the history of Asia and Europe is replete with names of Jat emperors and their clans.

Different Nomenclatures of the Jats

Eyebrows might rise and suspicions might stand out signifying that we are putting together different races under one head,-the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Hunas, the Kidarites, the Khionites, the Tukhars, were all different races and all of them cannot be called Jats. History, of course, has so far treated them as different, though sometimes they were identified as neighbours of each other in the vast Asian plains. The answer to these questions is simple and it is just this-Though their race was one and the same, i.e., Jats, many of these dynasties took the name of their clans when they established empires and it is the names of their clans which were known to the historians, e.g., the Manda, Kushanas, the Kidarites, the Tukhars, etc. The plains of Asia have been successively given the name of one or the other Jat clan. When their Manda clan, under Ashtavegu, united these vast plains under one administration, then these plains were called, the Manda Empire (the term "Median Empire" is a misnomer, as is well known).

When large areas were under the Dahiya clan, then it got the name Dahistan, Dahia, etc. When the Kasavan clan was predominant, the Asian plains were called the "Kusana Empire". It were the Jat clans who gave to history such names as Ghangas, Goraya, Tukhar, Kitar, etc. Under the supremacy of the Tur clan, ,the vast area was named Turkistan, and when they were replaced by the Tatran clan the same land man was called 'Tatari'. Finally when no single clan was predominant, their lands were called the nation of the Jats-whether Massa great or little Jats, it does not matter. Their one and only name is Jat (Jat) and they were, at the dawn of history, living in the plains of Central Asia from Mongolia in the east to Scythia in the west. Herodotus the Greek historian mentions that the Getae were living in the western side of the Caspian Sea, whereas the Chinese sources 3 mention that they were living in outer Mongolia, and the modern Kansu province of China.

3. Ssu-Ma-Chien-Ki (Historic records) completed before 91 BC.

[P.5]: The word is Jutta (जट्ट) in singular and Jutte (जट्टे) in plural. Like the people themselves, this word has come from the Aryan or Indo-European languages. In the Chinese and certain European languages, it is written with the initial 'G' instead of 'J'. This is due to, what the philologists call, "Grimm's law of Variation",-the same law which changes Sanskrit 'S' into Persian 'H'; The German 'F', into Latin 'P'; the Sanskrit 'H' (in Hansa) innto German 'G' (in Gans, i.e., Goose). That is why the Chinese mention these people as Guttia, the Greeks refer to them as Getae, to the Germans they are known as Got/Goth; but the Danes in Denmark, retain it in the form of Jute and call their land as Jutland. The word Jute is also shown as such in Oxford English Dictionary, which defines it as a Germanic tribe which repeatedly attacked Britain in the fifth/sixth centuries A.D. It was under the German form of their name Got or Gut, that they established the so-called "Gupta Empire" in India. Because most of their kings had taken names ending with 'Gupta', this was mistaken by the historians as a surname and not as personal name of which it was a part. Otherwise, they proudly proclaimed their Jat race, by their royal seals, which say 'Gutasya', i.e., "of the Got". When Chandragupta II, Vikramaditya, married his daughter to Vakataka prince, he gave his clan name as "Dharana" which is a Jat clan existing even today. According- to the Junagarh inscription of Skandagupta himself, the word 'Gupta' is a title, meaning "Military Governor" or Senapati. 4

We find the form 'Git' nearer home again, in the name of the city of Kashmir, viz., Gill git. Its old form is 'Gilligitta”. i.e. the Gill Jats. Buddha Prakash mentions a Sanskrit inscription of seventh century A.D. of king Potal Deva Sahi, whose minister Makara Simha is called a Saramgha of Gilligitta. 5Here Potal as well as Saramgha, are names of Jat clans called Potalya and Saranha, respectively. The difference between Saramgha and Saranha is the same as between "Singh" and Simha -a matter of form of writing the spoken word. This word meaning a Lion, is written by Biharis as "Sinha" but it is written by others as 'Singh'. By writing the name as

4. Buddha Prakash, Studies in Ancient Indian History and Civilisation, p. 405.

5. ibid., p. 357.

[p.6]:Saranha (सरान्ह), the Jats give its correct pronunciation. Now let us see how, त (t) of Gitta (ग़ित्त) becomes ' ट ' (T) of Giṭṭa (गिट्ट) This change of dental surd into a cerebral is very common in Prakrit language. Everybody knows how Pattan (पत्तन) becomes Paṭṭan (पट्टन) , in the name Anhillapaṭṭan. Grammarian Vararuchi in his Prakrtaprakasha, formulated a special rule for the change of त (t) into ट (ṭ) (III, 23). Hemachandra also gives examples of ट (t) (III,23). Hemachandra also gives examples of this change of dental into a cerebral, viz., Tagara → Ṭagara, Trasara → Ṭasara, ṭuvara → tuvara. 6 It is this manner that Jat becomes Jat (जात → जाट). Evidently, Gilgit has not been affected by this change:

Their Origin

Yoddha - The word Jat is probably derived from the Sanskrit word 'Yoddha' (meaning, fighter). Even now, there are many Jats having the name Jodha, as well as Goddha, both derived from the word 'Yoddha'. The derivation of Jat and Got is similar. It is them that Panini called "Ayudhjivi" (professional fighters). These people called 'Yoddhas' are mentioned in the Mahabharata, alongwith Bodhas. 7 That is why the Chinese write the name as Yetha, as well as Yeta. Though this was the only name of these majestic people, history also knows them by their various clan names. That is why the great empire of Ashtavegu, in the seventh/sixth century B.C. was called Manda Empire, which was wrongly and erroneously called the Median Empire, as we shall subsequently show, and as proved by Prof. Sayce in his Ancient Empires of the East, after his findings of written records, during excavations of the monuments of Nabonidus and Cyrus. Now, Manda is one of the clans of Jats, and the people of this clan still exist in India and call themselves Manda Jats. A similar thing happened with the Jauhla Jats, the clan people of Toramana and Mihiragula. Historians are baffled by these names. They need not be. They have only to see around them to feel convinced that Toramana and Mihiragula, as far as they could, correctly wrote their clan name as Jauvla on their numerous coins. Our remarks about the Manda Empire, are further supported by Agni Purana, which mentions the country of a people called

6. ibid., p. 259.

7. Mahabharata, ii, 14-26.

[p.7]: Mandaviya in the north-west of India-a direction exactly tallying with the situation of "Manda empire", its capital at Ecbatana, modern Hamadan (Iran). It is gratifying to note that the Mandas are mentioned alongwith Tals, Halas, and Tukhars. 8 All these four clans of the Jats still exist and are called, the Mandas the Tahlans, the Halas, and the Tukhars respectively. It is important to note that the suffixes -an, ya, wat, etc., are used for derivatives, e.g., Yaudheya, from Yodha, Dahiya from Dahi, Guliya from Gul, Tahlan from Tahla/Tala. Now we come to the famous Bhitari Pillar inscription of Emperor Skandagupta. This inscription is unfortunately not dated, but it is generally taken that its date is, roughly, 455/467 A.D. According to this inscription, the "Gupta Empire" was attacked at this time by some people, read as 'Pusyamitras', who greatly harassed the "Guptas", so much so that the Emperor had to sleep on the bare earth, as the "Gupta's" dynasty was threatened with extinction (विलुप्ताम वंश लक्ष्मी, विचलित कुललक्ष्मी). In the inscription, the word 'Pusya' is not clear at all, and recently, a number of scholars have challenged this reading. 9 H.K. Divakar, supported by A.L. Basham, has shown that the word is 'Yudhya' and not 'Pushya'. 10 But the difficulty is that the word is "Yudhya mitranscha'-the existence of the letter "Cha" ("च"), meaning "and", presupposes more than one enemy. Therefore, the meaning of the word is "Yudhyas and friends". It denotes the so-called "white Hunas" and the sister tribes. It is significant, and well know; that the Jats were attacking central India, alongwith the Pehlavis and the so-called Kidarites or 'white Hunas". There were three distinct aggressors joining hands together. Buddha Prakash takes them to be the Kushanas, the Pehlavas and the Hunas. 11Tibetan historian, Buston, in his History of Buddhist Doctrine, cites an Indian authority to support that the attack was by the Pahliks (Pahlavas), the Sakunas and the Yavanas. K.P. Jayaswal correctly states that Yavanas is a mistake for 'Yaunas'-a name of the Hunas. But

8. Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. IX, p. 476, quoted by Dr. S. B. Chowdhri, in "Ethnic Settlements in Ancient India".

9. Indian Historical Quarterly, 1961.

10. ABORI, 1920, pp. 99 ff.

11. op. cit., p. 374.

[p.8]: Jayaswal does not go further to find out that "Yaunas" is in fact a Sanskritised form of Jaunas, i.e., the Jauna clan of the Jats. The Pahlavas are of course the modern Pahlavis. Emperor Reza Shah of Iran, is a Pahlavi and takes the title 'Aryamehr', i.e., "The Sun of the Aryans”. At this point let us go back to the Greek mythology, according to which one of the two sons of Scytha, was called Pala, whose descendants were called Palians. This word Palian is derived from Pala and means "the descendants of Pala" . But this is a derivation in English, which is a European language. In Indian, Sanskrit and Iranian languages, the derivative from Pala will be Pallava or Pahlava (QED). Obviously, therefore, the Bhitari inscription refers to Skanda Gupta's war with them and not with any 'Pusyamitras'. It is significant that, immediately before and after this period, there is no mention of the existence of any powerful Pusyamitra clan in Indian history. It is improbable that an unknown people, called, Pusyamitras, should, overnight, be born, gather sufficient power and attack the "Guptas" in their own heartland. Thus, this inscription is one of the earliest references to the Yoddhas, i.e., Jats, by their collective designation by Skandagupta, sometimes probably in 455 to 467 A.D. In another portion of the inscription they are referred to as 'Hunas', by whose arrival in the battlefield, the very earth shivered. 12 (हुणैरस्य समागतस्य समरे दोर्भ्यांम् धरा कम्पिता). Therefore, the word is Juṭṭa (जट्ट) singular and Jaṭṭān, Juṭṭé (जट्टान,जट्टे) plural. The lines of two important songs, most popular among the Punjabi Jats are given below in further support of the argument.

(1) "Pugri Sambhtil Jaṭṭa".

[Take care of your turban (honour), 0 Jaṭ!]

(2) "0 Jaṭṭa, Ayi Baisakhi".

(The festival of Baisakhi has ,come, 0 Jaṭ !)

In both these songs, the word is Jutta. Its feminine is Jatti (singular) and Jaṭṭiyan (plural). Yet another folk song reads:

"Main Mājhe di Jaṭṭi, Gulābū Nikā Jihā".

(I am a Jaṭṭi from Majha area, my love is small statured).

12. D.C. Sarkar, Select inscriptions, Vol.Ip. 312 ff

[p.9]: In the next chapter we will try to show that the Kidarites and the so-called Haphthalite kings like Kunga, etc. took the names of their clans and it was by their clanish names that they were known in history. This does not mean that they were not Jats because all these clans are still found to be very much in existence among the Jats in India. We have collected the clan names of Jats only from the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh. It is possible, nay, it is proved beyond doubt that many of these clan names are also existing even now in the populations of Soviet Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Iraq, Germany, England and other European nations. The names like Mangat, Chavan, Mann, Gill, Mander, More, Bhuller, Dhillon and the like appear in western newspapers off and on. Regarding the Scythians (or Sakas as they were known in India and Iran), the Greek historians connect them with the mythological figures of their history. The exact story given by the ancient classical writers is something like this -Hercules, the great hero of mythology, once lost his mares. In his search for the mares, he found them in a cave where there was a female nymph with a human body whose lower part was that of a snake. She admitted having his mares and promised to return them if Hercules satisfied her carnal desires. Her wish was fulfilled and the mares were released. The strange female then asked as to what she should do with the child to be born to her. At this, Hercules is supposed to have given a bow to that nymph, with these directions, "keep this bow and if it is a boy, then let him try this heavy bow. If he is able to bend it, then keep him with you in the country of which you are the queen; and if he is not, then turn him out as worthless." It is stated that three boys, named Agathyrsus, Gelnus and Scytha were born to her in due course and only one of them, namely, Scytha, was able to fulfil the condition of his father. "It is from Scytha that the Scythian race of Getae has sprung up". A similar story is mentioned by another Greek writer Diodorus: "A virgin sprang from the earth (cf. Indian Sita) with the lower half of her body being that of a snake. She gave birth to a boy, Scytha by Jupiter. Scythian race sprang from him and took his name. He had two sons, Napas and Palas, who divided the kingdom into two parts. The people of one part were called Palian and that of the other, Napian. They conquered

[p.10]: countries far and wide, up to Nile and Caspian. The origin of Massa Getae was from them. Their women were also brave like men and were called Amazons. The well-known Persian King Cyrus, invaded that Scythian Queen. He was defeated and slain. "

As we are dealing with mythology, we might as well have one more story. There is, in India, though not-a-very-old story, according to which the Jats were born from the Jatas (hair) of Lord Siva[1]. According to Ramayana, the Sakas, the Pehlavas, the Yavanas were created from the tail of the holy cow-Kamadhenu. Though, there is a Jat clan, called Nasir, and the late President Gamal Abdul Nasir of Egypt of the river Nile, is well-known, the historical worth of these stories is anybody's guess. But these stories do show that the ancient Greeks and the Indians, were impressed by the bravery of the Jats and their pundits were obliged to use their fertile brains to manufacture mythical stories about them.

The Version of the Puranas

Yayati - The Puranas give a concise but connected version of the vicissitudes of the Jats, referred to as Jats or Sujatas, the descendants of Nahusha, through Yayati, Yadu, etc. Nahusha was the mighty king of Asia, who sat on the throne of 'Indra'. Nahusha had six valiant sons, of whom Yayati was most important and succeeded the throne. Yayati married twice, his first wife was Devayani, daughter of Sukracharya, the priest of the Asuras (असुरायाजिक). Yadu and Turvasu were born from her, and these two sons gave birth to the Yadavas and the Yaunas (Yavanas). Yayati's second wife was called Sharmishtha, daughter of King Vrishaparva under whom Sukracharya served as the chief priest. From this marriage, Yayati got three sons, viz., Druhyu, Anu and Puru.

The Aryans at that time lived in Central Asia and their land was called "Ailavart" (from which the Ailawat Jat are named). Yayati himself was called an 'Aila'. They had however spread up to the Yamuna river, and it was in the Punjab that the most famous and important "war of ten kings" was fought in the vicinity of Ravi, Chenab and the Yamuna. In this war, king Sudasa was on one side and the five brothers - Yadu, Turvasu, Druhya, Anu and Puru, alongwith five other tribes, Pakhtas (modern Pakhtoons)

[p.11]: being one of them, were on the other side. The dispute was about Ravi waters and in the war that followed, Sudasa was victorious. At least three of the brothers, including Druhyu, were killed or drowned in the river. Indra, who had been restored to the throne, was in the beginning, with the five brothers. The hymns of 'Rigveda' mention as follows:

  • (iii) "Indra and Agni! you have done mangala (favour) to Turvasu, and Yadu".
  • (iv) "Indra and Agni, if you are living among the Turvasus, Druhyus, Anus and Purus, then, you two, givers of wanted things, please come and drink the sanctified Soma". (अभिषुत सोमपान)

But later on, Indra changed sides and joined the Sudasa camp.

"(Indra) you have drowned in water, persons named Shruta, Kavasha, Vriddha, and Druhyu. You are treated as friend, you have become friend".
"Indra and VaruQa! please kill the Dasyus and Vritra and Aryan-enemies of Sudasa; and please come for the protection of King Sudasa".

This "defection" of Indra, seems to be the main cause of the defeat of the Ailas, the old name of the Aryans.

But the consequences of this war were far reaching. The Yadus crossed the Vindhyan mountains to the south, and founded Vidarbha. Lord Krishna refers to this episode, when in the Mahabharata, he says that the Yadus are eager to return to their old home, Madhya desa, the area of Ganga-Yamuna. The Druhyus and others, crossed over to the "west" where they founded a new kingdoms. Even under the division of the Empire by Yayati, the Druhyus got the west (Vayu, Padma, Hari, and Brahma Purana); the Yadus got the south-west, the Anus got the North. So it is in the north and the western parts of central Asia and Sapta Sindhu, that we find them. Of course, many Yadus, too, must have gone to the west, for we find that one of the four sons of Yadu, was named Kroshti, after whom, most probably, the Kharoshtthi script of Asoka Maurya times is named. In this line

[p.12]: of the southern Yadus, there was born, king Kartavirya Arjun, who is supposed to have imprisoned Ravana and fought with Parashu Rama. According to Bhagvata Purana one of his hundred sons, was Urjjita and another was Jayadhwaja, king of Avanti, whose son was Talajangha, whose sons were called Talajanghas after him.

Now let us see what Wilson has to say in his commentary on Yishnu Purana.13

"The text takes no notice of some collateral tribes, which appear to merit remark. Most of the other authorities in mentioning the sons of Jayadhwaja observe that from them came the five great divisions of the Haihaya tribe. These, according to the Vayu were the Talajanghas, Vitihotras, Avantyas, Tundikeras, and Jatas. The Matsya and Agni omit the first, and substitutes Bhojas, and the latter are included in the list in the Brahma, Padma, Linga, and Hari Puranas. For Jatas the reading is Sanjatas or Sujatas. The Brahma Purana has also Bharatas, who, as well as the Sujatas, are not commonly specified, it is said, 'from their great number. They are in all probability invented by the compiler out of the names of the text, Bharata and Sujati.' The situation of these tribes is central India, for the capital of the Talajanghas was Mahishmati or Chuli-Maheswar, still called, according to Tod, Sahasrabahu-ki-basti, 'the village of the thousand-armed;' that is, of Kartavirya.14 The Tundikeras and Vitihotras are placed in the geographical lists behind the Vindhyan mountains, and the terminationkaira is common in the valley of the Narmada, as Bairkaira, etc., or we may have Tundikera abbreviated, as Tundari on the Tapti. The Avantyas were in Ujjain, and the Bhojas were in the neighbourhood probably of Dhar in Malwa. These tribes must have preceded, then, the Rajput tribes, by whom these countries are now occupied, or Rahtores, Chauhans, Pawars, Gehlotes and the rest. There are still some vestiges of them, and a tribe of Haihayas still exists, at the top of the valley of Sohagpur in Baghel-khand, aware of their ancient lineage, and though few in number, celebrated for their valour.15 The scope of the traditions regarding them, especially of their overrunning the country, alongwith Sakas and other

13. H. Wilson, Ariana Antiqua, 1841, p. 335, note 20.

14. Col. Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, 139.

15. ibid.

[p.13]: foreign tribes, in the reign preceding that of Sagara 16 indicates their foreign origin also; and if we might trust to verbal resemblances, we might suspect that the Hayas and Haihayas of the Hindus had some connexion with the Hia, Hoiei-ke, Hoiei-hu, and similarly denominated Hun or Turk tribes, who make a figure in Chinese history.17 At the same time it is to be observed that these tribes do not make their appearance until some centuries after the Christian era and the scene of their first exploits is far from the frontiers of India: the coincidence of appellation may be therefore merely accidental. In the word Haya, which properly means 'a horse', it is not impossible, however, that we have a confirmatory evidence of the Scythian origin of the Haihayas, as Tod supposed; although we cannot with him imagine the word 'horse' itself is derived from Haya'." 18

Here, there seems to be references to at least two Jat tribes,viz., the Tals and the Thandis in the words Talajanghas and Tundikaras. And even the word Jat is connected with Sujata, son of Bharata. But as noticed by Wilson himself, these were "in all probability invented by the compiler out of the names of the text." Further, Wilson says that these tribes preceded, i.e., came earlier then the Rajput tribes, of Rathores, Chauhans, Pawars, Gehlots, etc. But Wilson, perhaps did not known that all these later four are Jat tribes and were later called Rajputs, perhaps because these clans were ruling at the time, hence the term, Rajput or Rajaputra, i.e. "the sons kings". Its origin was the Pehlavi word "Vispuhr" meaning "the son of king". The tenll Rajput is a literal transslation into Sanskrit of' the Pehlavi de~nation "Yispuhr". Incidentally, the second most important title, viz., the "Sardar:" adopted by the Sikh Jats and the people of Gujarat is als.o of Ira~lan onglO; there it was called "Shahrdar" being owner of city and big landlord. These Iranian Shahrdars and Vispuhrs, revolted in 309 A.D. after the death of Emperor Hermizd. They were all Jats and after their arrival in India they kept their old names in translated/modified forms of Rajaputras and Sardars. The very word Hindu is not of

16. ibid., Bk.IV, Chapter III.

17. Des Guignes, Histoire des Hns, 17, 55,231. & II. 253, c.

18. op. cit., I, 76.

[p.14]:Indian or Sanskrit origin but is the Iranian name of River Sindhu. People living on the east of Sindhu were called Hindus.

Wilson duly mentions their foreign origin as the people who overran India, alongwith Sakas and other tribes. He is fully justified in identifying the Indian Haihayas with the central Asian people called by the Chinese as 'Hia'. The word 'Haya' meaning a horse is not only word having that meaning. Many other Jat tribes have names which were, due to their long and intimate association with the horse, taken as synonyms for 'horse'. For example, the names Tur, Turk, Takhar/Tokhar, etc., all mean 'horse' just as Damaska means silk and China -means pottery. Incidentally, it were the traders under Kusana Jats who introduced glassware and pottery in China in the fifth century A.D., when these traders reached the Chinese court of Tai-wee (424-451 A.D.) and informed the Chinese that the Ta-yue-chi (Great Jats) under Ki-to-lo (Kidar, their king) had occupied Peshawar, Gandhara, etc.19

Other versions of of origin

Yashka (4/5th century B.C.), in his Nirukta (Science of Etymology) mentions a term, Jāṭyah Jāṭṇarah). (जाट्य जाटणार:) This is found in the very first chapter, and seems to describe the Jats as having long Jatas (hair). Although the exact significance of this phrase is not known, we know that the ancient Scythians did have long hair and beards, as is clear from excavations in Crimea and other places.

Gut - As already stated the word seems to have been derived from two different forms, namely Gut and Get. From the first the changes were into Goth, Got Gott/Jut and from the latter, the changes were Get, Git, Jit, Jat. As regards their antiquity, the Chinese annals, speaking about the so-called barbarians living to the north of China, state that they were divided into three main groups-the Rung, the Di and the Hunyu. The first term is one of general application and was a common designation for a great number of different people'. 20 of which the Di and the Hunyu were very closely interrelated and belonged to the same ethnic group.

19. Paul Peliot, op. cit., pp. 42·43.

20. A. Stein, quoted by Upendra Thakur in The Huns of India, p. 35.

[p.15]: Here the people called Di have to be identified with the Iranian Dahi and the Greek Dahao. It were these people who are commonly believed to have been the first founders of the Great Huna Empire. The history of these people goes back to 2600 B.C. or even earlier, according to the Chinese chronicles'.21

Interestingly enough P. Sykes mentions a kingdom of 'Guti' lying to the east of Lesser Zab.22 They are mentioned as barbarians who subjugated the north and south Babylonia and Elam itself, the rulers of which were subject to the Guti overlords. They are shown as vigorous, mountain people and are called semitic, obviously erroneously. Their king is named as Tirikan and they were ruling the western Asia before 2500 B.C. De Morgan believes that the Mandas occupied Western Iranian Plateau in 2000 B.C., and Bactria was occupied in 2500 B.C.23 P. Sykes says that the Virks (Hyrcanians) were following closely behind.24 It does not seem to be a mere coincidence that the history of the 'DI' and the Huna clans of the Guti goes back to 2600 B.C. and the people, called Guti, had actually occupied Babylonia, Sumer, etc. at that very point of time. It is worth remembering that the so-called Hunas and, of course, the Dahae, were called Jats, at least, later on, and a form of this word was Gut, as already explained (Chinese Gutti). On account of a slight difference, these people were called Goths/Gots in Germany and Europe and as already shown, this form of their name appears in India too, at least in the name of the city of Gilgit whose formal form is given in Indian works as Gilligitta, i.e., city of Gill Jats. Many Indian inscriptions, too, have "Guti-Putras", i.e., son of the Jats. It is on account of this factor that so many clan names are common in India, central Asia and Europe. The historians found different clans ruling at different time and forgetting that these people were the same, they tried to account for their differences. That is why25 Dr. Benadasky found that the Allans and Antas are one. They are the Ailas and the Antals at present. Similarly Procipius found that the Sakarava and the Antai are one. The former are now called Sikarvars. Sten Konow

21. op. cit., p. 35.

22. P. Sykes, The History of Persia, Vol. I, p. 69.

23. De Morgan, Et Unde ..... , p. 314.

24. op. cit, p. 98.

25. MAKI, p. 101.

[p.16]: states that the Kushanas were in reality Sakas.26 In fact, all these clans belonged to the same Jat race from remote antiquity!

Ashtadhyayi - J .F. Hewitt defines the word, 'Gut', as meaning 'bull', and opines that these people, the Guti, "were the first conquering swarm of the great building race of the Goths, the Getes of Herodotus and the Jats of India".27 The Age of Nandas and Mauryas gives a non-Aryan word of unknown origin, as 'Ghota' meaning 'horse'. Except its connection with horse, the origin and etymology of this word is not clear. But Ashtadhyayi (5th century B.C.) gives a root (परस्मैपदीधातु ) under Bhavadigana, as "Jaṭta Jhaṭta Sanghāteh" (जट झट संघाते:), meaning that the word Jaṭ/Jhaṭ is used for a federal Union or Sangha (league). Therefore, the federation or league of various clans, into or by which, the scattered forces are united, is called Jat.

Brahmanical theory of Jathar - Many other writers trace the origin of these people in different ways. The typical Brahmana theory is that at the time when the earth was denuded of the Kshatriyas by Parshurama, who destroyed all of them, not once but 21 times, the Ksatriya ladies went to the Brahmanas for continuing their race. The people born from their Jathar (womb) in this manner were called Jathars. i.e., Jats. This theory propounded by Pt. Angad Shastri is patently absurd. First of all, this earth was never without the Ksatriyas. Even the so-called Parsurama,28 had to bow before Rama and Laxmana-Ksatriyas of Ayodhya, and surrendered his arms.28 On the other band, the Kshatriyas were never extinct and in particular the Yadus or their branch the Haihayas, were never without a continuous line of successors as per the Puranas and other authorities. Contrary to this theory I am told that the Jathar are still existing as Brahmanas and not Jat

26. IHQ. Vol. XIV, p. 148.

27. J. F. Hewitt, op. cit., p. XXIX.

28. op. cit., p. 319.

28a. Referring to this incident, D.D. Kosambi says "This is merely overcompensation in poetic imagination for the reverse phenomenon, slaughter of the ancestors of the Brahmins by the warriors". ("The Study of Indian Tradition", Indica, 1953, Silver Jubilee Issue, p. 212).

[p.17]: in Maharashtra area. Th Jats never stooped to claim Brahmana status or origin.29

  • Yadu - The third theory is that the word Jat is a different form of the word Yadu itself. Yadu, they say was changed into Jadu and from the latter it was further changed into Jat.
  • Gyati Yet another writer believes that during the time of Lord Krishna the Yadu clan was divided into two sections, one democratic and the other believing in kingship. The faction under Krishna, believing in democracy, was known as Gyati, or Jnati from which the word Jat has been derived.
  • The Puranic tale of the origin of Jats from Sujata - a Yadu - has already been mentioned.
  • A.s. to this last theory, historically there was no such faction or division of the Yadus as Gyati/Jnati. The two factions of the Yadus were called Andhaka and Vrishni. Again it is impossible to get the word Jat from Gyati or Jnati. Regarding the other connections of the Jats with the Jadus, there are in fact certain traditions of the migration of the Yadus outside India after the Mahabharata war. But so are the traditions of the migration of the Anus, Purus, Druhyus, etc., sons of Yayati after the battle of the ten kings in the Rig Veda. Indeed, many stray pieces of evidence of typical Indian culture, names, and also people, are found in the pre-historical and historical period not only in Khotan (Chinese Turkistan) but also in Turkey and Northern parts of Greece. The Bhrigians or Phrygians are supposed to be the Indian Bhrigus. These pieces of scattered evidence may corroborate the theory of Indian migration, but the evidence is not at all conclusive and, till further evidence comes up, one has to take it that these people came to India from the Northern and Central parts of the Asian mainland.
  • Jyeshtha - Yet another theory maintains that at the Rajasuya sacrifice, Yudhisthira was given (Jyeshtha), the highest or eldest position. His descendants are therefore, called Jyeshtha or elders, i.e. Jats.

29. About the Brahmin origins, the same authority states. "Certainly the early development of Sanskrit grammar as a systematised logical study would indicate the presence among Brahmins of an intelligent, cultured section to whom Sanskrit was a foreign language." (ibid., p. 2I3). ....

[p.18]: This also is a theory without any other evidence to support it, although we are struck with the bloody oaths of Draupadi and Bhima, as well as the polyandry and Niyoga systems of Pandavas of Mahabharata.

In all these ideas, that of the Ashtadhyayi grammar seems to be nearest to acceptable truth. This is supported by the fact that almost all these tribes (scattered forces) were professional warriors, and many of them were given the epithet of Vratya, i.e. foreigners. Whatever the origin of the word, there was definitely a Jat federation of ruling clans, during the time of Panini, Patanjali, etc. That is why, practically all the ancient Indian ruling families were from this race. The Mandas, Mauryas (Mores), the Pauras (Pors), the Kangs, the Variks, the Balhara, the Kasvans the Dharans, etc. were all from this Jat federation. When the Puranas say that there were seven Abhiras, (Ahirs), ten Gardhabas (Khars), sixteen or eighteen Saka (Kangs), fourteen Tusharas (Tukhars or Tusirs), thirteen Mandas, eleven Maunas (Maans) and eleven Puras (Pors)all ruling India for about 1,300 years, they are merely mentioning the various Jat clans.

Devasamhita - But something must have happened in the 6th or 7th century A.D., during the course of the revival of the orthodox Brahmanism, which made these people persona non grata with the new orthodoxy. That is why, when the Puranas were revised, their historical details and even their names were removed therefrom. It is perhaps to this state of affairs that Devasamhita refers, when it records that, "nobody has published the truth about the origin and activities of the Jat race. These Jats are most powerful, extremely brave and fierce fighters. These people are like the gods in their firm vows; and among all the Kshatriyas, these Jats were the first rulers of the earth. These people were born from the daughters of Daksha Prajapati. Their history is extremely chequered and astonishing. Their brilliant past destroys the false pride of the Brahmanas and the Devas. That is why the Puranas have kept their history secret or hidden." 30

श्रृणु देवि जगद्वन्दे सत्यं सत्यं वदामिते ।
जटानां जन्मकर्माणि यन्न पूर्व प्रकाशितं ।।
महाबला महावीर्या, महासत्य पराक्रमाः ।
सर्वाग्रे क्षत्रिया जट्‌टा देवकल्‍पा दृढ़-व्रता: ||

30. JKI, p. 41

श्रृष्टेरादौ महामाये वीर भद्रस्य शक्तित: ।
कन्यानां दक्षस्य गर्भे जाता जट्टा महेश्वरी ||
गर्व खर्चोत्र विग्राणां देवानां च महेश्वरी ।
विचित्रं विस्‍मयं सत्‍वं पौराण कै साङ्गीपितं ||

The Markandeya Purana describes the birth of Revanta, son of Surya (the sun god), out of his union with his consort Samjnā, in the shape of a mare, in the Uttar-kuru region. This Surya Putra was born "holding a sword and a bow, clad in armour, riding on horse back, and carrying arrows and a quiver."31 Again Karna, the Mahabharata hero, and another son of the sun god, was born with the Kavacha (armour) and Kundala (earrings), which made him invincible.32

These two incidents, given in a fable form, accurately describe, and cover all the characteristics of a central Asian Jat! He is a sun worshipper, and so the sun (Surya), is his father. He is born with an armour on his body, so he is a fighter par excellence! He is born with his own horse, so he is a horse rider without parallel! He has the sword and bow, his normal inseparable weapons. He has his udichya vesha (northern dress) and wears Kundala (earrings for male; murki in Jat languages). And lastly he is born in Uttarrkuru (Siberia) area of Jambudvipa, his original homeland! These two texts from the Markandeya Purana and Devasamhita, apparently touch the very core of truth!

Their original home -the Oxus valley-is mentioned in the Vayu Purana (47, 44) and also in the Matsya Purana, (121, 45):

सान्ध्रान् स्तुरवारान् लम्पकान् पह्लवान् दरदान् छकान्
अताञ्जनापदाञ्चक्षु प्लावयन्ती गतोदधिम्

The Chaksu or Oxus river goes to the sea after irrigating the lands of the Sandhrans (Jats) , Tukharas (Takhar Jats), Lampakas (Lamba Jats), Pahlavas (Pehlavi-Iranians) Daradas (of Kashmir) and Chhakans (Chhikara Jats). Illustrations in brackets show the present identifications of these central Asian people. Their long distance travels and migrations on horseback, are reflected in the Mahabharata33 which mentions that the Sakas, the Tukharas, the

31. E, E. Pargiter's translation, p, 575.

32. MBT, III. 307,4-5.

33. ibid., 2, 26, 47.

[p.20]: Kankas (Kang Jats) and the Romasas ( Greeks?) are great and long distance travellers. (महागमान् दूरगमान् गणितान अर्बुदं हयान्)

After their settlement in India, the Purnas identify the locale of some of these tribes as under34 :

मरूका मालवाश्चै परियात्र निवासिन: ।
सौवीरा:सैन्धवा: हूणा: शाल्वा: शकल वासिन: ।।

The desert people and the Malwas are residents of Priyatra (Jaipur region); and the Sauviras (Sohal Jats), Saindhavas, (Sandhu Jats), Hunas and Shalvas (Syal Jats) are residents of Sakala (central Punjab). The identification of Sauvira with Sohal or Sauhal is based on the fact that 'l' & 'r' are interchangeable, and the Sakas' fondness for sibilants (शकार) is proverbial. Just like Johl from Jauvla, the name Sohal is derived from Sauval or Sauvir. Otherwise also, the Sauvira people are always mentioned in the Punjab-Sindh area.a

Recapitulating the various theories

Brahman origin theory - The theories of Angad Sharma and Lahiri Singh that the Jats were born of Kshatriya mothers and Brahman fathers after Parsurama destroyed the Kshatriyas are absurd.35 The so-called Jathras are still Brahmans in South India and they have no connection whatsoever with the Jats.36 The theory that Jats are named after the Yadav king, Sujata, is meaningless. This simply reflects the Brahmanical attempts to fit in the immigrant Jats into the traditional Indian classes for while searching in the Puranic genealogies, it was found that the name Sujata offers a workable theory of the origin of the Jats. The connected theory that the Jats are named after Yata is also of the same type. There was no king named Yata in Indian history or mythology. There were however, emperor Yayati and his brother Yati.

Rajput-Gujjar union theory - N.N. Vasu and V.N. Vasu were again groping in the dark when they proposed that the Jats

34. Vishnu Purana, II, 3, 41-44; Kurma Purana, I, 41-44, 46-47, Brahma Purana, 21,15-17.

35. JKI, p. 40; Qanungo, op. cit., p. 14-17.

36. Qanungo, op. cit., p. 17.

a. Editor's note - Sauvira may also be identified with Senwar Jats found in desert areas of Rajasthan.

[p.21]: are off springs of Rajput-Gujjar union.37 Historically and otherwise, this theory is illogical and apparently absurd. The Gujars are heard for the first time in the records of Prabhakaravardhana of Thanesar at the close of the 6th century A.D. and the Rajput class is not anterior to this date. According to Dr P. Saran the word Rajput in its ethnic sense was not used until tenth century A.D.38 The Jats are found to have been, recorded much earlier. P. Sykes mentions the people called Guti who became overlords of Sumer, Assyria, etc. in 2600 B.C.39 The Chinese sources too mention that the history of the Di, etc. goes back to 2600 B.C. As will be further shown in subsequent chapters, the Chinese Di are the same as the Iranian Dahi and the Greek Dahae, i.e., the modern Dehiya Jats. The only correct theory is that the Indian Jats are the same as the Guti of Persian history and Yue-che (pronounced as Gutti) of the Chinese and there original place was the vast plains of Central Asia from the borders of China up to the Black Sea. The Greek writers like Herodotus and others call them Getae or Massa-Getae, the latter being the major section of the same people.

This area of central Asia is the original home ground of the Aryans. That is why it was particularly sacrosanct in Indian traditions. Almost all the Indian works right from the Vedic literature, look upon the North as the home of the Devas or gods. Matsya Purana (153, 2-3) correctly mentions that the "vast land of Ilāvarta was the birth place of Devas well known in the three worlds."40

The Aitereya Briihmana, mentions it as the land of Uttarakurus, beyond the Himavanta, i.e. Himalayas, where, "the kings are anointed in accordance with the action of the gods."41 Because this association of the Northern lands with gods in Indian mythology is so well known, there is no need to give further instances.

The Puranas and the Mahabharata mention numerous tribes as settled in the valley of Oxus river. These instances are quoted at various places in this work.

37. Hindi Vishwakosa, Vol. VIII, p. 193.

38. P. Saran, Studies in Medieval Indian History, p. 23.

39. P. Sykes, History of Persia, Vol. 1.

40. Matsya Purana, 153,2-3.

41. Aitereya Brahmana, VIII, 14.

[p.22]: When the Jats came into India, they established their clan states called Janapada in Indian literature.

Panini, the wellknown Sanskrit grammarian of the fifth century B.C., mentions many clans of the Jats as settled in the Punjab, and north-west areas. Like almost all the clan names the word Jat means a "king" or "supreme leader".

In Unādivṛitti, Hemachandra says that the word Jat means king. This was so because the Jats were the first rulers in the vast central Asian plains as per Deva-Samhita. In a commentary on Unadi Sutra (V. 52), the meaning of the word Jarta is given as roma, i.e. hair. Durga Simha (7th century A.D.) says, "Jartah Dlrgharoma", i.e. the Jats have (or mean) long hair. This meaning has obviously been given because traditionally the Jats kept long hair on their heads and also had beards. That is why the word Jat came to be associated with Jatas (long hair) of Lord Shiva. In this context, the meaning of "Jāṭyah Jāṭṇarah). (जाट्य जाटणार:)" of Yashka becomes clear; it shows that Jatas (long hairs) were a special feature of the Jats. It is significant that in the Punjab, the flock of long hair is even today called Gutt as well as Jatt. Both these forms of Gutt and Jatt are used for naming these people also. Therefore, when the Mahabharta says that, "Sakāshtukhārah Kankāscha Romasha Sringṇonarāh", it correctly places the "long distant traveller" Jats on the high hills of Pamir. 42 The other names in this verse are those of various Jat clans, viz., Tukhar, Kang, etc. The word Romasha used here baffled Wilson, the commentator of Vishnu Purana and he thought that it may perhaps stand for the Greeks. It is not so. The word stands for the people with long hair, i.e., the Jats as explained above.

The Jain author Vardhamāna mentions the Sakas and Jartas in 1197 Vikrama Era equivalent to 1139-40 A.D.43 Chandragomin, therefore, makes no mistake at all when he states that the invincible Jats defeated the Hunas. Yashodharmana as well as the so-called Guptas were Jats and they are the only people who are known to have defeated the Hunas in the fifth/sixth century A.D. even though these Hunas were themselves late comer Jats. The clan name of Toramana and Mihiragula, viz. Jauvla, is still available among the Indian Jats who are now called Jauhla. Majumdar

42. MBT, Sabhaparvan, 47/26.

43. Ganaratna Mahadadhi, Karika 201.

[p.23]: and Belvelkar have to revise their revision.44 There is no need to change the word Jarta into Gupta. The original is quite correct and was mentioned by a contemporary writer.

The word Jat however, is not an Apabhransa of Jarta. Jarta itself is Sanskritised form of Jat, in the same manner in which the Central Asian Gujars were named Gurjara and Munda was made into Murunda. In both these cases the letter 'r' was added in the same manner in which it was added in Jarta.

These people were also called Bahlikas after their home country Balkh. The Satapatha Br. (12, 9, 3,3), mentions a king named Pratipiya Bahlika who is styled as the king of Kurus, naturally Uttarakurus and not the Kurus of Kurukshetra. His son was killed by Bhima in the Mahabharata war.45 Adiparvan (61, 28) mentions a king of Bahlika named Prahlada whose disciple was Nagnajit, the king of Gandhara. 46

The foreign origin of these people is further clear from their description by the Indian writers. Almost all these people are called Asura, Sudra, Mlecchas, etc. Markandeya Purana (58, 45) gives the designation of Asura to Malavas, the Malloi of Alexander and the present Malli Jats. The Ashadhyayi of Panini (5, 3, 118) and Chandra too, mention that the Malavas were neither Brahmanas nor Kshatriyas. In the Ganapatha of Panini, Parsu, Asura, Bahlika, etc., federations of various tribes are remembered. Here Parsu stands for the Parsaval clan of Jats.

The Manusmriti and Mahabharata term these people as Vratya or 'fallen people. Tomar and Hans, are two Jat clans, according to Mahabharata both these were Mlecchas.47 Vayu Purana (47/56) says that the river Nalini, rising from Bindusar in Central Asia and going eastward, passed through the lands of Tomar and Hans.

The Kundu clan Kuninda of Indian literature, are mentioned as mountain people.48 They fought in the Mahabharata war on the side of the Pandavas 49 Vayu Purana (47, 43) correctly says that they used to live on the river Sita in Central Asia. The Pamir city of Kundus is named after them. Even the Hunas are mentioned in

44. A New History of Indian People, Vol. VI, p. 197.

45. MBT, Drona Parvan, 155, 11-15.

46. ibid., Adi Parvan, 57,93-94. परह्राथ शिष्यॊ नग्नजित सुबलश चाभवत ततः । तस्य परजा धर्महन्त्री जज्ञे थेव परकॊपनात ।। (I.57.93); गान्धारराजपुत्रॊ ऽभूच छकुनिः सौबलस तदा । थुर्यॊधनस्य माता च जज्ञाते ऽरदविथाव उभौ ।। (I.57.94)

47. MBT, Bhishma Parvan, 10, 68. तामरा हंसमार्गाश च तदैव करभञ्जकाः । उथ्थेश मात्रेण मया थेशाः संकीर्तिताः परभॊ (VI.10.68)

48. ibid., Aranyaka Parvan, 249, 7. अस्मात परस तव एष महाधनुष्मान; पुत्रः कुणिन्थाधिपतेर वरिष्ठः । निरीक्षते तवां विपुलायतांसः; सुविस्मितः पर्वतवासनित्यः (III.249.7)

49. ibid., Karna Parvan, 89, 2-7.

[p.24]: the Mahabharata, alongwith the Pahlava, Darda, Kirata, Yavana, Saka, Harahuna, China, Tushara, Saindhava, Jaguda, Munda, etc. 50 Here the Chhinas, Tushara/Tushir, Sandhu, Jagad/Jakhad, Munda, etc. are all Jat clans. Arthasastra51 mentions a wine called Harahuraka which is the name of Hunas in India. Another Jat clan is called Attri and it has to be distinguished from the Brahman clan or gotra of the same name because Bhishamparvan (10, 67)a says that they were Mleccha. Brahmanas cannot call their own gotra as Mleccha. Even the Mauryas were called Asura, Sudra and Varishala. The Yuga Purana called them irreligious. Chaturvarga Chintamani of Hemadri52 obviously referring to the Mauryas, states "Vrishalah Attradharmika", meaning the Mauryas Varishals were irreligious. That is why perhaps, Patanjali gave the call of Jeyo Varishalan. 53 The meaning of the call was that even though the Vrishala cannot be conquered, conquered he must be! This call of dethroning the Mauryas, has to be understood in the context of his other derogatory remarks against the Mauryas according to which they are called gold-hungry and the like. Perhaps the call was answered by Pushyamitra Sunga, who killed the last Maurya emperor. This is the view of H.P. Sastri, it seems.53a

Therefore, it is an indication of the identity of these people and as a rule, when the Puranas, etc. call some people by these names, there is a certain probability that they are referring to the foreigners and most probably to the Jats from central Asia.

In an article, styled, "The Origin of the Jats", Girish Chandra Dvivedi doubts the version of Deva Samhita and Chandragomin on the plea that there is lack of historical tradition among the Jats preserving the memory of their great exploits. 54 Did he contact any knowledgeable Jat before writing in this manner? He is invited to draw his inferences from the present book. The very word Jat, as well as almost all their clans, mean 'king' or high, e.g. Kasvan, Manda, More, Dahi, Utar, Dhach, Gallan, Kadyan etc.,

50. M BT, Aranyaka Parvan 48, 20-21. पश्चिमानि च राज्यानि शतशः सागरान्तिकान । पह्लवान थरथान सर्वान किरातान यवनाञ शकान ।। (III.48.20); हारहूणांश च चीनांश च तुखारान सैन्धवांस तदा । जागुडान रमठान मुण्डान सत्री राज्यान अद तङ्गणान (III.48.21)

51. Chapter 46.

52. Part III, Section 2, p. 771.

53. Mahabhashya,l/l/50.

53a. JASB, 1910, p. 259 ff.

54. JIH, 1970, p. 377 and 392.

a. आत्रेयाः स भरथ्वाजास तदैव सतनयॊषिकाः । औपकाश च कलिङ्गाश च किरातानां च जातयः ।।(VI.10.67)

[p.25]:and all have these meanings. For this purpose, we have to refer, not to Sanskrit, but to old Pahlavi/Persian and Tukhar/Saka languages.

Various forms of Jats - As we have seen the name Jat is so persistent that it is found in the length and breadth of Asia and Europe with but minor variations. Its various forms are many and quite similar. For example, they are called:

It is important to note that the Chinese word 'Yue-che" is pronounced as "Gut-tia" according to Karl-Gren, meaning the "Moon People".55 Later on, the Chinese chronicles show, that under pressure of another tribe of the same stock, called by the Chinese as Hiung-nu or Hoa, the Yue-che moved southward and westward. The branch that was numerically weaker went to the South towards Tibet and were called 'Siao-Yue-che", meaning the "little yue-che". The main body moved westward and occupied Dahia (or Tahia, Bactria, Bulkh). They were called "Ta-Yue-che" meaning the "Great Guttia" or great Jats. As shown above the word 'Yue-che' is pronounced as Guttia and therefore Ta-Yue-che is exactly the same as the word "Mass-Getae" of the Greeks and the Persians. All the Chinese sources agree that the Kusanas were from the Yue-che race. The Chinese author of Thung-Kiang-Nu, writes in the year 555 A.D. that the Aptal or Hephthalites were of the race of Ta-Yue-che. Further the encyclopaedia of Ma-Tuan-g-Lin says that the Yeta are of the race of Ta-Yue-che, and further that the I-Tan belonged to the same race as Yue-che. Regarding the Tukhars, the Turs, the Kangs (the Kiang-Nu of the Chinese and the Karikas of the Puranas), we need not give further details, except mentioning that all these are different clans of the Jats still existing in India and proudly proclaiming themselves as Jats. Further details about them will be given in subsequent chapters. Presently we are concerned with the three dynasties or tribes about

55. See Jari-Churpentier, Die-Ethno Graphische Stellung der Toohaser, 1917, Pp. 347-388.

[p.26]: whom there are some controversies-namely, the Sakas, the Kushanas and the White Hunas/Hephthalites.

Identity with the Sakas

Reference is invited to the map56 facing this page. The only change that we have made in this map is to give the names of the rivers and the seas which were not given in the original. In this map the Sakas are shown above Alexandria and north of Sogdiana and to the east of Massagetae and the Aral Sea. Between the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea, are shown the Dahae. Scythians are shown on the Danube and the Don rivers, towards west of the Black Sea. There is general agreement amongst the historians that the Indo-Iranian Sakas and the European Scythians were the same. The classical Greek writers mention the Sakas as Sakai and Sacae. Ptolemy mentions them as Indo-Scythians after their arrival in India. H.H. Wilson mentions the same in his commentary on the Vishnu Purana. Writing about the Jats of pre-partition Punjab, Hewitt says, "Their very name connects them with the Getae of Thrace and hence with the Guttons said by Pytheas to live on the southern shores of the Baltic, the Guttons placed by Ptolemy and Tacitus, on the Vistula in the country of Lithuanians, and the Goths of Gothland in Sweden. This Scandinavian descent is confirmed by their system of land tenure called Bhayyāchārā." 57 This proof of custom is very important, because this Bhayyāchārā or Bhāichārā system is exclusively a Jat system, and is not found anywhere else. Further the Indo-Scythians, the Kusanas, etc. are known to shave their heads, a custom still prevalent among the Indian Jats who have not adopted Sikhism. Again, the rule of primogeniture was never followed by the Jats and there is conclusive evidence that the Scythians also divided their assets equally among all the sons. According to Herodotus, among the races of Thrace (modern Bulgaria), the Getae were the bravest and most upright. They were fond of music. They had an old custom of appointing family genealogists and thus perpetuating the history of their race and tribe in the form of mythic genealogy. This custom is very familiar to, and still practised by,

56. Taken from D. P. Singhal's India and World Civilisation, p. 417.

57. op. cit., p. 481.

[p.27]: the Jats in India. The Pandas/Bhatas from Hardwar, Mathura, etc. or the Mirasis, even now record the genealogy of the Jats and recite it, sitting on the housetops on important occasions of the particular family. We have mentioned a few identical customs in order to meet the objection that a similarity of names is no proof of identity.

Now back to the citations of authority. According to The Historians' History of the World 58, Scythians was the name of those tribes of central Asia and northern Europe who always invaded their neighbouring races. Scythia is described as an ancient country which extended from the east of the Caspian Sea and the valley of rivers Jihon and Sihon (Amu Darya & Sir Darya) to the rivers Danube and the Dan. They invaded Greece and occupied Athens. They are named by Homer and the Hesiod. Known as milkdrinkers, warfare was their profession. Thucydides says that they were so many in numbers and so dreadful, that if they were united, they were irresistible. Diodorus says that Massa-Getae were the descendants of Scythians. This shows that the Scythians/Sakas were spread from the west of the Black Sea to the east of the Aral Sea. Alongwith the Sakas, the Massagetae are shown, in the map (as residing in 500 B.C.) on the Aral Sea on its eastern side. Dahae are shown as inhabiting the regions to the south of the Aral Sea and east of the Caspian Sea. Though these tribes are shown separately under different names, they are from the same race, i.e., Jat race. Dahae, also mentioned in the Vishnu Purana, are the modern Dahiya Jats in India. They are the same as Dahae of Ptolemy and the Tahia (Dahia) of the Chinese.59

Identity with the Kusanas

According to the memoirs of Chang-Kien, as recorded in the Sse-Ki, the Great Yue-che originally lived between Tun-Hawang and Ki-Lien.60 The Shi-Ki-Cheng-I quotes authority to show that the old country of the Yue-che was in the Kansu province of China. The Hiung-Nu-the Hunas of the later date-were their neighbours.61 Originally the Yue-che were very strong and thought the Hiung-

58. Historians' History of the World, Vol. II, p. 400.

59. AIG, pp. 263-66.

60. Sse-ki chapter 123, Fol. 4.

61. IA, 1905, p. 75 & 1919, p. 70.

[p.28]: Nu of small account,62 but when Mao-dun son of Tou-man became Shani-yu (The Great Chief) of the Hunas, the Yue-che were attacked and defeated and the Huna Chief informed the Chinese Emperor of his victory over the Yue-che in a letter in '176 B.C. How these Yue-che migrated westward, how they occupied Tahia of the Chinese (modern Bulkh, old Bactria), how they established their five principalities and how the chiefs of one of these principalities united them and established the fountain-head of Kushana empire, is well known to every student of history and need not be repeated here. The difference of opinion is not that the Kushanas belonged to the Yue-che but whether the Yue-che were the same as Jats. This we have already seen and when we remember and keep in mind the fact that the word Yue-che is pronounced by the Chinese as 'Guttia' and when we further remember that the main branch of the Yue-che called Ta-Yue-che by the Chinese, is the same as Massagetae of the classical writers, we find no difficulty or hesitation in saying that the Kushanas were Jat. Otherwise how do we explain the fact that all the tribes of the Yue-che turn out to be Jat clans? The theories of their being of Turkish nationality are without foundation. Kalhana in his Rajatarmigini speaks of Kanishka and other members of his dynasty as Turuskas, i.e. Turks, Turushkanvayodbhuta.62 Alberuni also regards him as descendant of the Turki family called Shcihiya, said to be of Tibetan extraction.63 Kennedy finds proof of the Turkish nationality not only in their physical traits but also in their dress and talks of Kanishka's features as typical of his race. "Kanishka calls himself a Kushana. His coins represent him as a powerfully-built barbarian king, clad in loose coat and huge boots which were the common dress of Turkistan. The Tochari belonged to the great Turki family and Kaniska's features are characteristic of his race, he had a pointed cranium, salient cheekbones, large, long and heavy nose, thick beard."64 Bhanndarkar also points to the similar dress features of the Kushana kings as found on their coins. 65 According to Wilson, the features are not

62. Rajularangini, Vol. I, p. 170.

63. AIS, ii, p. 10 ff.

64. JRAS, 1912, p. 670.

65. lA, 1908, p. 41.

[p.29]: those of a Mongol but of a Turk.66 Hirth identifies the title 'Yavuga' used by Kujula Kad-phises with the Turkish title 'Jabgu' .67 The Chinese monk, au-Kong, mentions the use of Turkish court title by the King of Gandhara, and Kabul his relatives and his state officers in about 753 A.D., and he considers them to have descended from the ancient royal family of Kanishka.68

All these theories of Turkish origin of the Kushanas are inherently incorrect and mistaken. The word, "Turk" is coined perhaps in the sixth and seventh centuries whereas the Kushanas lived in the second century B.C. to third century A.D. At the time of the Kusanas the word Turk was not in existence. It is in the sixth and seventh centuries, after the rise of the Turkish people and their occupation of the area now called Turkistan - the home of the Kusanas-that these areas came to be associated with the name of Turk. The fact is that some Yue-che tribes who remained in their homes in Central Asia, later on mingled with the Turks who were one of their own clans, called "Turs". But prior to the 2nd/3rd century A.D., when there was no "Turks" at all the very idea of assigning Turkish origin to the Kushanas is out of the question. Who comes first, the father or the son? The Chinese sources are consistent in maintaining that the Turks are the descendants of the Biung-Nu or Hunas and not vice versa. It was only in 551 A.D., that the people of Altai area, revolted against the Jujuans (another Jat clan now called Janjua) and established their state with capital near Orkhon in outer Mongolia. These people were called Tu-Kiue by the Chinese and Turks by others. Prior to 551 A.D., the word 'Turk' was not in use, at least, and they must be a minor can. 69

The Pehlavi Bundahesh, derives the Tur/Tour/Turk, as follows:

Fredun → Tour/Tur → Jaeshm → Peshang → Frasiao

66. AA, p. 349.

67. CII, Vol ii, part 1, p. 1.

68. IA, 1905, p. 86.

69. See Paul Pelliot, La Haute Asie, p. 12.

[p.30]: Tur - As per Masoudi this person Tur or Tour was the ancestor of all the Turks, and there is no evidence to contradict this view. It is significant that this clan of Turs is still existing in India. Mohan Singh Tur, at present a member of National Parliament, belongs to this clan. Iranian sources also say that daughter of the descendants of Fredun, named Baboudukht, was married to Kabad (Kavadh) In 498 A.D. when he was in exile with the Aksuvans (Kasuans). Noshirwan was born to her. Noshirwan too, married another daughter of the Khakan, and Hormuzd, his successor, was born from her. 70 While we are on this topic let us see the last named descendant of Tur, viz., Frāsiāo. Firdausi gives the name as Afrasiāb and mentions his brother as Karsevaz. He was king of the Turanians, who fought the battle of Balkh, under their general Piran against the Iranian king Kae Khushru. This war ended in a treaty. However, the next Turanian King, Arjasp, fought again and killed not only Lohrasp, son of Kakhushru, but also Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism. He is stated to have extinguished the "Sacred fire" of their temples and Gushtasp himself, the king, was defeated and fled away. 71 Now our point is this: Is not the Frasiao of Bundahesh and Afrasiab of Firdausi -the same as Bharashiva of India? The so-called Bharashivas or Naga rulers of Mathura/Gwalior, under and after the Kushanas, must be the same as this Frasiao of central Asia. The similarity is too striking to be amenable to any other explanation. Otherwise also the Indian name Bharashiva,does not render itself to any reasonable meaning. Bhara is "weight" , and Shiva is of course, God Shiva; so, Bharasiva means a "load on/of Shiva". Were they (the Bharashivas) a load on Shiva or was Shiva a load on them?

Therefore, the Bharashivas of Mathura, etc. were from the Tur clan of Jats, and they cannot be taken as the indigenous power which drove away the Kushanas from India. This theory of Dr Jayaswal, based solely on the evidence of coins, is not at all tenable.72 The Bharashivas were the Turs of Jats and they could not, be instrumental in destroying the Jat empire under their Kasvan clan. That the word Bharashiva, is the Sanskritised form of

70. See J. J. Modi in JBBRAS 1914, Vol. xxiv, p. 575.

71. ibid., p. 10.

72. JNSI, VP. III, p. 134.

[p.31]: Frāsiāo/admits of no difficulty. There is even now a town called Afrasiab, near Samarkand, where excavation work has been done by G. Trever.73

So, Tur was the great grandfather of the first Frāsiāo, the Bharashiva of India. Their names Traya, Haya and Barhiṇa-are certainly not Indian names.

Regarding their Tibetan extraction, we have shown above that in their migration from the Chinese borders, the Yue-che were divided into two parts. The little Yue-che went towards Tibet and it is possible that from there, they travelled, via northern part of Kashmir and Swat Valley, to Kabul, etc., but that also makes them the Yue-che, i.e. Jats of the same stock. Historian Konow refutes the argument about the Turkish origin of the Kusanas. He considers that they were Iranian in origin. He has quoted Joyce to show that the large nose, thick beards, and other features, are the characteristics of the so-called Homo-elpinus which is stated to be largely represented in the Chinese Turkistan, modern Sin-Kiang province of China. He has compared the white, rosy face, stature above the average, the prominent nose, long oval face, abundant hairs, etc. to show that the basis of the Takla Makan population is Iranian. He has further proved that the titles like 'Yuvuga' and 'Kujula' were actually used by the old Sakas. He has shown that several terms and designations, employed by the Kushanas, find their explanation in an Iranian language which was spoken and used in literature in parts of Turkistan. He has given it the name of Saka language. By taking the word 'Shao', he has shown that it is a Saka word for 'King'.74 Similarly, he has explained other words used by the Kushanas and has shown that they were Saka words. Pelliot has called this language of the Kushanas as 'East Iranian'.75 Grousset is also of the opinion that the physical appearance of the people of Tarim basin is very similar to the Iranian variety of the Caucasian. He has cited Fernand Grenard who describes these people as having abundant dark hair and beard, fair rosy cheeks, when they are not tanned by the Sun and the fair, long oval faces, with fine, prominent and often straight noses and brown eyes which are not slanting. He has cited

73. G. Trever, Less Monuments de-L'art Greco-Bactriem, p. XL.

74. CII, Vol. ii, part 1, p. 1 ff.

75. SBAW, 1913, p. 408 ff; 1919, p. 734 ff.

[p.32]: Chinese travellers of antiquity and early middle ages, who had left similar descriptions of these people. As regards language, the excavation carried out in central Asia show that up to ninth century A.D .. the people of Turfan, Kara-Shahr, Kucha, and Kashgkar, spoke, not Turkish, but purely Indo-European language, closely related to Iranian, Sanskrit and other European languages.76 V.Y. Zezenkova, is of the opinion that chronological materials of the Kusana period, even though they are scarce, do relegate the basic population to the great Europeoid race, i.e., the white or Aryan Race.71

The word 'Kusana' and the Kusanas

There is a great controversy about the exact spelling and pronunciation of this word. In various languages, it is found spelt in several slightly different forms, so much so that its correct pronunciation has often proved an enigma to many historians.78 From the old Kharoshthi inscriptions, It is read as' 'Khushana' and 'Gushana". The Manikial stone inscription, found by Gen. Court in 1834, from the ruins of village Mani-Kiala district Rawalpindi, gives the reading "Gus-hana". The Panjtar stone inscription of the year 122, found from Panjtar on the Indus river, on the borders of district Peshawar and Hazara (Pakistan), also gives the same reading. The actual legend on the first and second inscription are:

  • (i) "Maharajasa Kanesh-Kasa Gushana Vasa Samvardhaka Lala".79
  • (ii) "Maharayasa Gushanasa (Raja (mi) _."80

The translation of the first is : "Lala, the protector of the Gushana clan of Maharaja Kanishka".

Lala was a Kshatrap (Satrap=Governor) of Kanishka and was. a Jat of Lali clan. (Was he the founder of Lalli Jats, still existing in Phagwara, Phillaur area of Punjab ?)

The Taxila Silver Scroll inscription of the year 136 (of Saka era started by Kanishka in 78 A.D., i.e., 136+78=214 A.D. gives the reading 'Khushana'. These two forms also appear on the coins of Khushana king, Kujula Kadphises. The different spellings in

76. RSCE, p. 70-71.

77. KSIU, pp. 150-151.

78. Baldev Kumar, The Early Kushana, p. 1.

79. JRAS, 1909, p. 666, IA, Vol. X, 1881, p. 215.

80. CII, Vol. II, pt. 1, p. 70; EI, Vol. XIV, p. 134.

[p.33]:'Kharoshthi script are due to the fact that long vowels are not marked in it. Kujula is a title and the name Kadphises is formed from Kad. (Chief in Pehlavi) +phises, or pesa in Sanskrit, or paesa in Zend, meaning, 'Great'. So Kadphises means "Great Chief". But in the Greek legends on their coins, the name is written as 'Kosano', 'Kocano' and 'Ksosan' or 'Xosan'.81

The Brahmi inscription found at Mat (Mathura) makes the name Kusanamputr (0), i.e. the son of the Kushanas.82 On the coins of Iranian emperors of Sassanid dynasty, the reading is the same; the second vowel in the name having been marked long, Rabba Kushan.83 The Chinese version is Koei-Shuang or Kweishwang.84The Chinese 'Kuei-Shuang Wang' has been rendered as 'Kushana King', exactly like 'Kusana Shao'. Thomas reads the word as 'Kusha'85 while Vidya Bhushan reads it as Kushana (कुशन).86

The word Kushana is the name of a clan, and because the people of that particular clan were ruling over Balkh, Sogdiana, etc., their kingdom was also known as Kushana kingdom and so was their line of kings. The Chinese work Heou-Han-Chou describes the division of Dahia (old name of Balkh) into five principalities, one of which was that of the Kushanas; and adds, "About a hundred years afterwards, Kieou-tsieou-kio (Kujula Kadphises), the prince of Koei-Choang (Kushana), attacked and subdued the other four principalities and constituted himself king (Wang) of a kingdom. which was called Koei-Choang (Kushana). He invaded the country of Asi (Parthia); seized upon the territory of Kao-fu (Kabul), destroyed also Po-ta and Kipin, and became completely master of these countries. His son, conquered Tien-Chu (India). All the countries designate them Koei-Choang (Kushana) calling their king the Koei-Choang (Kushana king), but the Han call them Ta Yue-che preserving their old appellation."87

81. JNSI, Vol. VIII, p. 60 and CCIM p. 66.

82. JRAS, 1914, p. 370.

83. EHI, p. 51.

84. IA,1917,p.261.

85. IA, 1903, p. 356.

86. JPASB, 1910, p. 479.

87. HHC, chap. 118, quoted by Baldev Kumar in The Early, Kushanas, p. 2,

[p.34]: It is worth mentioning that from the dawn of history, the region of the Amu and Sir Darya, (Rivers Jihon and Sihon-the Oxus/ Vakshu-they got various names in history), was always occupied by the Jats, except for a brief period when the Greeks were its overlords after Alexander the Great. When Yudhishthira performed his Rajasuya Yajna (sacrifice), these people brought to Indraprastha, their horses as gifts to the Pandava king. Mahabharata (Sabha Parvan) says, शकास तुखाराः कङ्काश च रॊमशाः शृङ्गिणॊ नराः । महागमान थूरगमान गणितान अर्बुथं हयान"88

The Sakas, the Tukharas, the Kankas, who brought the gift horses, are Jat tribes, even today called the Sikarwars, the Tukharas and Kangas. When Arjuna went to that northwest area, for his Digvijaya, he fought with another Jat tribe, called the Lambas, (their name is Sanskritised into Lampakas meaning long, tall statured, high, the same as Lamba). Mahabharata mentions, another Jat clan, viz., the Lohnas :"लोहान परमकाम्बोजान". 89 Lohanas are a still existing Jat clan, whereas Kambojas are a separate caste of the Hindus, nowadays called Kamboh and Kamoha found on the G. T. Road near Kamal town and other areas. Abhidhana Chintamani of Hemachandra, also notes, Lampakās Murunḍah Syuh.90

There are also Jat clans, called Lambas ,Mundas and Kangs, respectively. Kangs are the same as Chinese Kiang-nu. But let us go back to the word Kushana. It is significant to note that in the fourth century A.D. when the Balkh area was under the so called "White Hunas", they were given a name similar to the word Kushana. The Iranian work Bahman Yasht speaks of the "Xyon ut turk ut Zazar ut Tupit", i.e., the Kshyon (Kilion), the Turks, the Khazars, the Tibetans. Our intention is to draw attention to the first word, written as "Xyon". The king who invaded Persia in the reign of Peroz (459 to 484 A.D.) and killed him in battle, is called "Akhshuvan" by Dinawari, "Akhshunwar" by Tabari and "Khusnuwaz" by Firdausi, (all the three are Persian writers of history). Our point is that the Bahman Yasht, as well as Dinawari, has tried to give the correct word, whereas Tabari and Firdausi

88. MBT, II, 47, 26.

89. ibid., 22-26.

90. See Vayu Purana, 47/44 and Matsya Purana, 121,145, quoted by Buddha Prakash in Kalidas and Hunas.

[p.35]: have Persianised it. The correct word is "Kshavan", also pronounced as 'Kashvan' (क्षवां, कश्वां), a Jat clan, still existing. F.W.K. Muller, is perfectly right when he says that these are different readings based on the original Sogdian word "Khshevān", meaning a "king".91 R. Ghirshman is also not incorrect in thinking that the word is Khevan the name of the "Khionites". The first compound letter is Ksha (Sanskrit क्ष), which in Prakrit, etc., is generally 'changed into 'kha' (ख). For example, 'Lakhsamana' of Sanskrit becomes 'Lakhana'. Therefore, Dr Buddha Prakash is right in pointing out that the very name Khevan, or Khion, or Hi-on, or H-yaon, or Huna, is akin to the Sogdian word 'Khshevan' which means a 'king'. The only thing is that the first letter is not 'Kh' but Ksha or Kash as explained above. Therefore, the so called 'Hephthalites' and Khionites were one and the same people, as correctly understood by R. Ghirshman.92 It is interesting to note that in the famous Panjtar Stone Inscription of the year 122, after mentioning the gift of two trees, there is a definite mention of this word, in the line, "The Eastern region of Kasua was made an auspicious ground by Moika, the Urumiya scion. "93 Here the word "Kasua" denotes the area/land of Kshavan (Kushana) people. To clinch the issue, there exists a letter, written by a Sogdian merchant, Nanai-Vandak, to his colleague, Nanai-Dvar, in Samarkand. In this letter, the people who conquered Loyang in 313 A.D. are called "XWN."94 Here the vowels are not given, and it is this word which Muller reads as Kshavan, and it is this word which the Chinese write as "Kue-Shuang" or 'Kue-Chwang'. It is the name of a Jat clan, called 'Kshavan or Kasvan and it is the Kushana of the historians. It is well known that the Great Jats entered Dahia and divided it into five kingdoms or parts. The Kshavans were ruling in one part and later on controlled all the five parts and established the Ksavan (Kushana) empire. Some historians enter into a needless controversy as to whether the five ruling chiefs were Dahia or Jats, i.e., Tahia or Yue-che. They do not appreciate the fact that the Dahias were also Jats and so were the Kushanas. The difference is only of giving the clan names or the collective racial

91. Sogdische Texte, Vol. I, p. 108.

92. R. Ghirshman, Las Chionites-Hephthalites, p. XII.

93. EI, Vol. XIV, p. 134 & CII, part 1.

94. BSOAS, 1948, pp. 601-615.

[p.36]: name. Otto Maenchen Helfen has rightly endorsed the earlier view that "the five chiefs, among them, the Kushanas, were great feudatories, dependent on their king, the Yue-che chief, and were of his nationality."95 He has further stated that the Kusha of the Kushanas were settled in the northern Tarim valley long before the Kushana Empire was founded.

"It is noteworthy that Kuca was known as Kusha or Kusanin Uighur texts and Koshan in the history by Rashiduddin.96 Further, the Sassanid Emperor Shahpuhr I (241-272 A.D.) is known to have fought with the Kushanas and he is credited with the conquest of Kasha (कश), the south-western part of Transoxiana with Bukhara in the centre. It is this word Kas, from which Kasvan or Ksavan has come. This was the place of Kasvans (Kusanas). And it is this area that is called 'Kasua' in the Kushana inscription of Panjtar of the year 122, first day of the month of Shravana.97 This was the area which was made an auspicious ground by Moika. It is important to note that the Chinese word for these people, Hoa or Hua, has the pronunciation of the first letter 'h' as 'X' and 'kh'. So, the word Hoa becomes XOA and its plural form XOAN, which is the same as Sogdian "XWN", i.e., KSEVAN, meaning a "king". The Iranian name for Hunas is Hyaona (Avesta) and 'Khiyon' (Pehlavi). It is from the Avestan Hyaona that the Indian Huna has come. "As a matter of fact, the name of the Hunas, having a guttral aspirated stop in the beginning which resembled the Iranian consonant X or KH" makes our point clear.98 From the Pehlavi form of this word, viz., "Khiyon"-the European name for these people-"Khion", "Khionites", etc., have come. The Khionite clan Chol attacked by Yazdegird III in 440 A.D. or so, is the same as the modern Chahl Jats. They were defeated in Dahistan, which of course is named after Dahiya Jats.99

Here we must remember that the Chinese too, give the name of the clan at some places, whereas, at other places they give their national or racial name, e.g., Yeta. Therefore when the Chinese say Hoa, they give the clan name but when they say Yeta or

95. JAOS, 1945, p. 72-73.

96. IA. 1934, p. 59, quoted by Buddha Prakash. SIH & C, p. 290.

97. EI, Vol. XIV. p. 134.

98. SIH&C, p. 306.

99. See J. Harquart, Eran Sahr, p. 56.

[p.37]: Yue-che, they give the name of the race. Similarly, when the Chinese mention Yeta-lito, they refer to the Supreme Chief of the Jats, as this word is a literal transcription (not translation) of Jaṭlāta/Jaṭrāta-king of the Jats. It is this word, in fact, a title, Lāṭa/Rāṭa which is of central Asian origin, and which we find in India in the form of Lat - an important Saka kingdom of Gujarat in later times. Even today, this word is used in Haryana, Rajasthan and other areas as a synonym for top authority, e.g., when some one behaves in a very high and mighty fashion, we say, "Are you , a Lat Sahib?" The fondness of the central Asian people for 'L' is well known, and possibly, the word Lāṭ has to be identified with Sanskrit Rāṭa, e.g., in 'Samrata' (emperor).

The Evidence of Mahabharata :

Mahabharata mentions: चीनान हूनाञ शकान ओडून पर्वतान्तरवासिनः । वार्ष्णेयान हारहूणांश च कृष्णान हैमवतांस तदा (II.47.19)"100

One variation of ओडून is ओड्रन (शकान ओडून). Here the Chhinas, the Hunas, the Shakas and the Oḍhrans-who are stated as "living beyond the Hills (Himalaya)"-are all of the same stock. The Chhina and Odhran clans of the Jats are still existing. Odhrans are not the people of Orissa, as some people say; they were in the northwest; it is possible however, that they later on went to Orissa also, as the Kushana and Hunas empire extended to those areas. Further, the Mahabharata term, "खवा काषा:" (Khavāh Kāshāh) is very important; you change the initial 'Kha' into Ksha (क्ष) and you get the word 'Ksavah' i.e., Kasua of Panjtar inscription. As it is, it gives the word 'Khion' and 'Khionites'. The second word, which must be taken as synonym of the first, is Kāshāh, which again· reflects Kasvan (Kushanas). Regarding the pronunciation of the Chinese Hiung-nu, Robert Shafer says that it is 'Khiang-nu' as the Chinese letter 'H' gave the sound of 'Kh' (or Ksha or X).101 This shows that not only the so-called 'White Hunas', the Khionites the Haphthalites were directly related to the Kushanas, but that in many cases the ruling clan was also the same, viz., Kashavan, (कशवां) and of course, they all belonged to the same race, Yue-che/Guttia/Getae/Jats. The Kasvans are nowadays found in Sirsa and Fatehabad areas (Haryana). MBT mentions a country called Kushavan, in the north of Manasarovara Himalayas. 101a

100. MBT, Sabha Parvan, chapter 47.

101. Robert Shafer, Ethnography of Ancient India, p. 160.

101a. Vana Parvan (130/l5). हरथश च कुशवान एष यत्र पथ्मं कुशे शयम । आश्रमश चैव रुक्मिण्या यत्राशाम्यथ अकॊपना ।। (MBT:III.130.15)

[p.38]: So far, historians have believed that the Kushanas entered India in the first century B.C. or later. But if the reading is correct,101b we find them mentioned in the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela, king of Orissa. The narration is " कुसवानाम् क्षत्रियानां च सहाय्यतावतां प्राप्त मसिक नगरम्" meaning, the city of Masika was taken with the help of Kusua Kshatriyas. The Kusuas seems to be no other than the Kasuans or Kasvans (Kushanas). The Kasuan Jats are now also found settled in about three hundred villages in Churu and Ratangarh, Bikaner area of Rajasthan.

The Jats - Inscriptional Evidence:

Sten Konow, analyses the word Yue-che and mentions that the first term Yue is pronounced as getsu in Sino-Japanese, ngoat/nguet in Annamese/ and ngiw ut inn Tang period of China.102 The second term che was pronounced as ti, the Cantonese tai, and the Tang period tiei.

After quoting Klaproth and Prof. Karlgren, he has shown that the word Yue-che can be pronounced as gat, got or gut. He has taken the names of two persons from the Junnar inscriptions, and these names are Yavana Irila (the latter is taken by Waddel, as the original word for the English title Earl) and Chitasa. Both these persons are called Gaṭana, (Jatān).103

Now let us take the clan names from the inscriptions of Kushana period.

(1) Kushana - The first is the name Kushana itself. We have shown above that this word is Kasvan/Kasuan, a clan of the Jats. This clan is the same as the later Rajput name, Kashvaha/ Kushvaha, Sanskritised into Kashyapaghat/Kacchapa, because of similarity of sound with Kachhua meaning tortoise in Prakrit. Actually the word Kashuan (XWN of Tokharian language) means king, and has no connection whatsoever with the tortoise, as supposed by some Pandits. The Taxila Ladle Copper inscription has this word as Kasaviana.104 This word is also available in some other inscriptions.105 It is read by Sten Konow as, "The gift of Sangharakshita to the congregation of the four quarters, in the Ursa kingdom, of the Kāshyapiya teachers." (Ursha is modern Hazara district).

101b. IGH 1938 p. 263, JNSI, Vol. If, p. 93, JRAS, 1894, p.244.

102. CII, Vol. II, Part 1, p. LVIII ff.

103. JRAS, 1912, p. 379ff.

104. CII, Vol. II, p. 87-88.

105. ibid., XXXIV. p. 89.

[p.39]: Now let us examine the underlined translation. The word Kashaviana is translated as Kāshyapiya, which is without basis. Can we believe that the teachers (acharyas) used to own a kingdom, the Ursa kingdom? They can reside in a kingdom, but cannot own it. What is the meaning, then, of the phrases, "in the Ursa kingdom of the Kashyapiya teachers ?"

Sten Konow expressly says that the word translated as "teachers," "looks like acharyanena", meaning thereby that he is not sure. Our view is that the word is not teachers at all; and the word before it, is Kasaviana i.e. Kasvans. Therefore, the full phrase is Ursaraje (Ursa kingdom) of the Kasvans. Naturally, Ursa was a separate kingdom (state) under the Kushanas (for the name Kushana). 106

(2) Atri - A seal inscription of Shiva Sena is noted which Cunningham read as, "Shivasena, of the race of Atri, Satrap of Pothowar".107 Here Atri or Attri is a Jat of that clan.

(3) Chhina - Manikiālā stone inscription of the year 18, reads a name, "Khuda Chiena". 108 Here the person named is a Chhina Jat, the China of Puranas.

(4)Virk - Manikiālā bronz casket inscription reads, "Gift of Kapisha Satrap, the son of the Satrap, Graṇa Vhryaka" .109 Here the Vhryaka is a Virk Jat.

(5) Shahi - Tor Dheri inscription mentions a person," Yola Mira Shahi".110 Here Shahi is a Jat clan.

(6) Rathi - Paṭhyār inscription mentions a pond of "Yayula Rāṭhi" and Prof. Vogel is quoted to say that Rathi is same as the agricultural caste of Kangra. Majumdar is quoted to say that Vayula is an un-Indian name.111 Both "Vogel and Majumdar, are right and Rathi is a Jat clan.

(7) Kajla - We know Satrap Liaka, and his son Patika Kuzula. This clan name is also associated with Kozola Kadphises, i.e., Kad (high) Phises (lord or chief) of Kozola clan. Sten Konow rightly endorses the view of Prof. Luders

106. See J.F. Fleet, JRAS, 1914, p. 369 & 811 and J. Allen, ibid, p. 103 ff.

107. ibid., XXXVIII, p. 103.

108. ibid., LXXVI, p 149-50.

109. ibid, LXXVII, p. 150-51.

110. ibid., XCII, p. 173 ff.

111. ibid. , XCIV, p. 178.

[p.40]: that Kuzula/Kozola is a family name.112 In fact it is a clan name, now written as Kazala/Kajla. The Kajla Jats are now found in Bikaner area.113 (see also W. Hoey, on the word Kozola.)

(8) Dahia - The Zeda rock inscription, near Und (in Pakistan) of the year 11 of the Saka era, mentions the digging of a well, during the reign of Kanishka, which was gifted by one Hippea Dhia in honour of Ksatra a Liaka.114 . Here the donor is definitely a Jat of Dahiya clan. Even now many persons write it as 'Dhia'. This important inscription further proves that the individual named, was from Bulkh area which was called 'Dahia' by the Chinese, of course, because of the predominant clan of that area in those times, were the Dahiya Jats. The word Hippea seems to be rather Greek than Persian. This also shows the historic process because the Chinese 'Dahia' area, was later on under the Greeks for a long period of about 200 years.

(9) Mann & Pawar - The next example is taken from the famous Surkh Kotal inscription written in Greek, and relating to the year 31 of Saka era. Here the work done was the repair of a sanctuary built by Kanishka. The inscription was recorded by two persons whose names are given as Mihra Mān and Burzmihr Puhr. Here again, the two persons who are of course, important officers of the empire, were two Jats from the Man and Puhr/Pawar clans. Again the names here are decidedly Iranian.115

(10) Deswal - The next is the Ara inscription near Attock, written in Kharoshthi script in the year 41. This inscription refers to the digging of a well by one Dashavhara in honour of his mother and father and for the welfare of himself, his wife, his sons and all beings. This name is reminiscent of another Jat clan, nowada s called 'Deswal'/Daswal

(11 The next example is the inscription kept in the Lucknow Museum written in Brahmi script in the IXth year of Saka era. Here the subject matter is the gift by a lady, Gahapala

112. CII. Vol. II, pt. I, p. XXXIII.

113. JRAS, 1902, pp. 428-29; also pp. 754-762.

114. CII, Vol. II, pt. I, pp. 142 and 145; also EI, Vol. XX, p. 1 ff.

115. BSOAS, Vol. XXIII, pt. I, pp. 47-55.

[p.41]: Gahapala, daughter of Grahamitra and wife of Ekra Ḍala. This name is again reminiscent of the name of the Jat clan Dall/Dhal.

(12) Burdak & Gulia - Yet another inscription of Wardak near Kabul of the year 51 relates to the establishment of the relic of Lord Buddha in a stupa by Vagramarega who is shown as a scion of Kama Gulya. Here we have yet another clan name Gulia of the Jats, perhaps.

(13) Khara, Mann & Salar - Mathura inscription of the year 28, mentions an official named Khara, son of Kanasaruka Man, ruler of Saler (Salar, a Jat clan) and Wakhan. Here again we have a Jat of Man clan. 116

(14) Lalli & Kaswan - The last example is of the famous Panjtar now in (Pakistan) stone inscription written in the year 122 of Saka era. It refers to one 'Lala, the protector of the Kushana dynasty of Maharaja Kanishka". This Lala, was a Lalli 'Jat'. It also refers to the gift of two trees by one Moika in the eastern region of 'Kasua'. That last word Kasua is the same as Kasuan the name of the Kusana clan (and territory) which is still existing. 117

These instances are proof of the fact that at that period of history, the rulers were Jats. The above inscriptions also make two points clear-one is that the names are of Persian origin and secondly, the persons were mainly influenced by Buddhist religion.

The White Hunas'/Hephthalites/ Aptalites/Abdelites/Abdalis

The (Hunas) who came to India, are called by various names:

"White Hunas, because they were 'white' in complexion, Hephthalites, because their three kings at least, were called Haphthal. The last three names (Aptalites/Abdelites/Abdalis) are but variations of the word, Hephthal, Aftar of today. In the western world they were first noticed by Procopius, who writes, "The Hephthalites are not nomads, but are settled since long on agricultural land. They have never attacked the Romans but with the armies of the Medes. The last line needs clarification. Here it is admitted that the Hephthalites had attacked Roman armies, earlier also, but in the company of the 'Medes' (this word should be corrected to 'Manda').

116. IHQ, IX, p. 145 ff; p. 800 ff.

117. EI, Vol. XIV, p. 134.


Among the Huns only the Medes/Manda have white skins and do not have short eyes. They do not lead a kind of life resembling the Huns. Like them they do not live like animals, but are governed by a sole king. They have a government with laws and live with each other and with their neighbours in a right and just manner, little inferior to that of the Romans. "118

Otto Maenochen Helforn, in his paper "Huns and the Hiung-Nu" shows that the Hunas of the Sanskrit works were the Hephthalites.1l9 The Chinese author of the Thung-Kiang-Nu writes in 555 A.D., that the Aptals were of the race of Ta-Yue-che (Great Jats). The Encyclopaedia of Ma Tuan-Lim says that the Yeta and the I-ta belonged to the same race as Yue-che. In physical traits, complexion, height, hair growth, nose and eves as well as in language, they were Indo-Europeans. This is the view of W.M. Mc Govern.120 The Afghan writer, Ahmad Ali Kohzad (Is he a Jat from Kohad clan ?), who read a paper called "Movements of People and Ideas from Prehistoric Times to Early Seventh Century in and from Afghanistan", at the Asian History Congress, held in New Delhi on December 11, 1961, is of the opinion that the language of the Hunas was akin to Pushto.

They had a custom of wounding themselves at the time of the funeral of their kings; and Herodotus says that the same custom was observed by the Scythians also. So the Hunas had common customs with the Sakas. Talking about the scripts of various people, the Lalitavistara an Indian work, lists 45 scripts and "Hunalipi" is entered at S. No. 23. The Chinese translated these works and the corresponding entries in the "Fo Pon hing tsi-king" of Jnanagupta (587 A.D.); the "Pou yas king" of Tchu-Fa-hun (308 A.D.), and "Fang Kouang ta Tehouang yen king" of Divakara (683 A.D.)-are Mona, Hiung-nu, and Houna respectively. These are but transcriptions of Mana, and Huna (Kshavan), i.e., the name of Jat clans. This shows that the Chinese knew that all these clans were of the same Yue-che (Gutti) stock and therefore they used the name of the race (Yue-che) or the name of the particular clan which was at that particular time well known to the Chinese authors. These various names were taken

118. Debello Persico, 1, 3.

119. Byzantism, 1944-45, Vol. XVIII, p. 230.

120. The Early Empires of Central Asia, p. 405.

[p.43]: as synonyms of each other. That means that there was no difference between the various clans, racially and linguistically speaking. H. Deguignes, identified the Hiung-nu of the Chinese records with the Hunas of Europe, in his five volume Historic general des Huns, des Tures, des mongols, etc., des autres'.121 From Chinese records, the Russian scholars N.A. Aristov and K. Inostranc-Sev, proved the identity of Hiung-nu and the Hunas. Friedrich Hirth also arrived at the same conclusion as quoted by Dr Buddha Prakash, in "Kalidasa and the Hunas". J.J. Modi, in "Early History of the Hunas" speaksl22 of the Massagetae, the Techari and the Dahae, who lived on the frontiers of Persia, and says "the Dahae seem to be the Dahi of the'Dahinam Dakhyunam', of the Farvardian Yasht, (Yasht VIII 144) of the Persians, which speaks of the five known countries of the then known world." 123 It is from these Dahae that the area of Dahistan of the Persians is known. Modi seems to take these people as Hunas, because he says that "the Goths were an offshoot of early Huna stock."124 He also mentions that according to ancient Iranian traditions, "the founders of the Iranians and the Turanians, were brothers".125 That may explain their Aryan features. The point however is that Modi does not differentiate between the Jat and the Hunas, because he says that "the Massagetae, against whom Cyrus fought and the Sakas or Scythians against whom Darius fought, were Hunic tribes". Further, after the death of Attila, two tribes called Kulur-gari and Utar-guri, invaded the Holy Roman Empire and continued the fighting for 72 years, from 485 to 557 A.D. Their descendants have been called the Balgari -giving their name to modern Bulgaria. Under Kubrat, in 630 A.D., they made a treaty with Emperor Heraclius. These two tribes are the same as Indian clans of Kullar and Udar. Pounu, the emperor of Hunas in 46 A.D. may well be the founder of Pannu clan of Indian Jats.

Some people try to distinguish between the Hiung-nu (Hunas) of the Chinese history and "White Huṇas" or Hephthal"ites of Indo-Iranian who are again sought to be distinguished from the

121. Tartaras, 1756-58, Vol. II, p. 1-124.

122. JIH, 1957.

123. JBBRAS. 1914, p. 548.

124. ibid., p. 562.

125. See his article in ABORI memorial volume.

[p.44]: Kidarites. But there is hardly any difference between them. Physically and racially, all are Indo-European, and linguistically, there was much in common, too. The Hiung-nu (the Hunas) were not Mongoloids; they had Aryan features as is clear from the portraits of their soldiers killed by the Chinese. They had fair complexion, long prominent noses and full beards of bushy hair. The facial angle and a snub nose-which are typical Mongoloid features, were absent in the case of Hunas. Excavations too definitely indicate Iranian features and carpets and other articles-as far as Mongolia itself. We know that the Mughals came to India with Babar. None of the Mughals had Mongoloid features. Even the earlier Turks, who came to India, had non-Mongoloid features. And of course, the Jats/Rajputs, the Gujars and the Ahirs-all have fine noses and lots of hair growth. It is therefore aptly stated that almost all the listed tribes of Hunas (Hiung-nu), turn out to be Turkish; and all the Turks turn out to be of Indo-European features. Any trace, that may be found, of Mongoloid race, can be attributed to the large scale marriages of Chinese ladies with the Hiung-nu (Hunas). Rahula Sankrityayana 126 describes a song of a Chinese lady married to a Wo-sun (Gusur-Gujjar) national, as under:

"My brothers gave me to the wo sun king;
and sent me to others' country in a far off land.
where people live in round huts, covered by 'Namdā',
They eat meat and drink milk".

(Tr. from original Hindi).

It is known that the Hiung-nu supreme chief, was called Shanyu (or Chan-yu). On the coins of Artadr and Hyrcodes, two kings of the first century B.C. of Sacaraucae clan (Puranic Sakarvaka, Russian Sakarav, and Indian Sakarvar/Sikarvar Jats), E. W. Thomas and A. Cunningham have read the title Tsanyu (or Chanyu). 127 This reading shows that the Hiung-nu had many things common with the central Asian Saka/Scythian people. Let us now give a summary, in the form of a long quotation from the same source.

126. MAKI, Vol. 1, p. 98.

127. See SIH&C, p. 292, note 51.

[p.45]: "Robert Gobi suggested to the present author that the Kidarites were the same as the Hephthalites. But in the Pei-she they appear as Ta-Yue-che or Kusanas. The Chinese knew full well the Hephthalites as Hoa or Hua or Ye-ta-i-li-to of the people Hoa. So there is nothing to show that the Chinese made a confusion of Ta-yue-che, Ki-to-lo and Ye-ta-i-li-to. The reference in the Peishe clearly shows that the Kidarites are to be distinguished from the Hephthalites, as they are identified with the Ta Yue-che.

"Of course, the Hephthalites are also stated to belong to the race of Te Yue-che in the Thung-Kiang-nu and the Encyclopaedia of Ma-tuan-lin, just as Ki-to-lo (kidara) is called the king of Ta-Yue-che in the Pei-she. But it is significant that whereas the Hephthalites never called themselves Kusana on their coins, Kidara expressly called himself a Kusana king as the legend on his coin, Kidara Kushan Sha, clearly shows. A study of the coin-types of the Hephthalites and Kidara clearly proves that they belonged to two distinct dynasties. Thus, though, it is undoubtedly true that both the Hephthalites and the Kidarites belonged to the same Iranian nomadic complex called Yue-che, yet it is apparent that they constituted two distinct dynasties." 128

Our comments are as follows:

  • (1) The Chinese did not make any confusion. Ta Yue-che is the racial name, equivalent to the Greek . Massagetae; Kitolo is the clan name, or the individual king, who was the forefather of the clan named Kitar and the Indian Kitariya, and Yetalito is the supreme title, Jaṭlāṭa, as already shown.
  • (2) Secondly, we would substitute "Indo-European" for the word Iranian in the last but one line of the quotation. But this will hardly be objected to. Incidentally, the tribe which pressed the Kidarites from the north-east, called Juan-Juan by the Chinese and Ju-Juan by others, may be identified by the Indian clan of Jats, called Jenjuan or Janjua, also found among the Rajputs.

In Śaktisamgama Tantra bk III, chap.VII, verse 43-44, we find the Hunas as heroes, living in the north of Rajasthan desert and by the side of Kamagiri mountains. This means the Punjab lands.129 Here the Hunas are mentioned along with the Kuntals,

128. ibid, p. 371.

129. Upendra Thakur, The Hunas in India, p. 55, f.n. 2.

[p.46]: to be identified with Khuntal or Kuntel Jats. They are again mentioned together by Sirkar, as Kuntalahuna.130 These Tantras were translated into Chinese by Narendrayasas in 566 A.D., which may give an idea of their antiquity which coincides with the period of Huna emperors, Toraman, Mihiragula and Ajit, i.e., 490 to 554, A.D. or so.

Vayu Purana (43/44) says that the Sandhrans (Sandhran Jats), Tusars, Lambas, Pallavals and Chhikaras lived in the valley of the Oxus river. Matsya Purana (121/45) includes the Babbars and the Parodas also, in the same category; Sabha Parva (27,22-24) of the Mahabharata places the Lohans, Asiaghs (Arsikas) and Utars in the far north of the hills, alongwith the Tukhars, Kangs and (hairy Jats) Romashas. Vayu Purana (47/43) says that the Kunindas (Kundus) were living on the bank of river Sita in central Asia. Same is the location of Tomars and Hans clans.

Henga Jats - Finally we come to the conclusion that the Chinese name Hiung-nu is correct, after all. These Hiung-nu were a clan dominant at that time. It was this clan which produced emperors like Touman, Maodun, Giya in the first three centuries prior to the Christian era. These Hiung-nu are still existing as a Jat clan in India and are called Heng or Henga. We must remember that the Kang Jat were named by the Chinese as Kang-nu; similarly the Heng were called Heng-nu or Hiung-nu. These were the 'Huna Mandal' rulers who fought with almost all the Indian powers, right up to 10th century A.D.

They have now 360 villages in Mathura district of U.P. The late Har Prasad Singh, Commissioner of Income Tax, was a Henga Jat. As for the word 'Huna' itself, it may be a war cry of these people. In Punjab, it is used in the sense of 'now', i.e., the time for the attack and final kill. Again, Otto Macnchen-Helfen may be right when he says that Hun is a Proto-Germanic adjective, signifying 'High'.131 As already stated, all the Jat clan names mean 'high' or 'top' or 'head', 'crown' or 'king'.

Interestingly enough, a people called "Jyoha" are mentioned in the Sabha Parvan.132 These people are stated to be residents of an area, on both sides of the river Shailoda, flowing between the

130. Studies in Geography of Ancient and Mediaeval India, p. 71.

131. Central Asiatic Journal, 1955, Vol. I, pt. n, pp. 101-106.

132. MBT, Sabha Parvan, 48/2-3, खशा एकाशनाज्यॊहाः परथरा थीर्घवेनवः । पशुपाश च कुणिन्थाश च तङ्गणाः परतङ्गणाः (II.48.3)

[p.47]: mountains of Sumeru (Pamir) and Mandare giri (Tien mounntains ?). They had brought Pipilaka gold (collected by ants) for the Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhishthira. Now it seems that these 'Jyoha' are the same as 'Johal' with an addition of suffix as usual for tribal names. Thus, the clan of Toramana and Mihiragula seems to have been known to Mahabharata when these people were near the Pamir mountains.

It is interesting to note that Majumdar and Altekar have pointed out that the so-called white Hunas may possibly be the Kusanas.133 Similarly Jayaswal also believes that Toraman the conqueror of north India in the beginning of the sixth century A.D., was a Kusana.134 Historian Fleet holds the same opinion.135 All these views have been given because really there was no difference between the so-called Hunas and the so-called Kusanas. They were all from the same stock, namely the Jat stock. As shown above the Chinese chronicles are consistent in stating that the so-called White Hunas or the Hephthalites as well as the Kusanas belong to the race of Ta-Yue-che, i.e., the Great Jats.135a

Thus we can conclude that the so-called Kusanas, Hunas, Hephthalites, Sakas, etc., were really the Jats and they always called themselves as such. Even when they were in Central Asia they were calling themselves Jats and when they came to the borders of India or went to Europe, they persistently called themselves Jats. When they attacked England in the fifth and sixth centuries A.D., they called themselves 'Jutes' (pronounced Jaṭṭehs) and it were they who gave their name 'Jutland' to Denmark peninsula. Aidda, the religious book of the Scandinavian people says that the ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia, were "Jattas" who were called Aryans. Even at the present time, these people call themselves Jats, whether they are found in India or Pakistan or Afghanistan or Central Asia or Denmark, or Germany, etc.

The Chhina Jats

In the Sabha Parvan of the Mahabharata a list of foreign tribes is given which includes the Hunas and the Chinas. Varahamihira

133. The Vakataka-Gupta Age.

134. JBORS, Vol. XXVIII, p. 29 and Vol. XVI p.287.

135. IA Vol. XV, p. 245.

135a. I HQ, 1954, Vol. XXX.

[p.48]:Varahamihira also refers to the Hunas alongwith Chhinas in his Mahavastu.136 Here the reference is to the Jat clan "Chhina" and because they were of the same stock, they are mentioned alongwith the Hunas. This Jat clan of Chhinas is still existing. Thus far these "Chinas" were taken by the historians to be equivalent to. "the Chinese" because of the similarity of the name; but it is a historical fact that the Chinese never came to the Indian borders from the north-western Side of India. In fact the relationship of India with China was always through the Central Asian tribes who acted as intermediaries. Barring individual visits of the Chinese pilgrims to India, and of Indian Buddhists to China, the Chinese people on a scale large enough to be termed as a tribe, never appeared on the north-western frontier of India in the course of entire history.137 So the word Chhina cannot stand for the Chinese. Our nearest neighbour on the Chinese side, were the Tibetans whom we Indians called the Bhotas. The very word Bhutan is based on this identification of the peoples of Tibet because the word Bhutan is derived from Sanskrit 'Bhoutānt', i.e., the end of Bhotas or Tibetan country. This is because Bhutan is really the watershed of Tibetan 'and Indian people racially and culturally speaking. Practically all the direct independent connections with the Chinese were through eastern and north-eastern boundaries or the sea. Therefore the word Chhinna in the Great Epic Mahabharata and FuriilJas, does not stand for the Chinese but for the Chhina clan of the Jats. This is similar to the expression: "सौवीरा सैन्धवा हूणा: " of the Vishnu Puranas. Here the reference is to another Jat clan of Sandhu Jats who are designated as Hunas. About various other clans of the Jat we shall be dealing with in the subsequent chapters. Our purpose here is to throw certain light on the various terms found in the Indian works which were baffling the historians, and to show that they are all names of various clans of the Jats.

The Word 'Jauvla' and Jauhla Jats

The greatest controversy among the historians is about the word Jauvla. This word was corrupted into Jaubul or Jabul by

136. Brihat Samhita, Vol. Xl, p. 61.

137. See E.H. Cutts, in IHQ, Vol. XIV, p. 493-94.

[p.49]: the Arabians and hence their territory was called Jabulistan-the land of the Jauvlas. As we shall show, the inscriptions and the coins of Toramana and Mihirkula (Mihirgula) have given the correct pronunciation of this word as Jauvla. This word has been taken as a title by some historians which is not correct at all. Other historians take it as a feudatory or a subordinate title, corresponding to the word Yavuga. But they find it difficult to explain why the subordinate title was continuously used, not only by Toramana, who became an independent emperor but also by Mihirkula, his son, who was admittedly a sovereign emperor. The difficulty arises in not appreciating the fact that the word Jauvla, is the name of their clan and it is not a title or even a dynastic name. This was and is the name of yet another Jat clan, now written as Jauhla or Johla. The people of this clan are still existing in the India (Punjab) area and the famous fort near Peshawar which is comparable with the Red Fort of Delhi-is named after this clan of the Jats and even today it is called the Jauhla Fort. It was these Jauhla/Johl Jats who were the defenders of Khyber Pass from the Kabul side for many centuries against the Arabs, while the brave Jats of Kikan or Kikanan, were defending the Bolan Pass.138 As early as 682 A.D., these Jats of Kikanan, resisted and repulsed the Arabs, and at the time of Calliph A-Mehdi (786-809 A.D.), his armies had to measure swords with these hardy Jats of Bolan Pass.139 Jauvla is the word which was mainly used by Toramana and Mihirkula. According to Buhler, the word Toraman, is neither Sanskrit nor Prakrit but is of Turkish origin and means a rebel or insurgent. 140 The title accordingly, should be connected with Jauvla 'falcon'. As stated earlier the origin is not Turkish but Saka, influenced by old Pehlavi as were all the names of these people. Buhler further states that Sahi is a title or a surname and Jauvla epithet may be a tribal name or a biruda. Here Buhler has hit upon the nail because Jauhla is in fact the name of their clan. Cunningham identifies Toraman Jauhla, with the prince called the Jabuin in the "Chachnama"-a history of Sindh, whih states that this prince had built the famous temple of the sun at Multan. The foundation of this excellent sun temple were laid

138. R.C. Mazumdar, History and Culture of Indian People, Vol, III, p. 174,

139. ibid., Vol. IV, p. 127.

140. EI, Vol. I, p. 239,

[p.50]: in 505 A.D. J.J. Modi on the authority of Firadausi's Shahnama, suggests that Jau is really Jaugan or Jaugani, which is another variant of Chagani. He holds that the Huna King was called Jaugan as the Hunas were primarily and emotionally connected with Jaugan-their favourite place, which they were eager, at all cost, to retain in their hands. Now it is correct that they wanted to retain Chagan area in their hands, this being their ancestral place, but it is certainly not correct to derive Jaugan from Jau........, and J.J. Modi is completely off the mark here.

According to Jayaswal the word Jauvla of the Kura inscription should be read as Jauvṇa 141 but this is also not correct although Rapson reads the same name on some coins.142 This reading of Jauvna on coins may be correct but it certainly is not identical with Jauvla. We have another Jat clan name Jauṇa/Juṇa and it is possible that the coins may belong to the kings of this Jauṇa clan. Heirfeld 143 and Junker144 read the word as "Zobolo" on some coins. Henning, takes it to be a title. It is also stated that the title Sahi, used by the Kusanas was followed by the Hephhthalites or White Hunas and similarly, Jauvla/Zowolo was also borrowed from somewhere. Both the assertions are wrong. Neither the title Sahi was borrowed nor the clan name Jauvla was borrowed. The title Sahi has been used by them since at least the seventh century B.C. and it is absurd to suggest that a person can borrow his clan name which is invariably the name of one of their ancestors. Upendra Thakur gives the adjective, "the-so-called-tribal- Viruda" to Jauvla and says that it stands for a section of the Hunas who on their way to India first settled in a land called Zabulistan to the south of the Hindukush (i.e., Afghanistan).145 Thus far, he is correct. Later on at page 100 he gives a definite opinion to say that the word Jauvla is a title and not a name. Here he is wrong. Bivar also suggests that it was the official title of the dynasty. He had found two stone inscriptions at Uruzgan (in Afghanistan) where the words Saho Zovolo has been read by him.146 All these ideas, sometimes reached the truth

141. JBORS, Vol. XVIII, p. 201 ff.

142. ICR, p. 29.

143. MASI, No. 38, p. 19.

144. Span, 1930, p. 650.

145. The Hunas in India, p. 98,

146. JRAS, 1954, p. 115,

[p.51]: but not the complete truth. The word Sahi is of course the same as the Persian Sahi meaning 'royal' whereas Jauvla is the name of the clan to which the white Hunas under Toraman belonged; and as mentioned above, this clan still exists and at present they write the name as Jauhla and also Johl. This name again appears in an inscription of Mahendra Paul (893/912 A.D.). Referring to a Tomar chief, the inscription also mentioned a person called Jauvla. This is the same name of the clan to which Toraman belonged. "In this way the links of Tomars, Gurjars, and Hunas continued to exist."147 We hope this will clear the picture.

The word Jabulistan therefore is the Arabic version of the original Jauvlistan/Jaullasthan and it comprised the area of Kabul-Gazni and adjoining parts. Hiuen Tsang, the Chinese traveller noted in the seventh century A.D. that the king of Jabulistan had succeeded a long line of kings and he was a follower of the cult of sun or Ksun.148 According to Ghirshman, one of the kings of this dynasty was called Vakbha, whose coins have been found which show a marked degree of Indianisation. One of the later kings was called Napki Maika. His coins were restruck by the later Turks, the Sahi Tegin.149 It is significant that when the Arabs invaded Jabulistan in 654-55 A.D., a decade after the visit of the Chinese traveller, they mentioned only Zunbil as the title of the king and they do not associate him with the Turks. This word Zunbil is again a derivative of Jabul/Jauvla, which was the name of the ruling clan.

The inter-relation of the Kusanas, the white Huna and the Kangs

The historians are further puzzled as to why the so-called white Hunas treated the so-called Kusanas and the Kangs, on equal footing and with respect. R. Sankrityayna while mentioning that the Sakas, the Hephthalites and the Kangs, in fact, all the other central Asian people, were using brass arrow heads until a late period and were all similarly dressed and had similar customs and language, observes, "in the time of Kusanas, it seems that the Kangs were treated as equal to the Kusanas, even though

147. P.C. Bagchi, India and China.

148. S. Beal, Buddhists Records, Vol. II, p. 285.

149. See JA, 1935, p. 289; and JRASB, Numismatic Supplement, Vol. 46, p. 6.

[p.52]: the Kangs were under the Kusanas, because the Kangs belonged to the Saka race. They were treated in a similar way as the Medians were treated under the Achaemenian Empire. No wonder that Indians count the Kang among the Kusanas after their arrival in India."150 Again he says, that in the fifth century the Hephthals or white Hunas, who put an end to Kusana kingdom in central Asia and Punjab and also suppressed the Kangs under the Hephthal King, "Peikand", similarly treated them with equality. As fierce fighters the Kangs proved very useful to the Hephthalites. The Hephthals got ready-made armies of the Kusanas and the Kangs and other Saka tribes, without any effort.

Similar ideas have been expressed by other historians also. But if we keep in mind that all these people were one, and there were merely changes in the ruling families, one clan substituting the other, then we can very well understand the treatment to the so called vanquished. This also explains why the Yue-che were practically welcomed by the Tehia (Dahia) of Bactria, As is mentioned by Sankrityayana himself, these people had a democratic form of government and every clan had its own chief. A higher chief, of a certain number of clans was elected by the clans and was called a Kagān/Khakān/Khān. All the clan chiefs used to elect one of them as the Supreme Chief called Khakan-I-Khakan i.e., "Chief of the chiefs", the Rajadhiraja of the coins. It was not necessary that the next Supreme Chief should be elected from the same clan. That is why we find so many changes of the ruling clan names. Their combined people of a particular clan or group of clans including the ladies and children were called "Ordu". The 'Ordu' used to have a tribal meeting three times a year. At these meetings the religious ceremonies were performed and political decisions were taken by the Supreme Assembly. Interclanish disputes were also settled. This is the word which was used by the later Mughals in India as synonym of a military cantonment and from which the word Urdu, one of the present Indian languages, has come. Urdu is also the official language of Pakistan and is spoken in many parts of India.

Franz Altheim, the German scholar, identifies the white Hunas King of Sogdiana as "Kong-Khas", the Kidarites king mentioned

150. History of Central Asia (Hindi).

[p.53]: by Priscus. Paul Pelliot also mentions the name as Kung-Kas.151 This name is also mentioned by the Persian writers as the name of a king of the white Hunas or the Kidarites. It is again the name of a Jat clan called, nowadays, Ghangas (घण्गस). I think this name is such, about which there can be no two opinions and there is hardly any other name of any people in the world resembling it. So ,it can have only one significance, namely, it was the clan name of the Sogdiana king who fought with the Sassanid kings of Iran and he was a Jat of the Ghangas clan.152

Further it was one of the basic rules of these people that everyone was deemed to be equal. Even when a particular person was elected as Supreme leader, he was not treated as something higher than the rest of them. He remained equal to everybody else but in matters of leadership, his views were given more weight in deliberation of their Ordu meetings, and in decisions of war and peace. This unwritten law is still in operation in the present Jats in India. Here every Jat is equal. A poorest Jat, who even finds difficulty in making both ends meet, does not consider himself inferior to another Jat who may be a Chief Minister or any other dignitary, howsoever high. This was the reason behind equal treatment to each other by the Sakas, the Kusanas and the Hephthalites, etc. . There is no word, in their language, corresponding to the Hindi word Āp (आप). All Jats call each other by the pronoun Tū, i.e. 'You', (Tusi, in Punjabi).

Linguistic and other affinities:

It is noteworthy that even Pelliot, who distinguished the Kusanas from the Yue-che holds that the Tokhri language of the Uighur colophons is the Tokharian language ofthe Takhars-which Hiuen Tsang found in Tokharistan and Kusana of the same colophons is the language of Kuca area, and both these languages belong to one family. Our theory is that not only the languages of the Kusanas, the Takhars, the Kangs, the Dahae, etc. are common but these are the same as Saka language-the language of the Jats, with minor local differences.

Now let us quote a footnote from Buddha Prakash's Studies in Ancient Indian History and Civilisation.

151. JA, 1934, p. 42.

152. Mentioned as Khangas in Tribes & Castes, Vol. II.

[p.54]: "That the Kusanas in India considered themselves related to the Sakas is manifest from the fact that in the ancestral gallery (devakula) of the Kusana kings found at Mat, near Mathura, the statues of Wima Kadphises and Kanishka have been found along gwith that of Caṣṭana, the son of Ysomotika, one of the Western Satraps of Saurashtra and Malwa.153 This shows that Castana, a Saka by birth, was treated as a member of their own clan by the Kusana Emperors. It is also significant that in the same gallery, a head wearing a high Scythian cap with the tip tilted forward, reminds us of Saka tigrakhuda. "154

The costumes and armaments of the Indian Sakas and the Kushanas were identical with those found in the graves of the Sarmatians, i.e., the Alains. In fact this word Alains (Alans) is formed from the original 'Aila' which is the same as the Ailavat Jats. The high boots, pant, long coat and headgear of all these people are common. It is this very dress which is found on the coins of the so-called early Gupta Emperors of India who belonged to the Dharan clan of the Jats. Later on they were Indianised and therefore on their later coins, these emperors are shown wearing the Indian dhoti. For armaments the long sword and the lance were most important. The bows and arrows were on the way out. Heavy scale armour and ring armour were prominent. On the coins of Azes the king is clad in long coat and on the statue of Wima Kadphises, the long sword and strong lance are displayed prominently. On the statute of Kanishka, the long sword is strapped to the coat while on some coins Kanishka is shown with a long lance. On the coins of Vasudeva and his successors, the armour is very prominent. This original dress of coats, pants and boots of the central Asian Jats has been used even on the statues of their gods. The statues of sun-god near Mathura is shown as wearing heavy long boots.

These are further proofs, if further proofs are really required, of the identity of the Indo-Scythians/Sakas and the Kusanas. As already stated, it should not cause any surprise at all to find these people treating each other on equal footings. The Sakas under Castana, Rudradaman, up to Rudrasimha-were all the same as the Kushanas, the Kangs, etc.

153. J, Ph. Vogel in ASIAR, 1911·12 p. 126.

154. SIH & C, p. 251 (footnote).

[p.55]: In fact, the costume and armaments-pantaloon, coat, belt, boots, long swords, etc.-which the Chinese copied from the Biung-nu in the beginning of the third century B.C., were Iranian par excellence, as shown by Barthold Laufer in Chinese Clay Figures, Prolegomena on the History of Defensive Armour155 and by M.I. Rostovtzeff in Iranian and Greeks in South Russia156 and by T. Talbot Rice157 and by others also. Their origin was definitely Iranian/Scythian.

Jats, Goths, Gots or Jutes?

Some people doubt this identification on the ground that the Jats/Getae/Goths are different from each other and that they cannot be the one and the same. They say that similarity of sounds is no evidence of identity. The change of letter 'J' into 'G' is one of the causes for these views, but as mentioned earlier, this change of letter 'J' into 'G' is quite simple and is based on Grimm's Law of Variation. It is under this law that the Sanskrit 'S' is changed into 'H' in the Persian, and the Indian Hans becomes Gans in German language-both words meaning 'Goose'. It is under this law that the words 'L' & 'R', 'L' & 'N'; 'J' & 'G' are interchangeable. On the same principle of Grimm's Law of Variation, the Sanskrit Jiva (living being) becomes Jhiv in the Russian and Guva (s) in the Lithuanian language.158 Similarly, the European word George and Georgia are pronounced with a'J' and not 'G'. On this very basis the word Jat becomes Getae in Central Asia and Got/Goth in Europe but in Denmark it is written with an initial latter 'J' in Jutes and Jutland.

According to J.J. Modi: "The Goths are an off-shoot of the early Huna stock." 159 Hewitt's views of their identity, in The Ruling Races of the pre-Historic Times have already been quoted.

Sir Henry Elliot has clearly stated that the Jats migrated to India from north-west Europe. About this migration from northwest Europe, we do not agree. On the identity of the Indian Jats with the people in north-west Europe, there is no doubt, Col. Tod's view is also the same. Many other views can be

155. Chicago, 1914, p. 218.

156. Oxford, 1922, p. 204.

157. The Scythians, pp. 193-196.

158.See MAKI, Vol. II, p. 566.

159. JBBRAS, 1914, p. 562.

[p.56]: quoted but it will be unnecessary because only a few people doubt this identification. The fact that so many surnames are common to them, further supports this view. Some of them are given below:

Surnames common in Indian Jats & European Jats

Indian Jats European Jats
Dhall Dill
Kher Keir
Riar Read
Legha Legge
Minhas Minns
Dhillon Dillon
Bhuller Buhler (A well known historian)
Mangat Mangait (A well known Russian historian)
Bains/Vans Vans/Vance/Baynce
Kahlon/Kallan Klein
Chavan Chvannes (The well-known historian)
Hans Hans/Hanz
Mann/Man Mann (The well-known English writer of history)
Her Her
Meir/Mer Meir/Meyer
Gill Gill (also Gilman & Gilmore-Nobel prize winner)
Hala Hall
More More
Rathi (Rastric?) Raster?
Bhinder Bender
Chatha Schatten?
Chiller Schiller
Rose Rose
Bais Weiss

Their Cities: Their identification is further proved by the names of the cities also. I am giving only three examples:

Asirgarh - One is Asirgarh in Malwa founded by one Beeka Jat. Its corresponding town is called Asigord in Scandinavia.160 It is also

160. Annals of Rajasthan, Vol.I,p.54

[p.57]: stated there that the successor of Odin (Bodin-Buddha) in Scandinavia was Gotama-another name of Lord Buddha. This is because the Jats in central Asia came under the Buddhist influence at a vary early period. This is not possible without accepting that these people went from central Asia to northern Europe.

Alwar - The second name is Alvar. This city is well-known as the capital of a former princely state in north Rajasthan-Haryana boundary. The word Alvar is of Gothic origin, 161 (i.e., Jat origin) and it is this word which appears as a personal name also, for example, the Spanish Alvaro.

Jaisalmer - The third example is of Jaisalmer. This is also the name of a place in Holland-Denmark border, styled 'Ijesselmeer'. These words are such that they cannot be independent of each other. The chronicles of the Bhattis of Indian Jaisalmer definitely speak that they came from areas in Jabulistan and beyond, although they later on claimed to be descendants from the Yadu Vansha. Incidentally, practically all the clan names of the Jats are found in the Rajputs also. For example, Dahiya, Bhatti, Chauhan, Minhas, Solanki, Pawar, Dhankhad, etc. etc. More of this topic in a later chapter. Here we are on the question of identity of the Indian and European Jats. It has already been mentioned that the old religious book of the Scandinavian people, Edda, speaks of them as descendants of the original inhabitants named "Jittas" who called themselves Aryans. The same book also states that they were also called Asi who come from Central Asian region of the river Oxus. It is the same region from which the Indian Jats have come and as per MAKI, Asi is the name of one of the Saka clans. At the end of the seventh century, two tribes of the white Hunas stock, are said to have invaded the Holy Roman Empire after the death of Attila and they continued fighting for 72 years from 485 to 557 A.D.162 The names of these two clans are given as Kulur-guri and Utar-guri. It is these people who later on combined and were called Bulgari, after whom the modern Bulgaria is named. Now both these names Kulur & Utar are the names of the Indian clans of the Jats and these are now written as Kullar and Udar. The Indian name of yet another Jat clan, is now written as Chhiller

161. JRAS, 1954, p. 138, note III.

162. See J.J. Modi in JBBRAS. 1914, p. 548.

[p.58]: which is practically the same as the German name Schiller. Similarly the German tribal name Klein may be identified with the Indian clans name Kahlon or Kallan. I have given hereafter a consolidated list of names of the Indian clans of the Jats. Anybody who is interested in this subject one way or the other, has merely to consult the list. If researched properly, it will be found that practically all the clan names are common, except those which come into being after their arrival in India and Europe, as the case may be. It is not without significance that many art objects, coins (especial1y of the Kushanas period, a statue of Buddha, etc., have been found in France, Germany and the Scandinavian area of Europe. In the excavations carried out in the mid-1950s, on a small Island ,called Lillion ( the same as Lalli ?), or Helgo about 20 miles west of Stockholm, among many other objects, an exquisite bronze statue of Buddha seated on a lotus throne with crossed legs, was found .. According to Wilhelm-Holmqvist, who conducted the archaeological investigation, the Buddha is of Indian or Central Asian origin.163 ,It is well known to historians that the statues of the Buddha were prepared for the first time under the Kusanas represented by the famous Art Schools of Gandhara and Mathura. Thus this Buddha's statue must be of the Kusanas who were one of the tribes of the Jats and it must have reached north-western Europe either with the people who migrated to that place or with the people who traded between the two areas. It should also be borne in mind that, as per recent excavations in USSR, the Kusana Empire spread up to the Crimea and the Danube. From there to Scandinavia it is but a small distance.

There is an interesting article on' Alvara of Cordova' (tenth century A.D.), who is cal1ed 'Last of the Goths'. He was the grandson of the last Jat king of Spain. In that article, Alvaro is stated as explicitly claiming to originate from a nation of classical antiquity, viz., the Getae.164 Let us here Alvaro about the race to which he belonged:

But that you may know who I am, hear Virgil:

"The Getae scorn at death and praise the wounds",

163. Cited in SIH&C, p. 268.

164. JRAS, 1954, p. 138.

[p.59]: and again:

"The horse the Getan rides;"

and the words of the poet;

"On this side the Dacian, and on that presses the Getan".

I am, I tell you, of the race whom Alexander declared should be avoided, whom Pyrrhus feared, and Caesar trembled at; of us too, our own Jerome said;

"He has a horn in front, so keep away."

(Episola XX, Nigne, Vol. 121, Col. 514).

Here the Dacian stands for the Hungarians, who were named after the Hunas, 'Hungari'. But the interesting point is that the metaphor of 'horn in front' is heard in India too. Further Getan or Jatan, is the plural form of the word Jat in India also. In 1192 A.D. Prithviraj had been defeated, and the Jats of Haryana raised their "standard of tribal revolt" under a leader named simply as Jatwan. In that "obstinate conflict" at Hansi, (Hissar dist.), "the armies attacked each other," says the author of Taj-ul-Maasir', "like two hills of steel, and the field of battle became tulip dyed with the blood of warriors. Jatwan had his standards of God-plurality and ensigns of perdition, lowered by the hand of power, Allah.165

Their Descendants in Central Asia

As it often happens whenever there is a migration of people on a large scale almost always some people do not migrate and prefer to remain in their original homes. This happened in the migration of population of India and Pakistan in 1947. Many Muslims remained in India and many Sikhs and Hindus remained in Pakistan. Similarly, many Jats remained in Central Asia, and later on got mixed with the local population. Even so, they have to the present time retained their original clan names. Many other names of the clans in Central Asia do not find paral1els in the Indian Jats because some of the clans are of later origin, i.e., after the Central Asian Jats had arrived in India prior to sixth century A.D. The following paral1els are given showing the same clan names found in the Indian Jats as well as in the Central Asian Jats as at present:l66

165. Elliot, Vol. II, p. 218.

166. Taken from MAKI, Yol. II.

[p.60]:Indian Jat Clan Names & Corresponding Central Asian Names

S.No. Indian Jat Clan Name Corresponding Central Asian Name
1. Mangat Mangat
2. Nain/Nayan Noyan
3. Dhama Tama
4. Saran Siran
5. Tatran Tatar (It is the Arabic pronunciation. Its real pronunciation is Tatran, the same as in German Tatran)
6. Bisla Bisvala
7. Kang Kang
8. Kallan Kullen
9. Cheema Cheemir
10. Shergill Sirgilli
11. Tomar Tomir
12. Chhiller Jiller
13. Gurlawat Guralet
14. Ojhlan Oghlan (also Ojh)
15. Najjar Nachar
16. Ulhan Ulgan
17. Gill Gilli
18. Guliya/Kular Kula?

The list can be further enlarged. In the article "Chinghiz Khan and his Ancestors" by Henry H. Howarth, even Chinghiz Khan is addressed as "The Valiant Bogda". 167 There is an Indian Jat clan called Bogdawat. A composition of Chinghiz Khan's army is given which mentions that it had 30,000 Jats, and further, 20,000 soldiers of 'Indian' origin, were commanded by one Bela Noyan. As shown above this Noyan is the same as the existing Indian Jat clan 'Nayan'/Nain. We are not sure whether Chinghiz Khan belonged to the Bogdawat clan of the Jats but the epithet Bogda is striking. It may be an honorific title, like 'high', brave, etc. and points to the Central Asian origin of Jats. In the autobiography of Taimurlung (Tamerlane) also we find repeated references of his fights with the Jats. At one time Taimurlung was the adviser of the Jat governor of

167. IA, 1886; Vol. XV,p.129

[p.61]: Samarkand, named Khoja alias 'Oghlan'. This Oghlan is also the name of another existing clan of the Indian Jats. Here is a quotation from 'The Conquests of Taimurlung':

"Things are worse than ever ... he (Zainuddin) said; 'Even I the Chief Mulla have to live in hiding where you (Taimurlung) found me. It is the same (position) in Bokhara and Khojend, and Karshi ... everywhere. There is not a single Tatar Prince to lead us. You are the only Prince who dared ... come near the Jat strong-holds.' Zainuddin studied me shrewdly. I had once accepted Allah's mentle-I wanted to wear it no more. 'Pray for a scourge on the Jats,' I said, derisively, and then in a moment of inspiration, I added, seriously, 'Pray for a scourge on their horses. Without horses, the Jats are powerless."168

Here Taimurlung is referring to the pitiable position of the Muslims in Central Asia against Bikijuk, the Jat General and others. Taimurlung states that he had once fought against the Jats for the sake of Allah, i.e., Islam and he did not want to fight again. Incidentally, it seems that the prayers of the Head Mullah of Samarkand were answered by Allah because a very serious disease had, in fact, spread among the Jat horses and it is stated that a large number of them died with the result that the Jats had to carry their belongings on their own heads and ultimately Taimudung was victorious. It was only after his victory over the Central Asian Jats that Taimurlung could come to India and ransack Delhi.

The Russian "Antas" are the same as the Indian Antals and the Russian "Ven" seems to be the same as the Indian Benhwal/Venwal. Even the Russian word, Slav, which is the name of a major population of Russia is a derivative from Sakalav which is Sakaravak of the Indian Puranas and the Sakawar/Sikarwar of Indian Jats.169 The love of Central Asian people for 'L' as against 'R' is well- known.

To conclude this section on identity of the Indian, the Central Asian and the European Jats, I must refer to the excavation work carried out in Crimea and other western parts of Soviet Russia. In the excavations at Tovsta (in Ukraine) in 1971; many articles of the Sakas were unearthed. One of the articles was gold pectoral

168. Autobiography of Timur, Eng. Trans. by Major Stewart (1830) from Persian Malfuzat-i-Timuri by Abu Talib Husaini.

169. See MAKI, Vol. II, p. 563,

[p.62]: weighing 2½ pounds. On this pectoral there were figures of 44 cows and mares. In the centre there were two Sakas, with matted hair and full beards-exactly like the present-day Sikh Jats of Punjab. A gold drinking vessel of fourth century, B.C. and another drinking cup were also found at Solokha in Ukraine. It depicted a Saka hunter on horseback, killing a lion with his spear. A gold - comb was also found. The heavy necklace of solid gold or silver, which the Sakas were very fond of, are exactly the same as the present Hansla/Kantha of the Indian Jats which is even now worn in the countryside. The earrings of the males called "Murki" are stil1 current in the Indian Jats in the Rajasthan area, although these are now on the wayout.

Therefore, we can say with full confidence that the Indian Jats, the Russian: slavs and many north European people belong to the same Jat race. The following quotation is given from R. Sankrityayana is worth noting: "The ancient Sakas have reappeared in the form of Russian slavs and are present even today. The western Sakas, after migrating from Sakadvipa, entered many countries and were absorbed in India as the Saka Brahmins, Rajputs, Jats, Gujjars etc., of the Hindus. The close similarity of Sanskrit - with the Russian language will be clear from a look at their history. This is because the Russians are the descendants of the same Sakas, whose brothers, the Aryans, settled in India and Iran in ancient times. Their mutual contracts were not broken. On the 'other hand, after a lapse of centuries, a large number of Sakas again came to India" 170

The Sunflower and Religious and Social Ideas

It is already stated the sunflower is not an Indian symbol. For religious and other art purposes, the Indian national flower par excellence, is the lotus. The sunflower is never used. It was, however, the main flower motif of Sumeria and Babylon from where it was, - perhaps taken by the Central Asian people. A replica in A History of Persia, shows the stele of Naramsin, the Sumerian conqueror, alongwith the defeated Negroite foes.l7l

170. MAKI, Vol. II, p. 565. (Translated from the original in Hindi).

171. p, Sykes, A History of Persia, Vol. I, p, 66

[p.63]: On the top of this stele, two sunflowers are prominently displayed. This is perhaps the first evidence ot the use of sunflowers in the third millenium B.C.

After the arrival of the Scythians and the Kusanas in India, we find the sunflower in the temples of the sun-god in India. Sankrityayana has duly mentioned this fact in his MAKI. A very important instance of this type has been described by Kalidasa.172 Datta has described the finding of two sun images from the district of 24 Pargana (Bengal). Figure No.1 is definitely an image of tha sun-god and it was found by a vil1ager in the course of excavation of a tank at Kashipore,a village under Jaya Nagore Police Station of Alipore subdivision. The figure is about 2½ ft. high and made of basalt -stone of bluish colour. In this figure, "the sun-god, wears a cap like head dress, from underneath which curls of hair are descending on each shoulder; a short necklace, apparently of beads with a rectangular bar in the centre, plain bracelets and a long tunic, similar to that of the Surya images found in the niche of the Gupta temple of Bhumara."173 This kind of dress is also seen in the Kusana images and is evidently, the Udicya, northern dress, which Varahamihira assigned to sun-god jn his Brihatsamhitti.174 In each of the two hands there is a lotus stalk, rising just about the shoulders and terminating in a bunch of lotuses, unlike a single lotus as depicted in the later images. The waist is tied round by a belt with two hanging tassals from the stud in the centre. Alongwith the left side, there is a sword kept in position by means of a strap".175

Now admittedly the Image is of the fourth/fifth century A.D., but Mr Datta is definitely wrong in stating that the flower is the lotus. Even a layman can tell that it is not lotus flower but a sunflower. Firstly, the lotus flower is not represented in bunches and secondly, the lotus flower has only petals and a stalk. The seed producing middle portion of the flower stamen is very prominent in the case of sunflower and is practically absent in the case of lotus which has only petals. Our point here is to show

172. Datta in IHQ, 1933, Vol. IX, p. 202.

173. Plate XIV, MASI, No. XVI.

174. Plate XII, catalogue, Museum of Archaeology, Sanchi,

175. op. cit,

[p.64]: that this sun image which is duly shown with a belt and sword is not of Indian origin but was made during the Kushana period or early Gupta period, by the Central Asian immigrants. The sword is never shown in this manner in Indian images of gods and of course the cap like head-dress again points to its Central Asian origin. Obviously the image was made under direct instructions from Central Asian people, most probably the Kushanas who had their empire up to Orissa and Bengal and perhaps Assam, too. J.N. Banerji mentions a similar figure of sun-god from Gandhara176· It has boots, and other such things. The fact that the Bhumara temple image of the Gupta period shows the same dress of tunic, goes in favour of the fact that the so-called Guptas themselves were immigrants from Central Asia. It is important to note that the first Gupta emperors, are shown on their coins, wearing coat, pant and boots -a Central Asian dress. But we shall come to this point in a separate chapter about the Guptas.

At present we are concerned with gods and religious affairs of the ancient Jats. We know that Utukhegal, the Virk, construccted temples of the sun-god and the moon, more than 2,000 years before Christ. The Ven/Ben dynasty kings of Armenia, were prominently sun-worshippers. The Mans and the Mandas too, were believers in the sun-god. Tomyris, the queen of the Messagetae (Dahae) swore by sun-god; and so does Shunka, the Scythian leader against Darius. The sun cult was introduced into India by the Magian priests, who came from Sakadvipa, which touched the Dadhi sea (Dadhi-Dahae-Dahi).l77 D.K. Biswas shows that the distinctly Aryan sun-cult came from ancient Iran.178 Why are they called Magas ? The Bhavishya Purana answers that a sun-worshipper is called Maga because he meditates on the letter 'M'

(मकारो भवान्देवो भास्कर: परिकीर्तित )179

They are also called Bhojakas and again the Bhavishya Purana explains why.

धूपमाल्यैर्यतक्षापि उपहारैस्तथैव च ।

भोजयंती सहस्रांशु तेन ते भोजका स्मृता ।। 180

176. Development of Hindu Iconography, 1936, p. 434.

177. Vayu Purana, p. 49-75.

178. D.K. Biswas, IHQ, XXlI, pp. 173·175.

179. Bhavi$ya Purana, 1/44/250.

180. ibid., 1/144/26.

Image of Suryanarain (Sun God) of 11th-12th Century discovered from Village Beri in Rohtak district. Note the contrast with Harihara (Frontispiece) regarding personal attire, Sunflower and footwear which no Indian god wears except Surya.(Photo: Courtesy-Public Relations Dept., Haryana

[p.65]: because they offer to the sun-god, the incense, garlands and other presents.

The abhorrence of caste system of high and low borns, has to be explained in the light of this Central Asian/Iranian influence. "In matters of religious ceremonies, a Brahman and a Sudra are equal and without any spiritual or external difference.l81" "The mode of the birth of a Brahman and a Sudra is the same. All castes are equal. Samskaras are useless."182 "Sacrifices (Yajnas) are like frail boats, on which no reliance can be placed; and persons who pinned their hopes on them, were doomed to be immersed in ignorance and darkness, like blind men, led by those who are themselves blind."183 That is why R.C. Hazra says that "The Magas allowed great privilege in religious matters to women and members of lower castes."184 Contrary to certain opinion, there was no caste system during the Manda empire or later. The Puranic parallelism of four castes in Sakadvipa, has to be dismisssed as incorrect and untenable, says R.K. Arora.185 It is from Arora's book that many of these quotations have been taken. And finally, Bhavishya Purana says that the people "have divided themselves in to different castes on the basis of their actions and dispositions. "186 Otherwise, all are equal and can join any profession or vocation. The ancient Aryans had no caste system. Aitereya Brahmana says that Brahmans are known as Kshatriya and vice versa.187 There was no Sanyas (renunciation), as the Aryans wanted to live amongst their sons and grandsons, till the end of life.188 The expressions 'Moksha' and 'Sanyas' are conspicuous by their absence in the Rigveda.189 So, the ancient Aryans and their later followers, use to live and enjoy life and were free from caste prejudices. Their way of life was practical and simple, being people of villages, rather than cities. These people used to perform their own yajñas (sacrifices), without the aid of Brahmans (priests). The people of Punjab are called Raja-yajaka (sacrificing kings) in

181. ibid., 1/41/29.

1182. ibid., 1/43/15.

183. Katha Upanishad, 1,2,5.

184. Studies in the Upapuranas, 1958, Vol. I, p. 31.

185. Historical alld Cultural Datafrom Bhavisya Purana, p. 30.

186. Bhavishya Purana, 1/44/24.

187. Aitereya Brahmana, VII, 2 and III, 2.

188. Rigveda, X, 85, 36.

189. Buddha Prakash, P&SM, p. 67,

[p.66]: Mahabharata190 and they are called Kshatriya-yajakas (sacrificing warriors) by Panini.

Jats in West Asia

It is interesting to note that in the seventh century A.D. the Jats were found in Arabia proper also. There is reference to a Jat doctor who treated Ayasha, the wife of Prophet Hazrat Mohammed, when she was ill.191 It is not without historical basis that all the Arabs, on their first arrival on the Indian soil found and fought with the Jats only. That is why the mistaken belief that early Muslim historians applied the term 'Jat' to almost every Indian when they first came into contact/collision with them on the North Western frontiers of India.

The existence of the Jats in the Muslim Arab Empires in the seventh, eighth and ninth centuries is proved by the following four quotations:

"Mohd.Ibn Kassim, the Commander on behalf of the Hajjaj (near about 708 A.D.) was reinforced by the 2,000 select horses sent by the Hajjaj and 4,000 war·like Jats from Siwistan (Sehwan) in India. After conquering a few more strongholds, he seized Multan."192

Here the reference is to the conquest of Sindh by Mohd. Ibn Kassim, the Arab General in 712 A.D. It is well known to historians that the Jats in the Sindh kingdom were divided perhaps because of their brothers fighting on the side of the Arabs. We know that the Jats of the western provinces of Sindh joined with the Arabs, whereas the Jats of the eastern provinces fought with King Dahir.193

The second quotation is taken from the History & Culture of Indian People, and relates to the period 786-809 A.D.

"The Muslim armies from Caliph Almahdi had also to fight with the hardy Jats of Kikanan who are known to have resisted the Arabs as far back as 662 A.D."194

190. MBT, Karna Parvan, 45, 40.

191. D.P. Singhal, India & World Civilisation, Vol. I, p. 145.

192. Majumdar, History & Culture of Indian People, Vol. III, p. 172.

193. See Chachnama, translated by M. K. Beg, p. 124.

194. op. cit., Vol. IV, p. 127.

[p.67]: This third quotation taken from A History of Persia throws light on the kingdoms of the Jats in the Central Asia in the fourteenth century A.D.

"The Governor of Mongolia or Jatah at this period was Tughluk Khan, who on seeing the state of anarchy into which Transoxiana had fallen, determined to annex it. He started on an expedition for this purpose in A.H. 761, (1360 A.D.) and marched on Kesh; Haji Barlas, deeming the odds too great offered no defence and fled to Khurasan (Persia) where he was after wards killed by brigands ... to save the situation, Tamerlane, decided to tender his submission to Tughluk Khan ... in the following years, the Khan of Jateh obtained possession of Samarkand and appointed his son Khoja alias Oghlan to the Governorship of Transoxiana with Tamerlane as his Counselor."195

As mentioned above this dynasty was of the Oghlan clan of the Jats who were Buddhists at that time. It should be mentioned that Khan is not a Muslim title, it is a pre-Muslim Central Asian title adopted by many Buddhist kings. It is derived from Khakan/ Kagan/Khan. This title was being used in India, as late as the fourteenth century A.D. Kalhana's Rajatarangini mentions a king, Alakhan of Gujrat (Punjab), and Jonaraja's Chronicles show that at the time of its capture by Sultan Shihabuddin of Kashmir (1354-1373), the ruler of Udabhaṇḍa (modern Und, near Attock), was one Govinda Khan.196 It is also well known to historians that in 1289 A.D. Jat king Arghun, son of Abaga had proposed to the Christians of Khurasan area, a joint attack on the Muslims who were a new rising power in the Oxus region. It was his successor Ghajan Khan who upon his accession to the throne in 1295 A.D., proclaimed himself a Muslim. He was the first Jat king who embraced Islam, and this marked the beginning of the process of conversion of Central Asia to that faith.

We shall conclude this narration of the existence of the Jats in Muslim Arab Empire with another quotation from the History of Persia, Vol. II :

195. op. cit., Vol. II, p. 1l9.

196. See, Konow's note J in Rajatarangini

[p.68]: "Under the orders of Walid I, at the beginning of eighth century of our era, a large number of Jats, termed Zotts by the Arabs, had been transported with their buffaloes from the lower Indus to the marshes of river Tigris. As soon as they were firmly established there, they began to rob and to kill. By closing the Basra-Baghdad road, they raised the cost of food in the capital and compelled successive Caliphs to send armies to subdue them. Their insolence is expressed in the following poem; preserved in the pages of Taban :

'0 inhabitants of Baghdad, die!
May your dismay last long!
It is we who have defeated you after having forced you
to fight in the open country;
It is we who have driven you in front of us, like a flock of weaklings !'
"Marrum's Generals were unsuccessful in dealing with this elusive scourge and Motasim's first care was to send Ojayf, a trusted Arab General, to subdue these alien people. Ultimately in A.H. 220 (834 A.D.) Ojayf succeeded in his task by cutting their communications. The Zotts surrendered and after being exhibited in boats to the delighted citizens of Baghdad, wearing their national garb and playing their musical instruments, were exiled to Khanikin on the Turkish frontier and to the frontier of Syria, where they proceeded taking with them their buffaloes. These useful animals, they can claim to have introduced in the Near East and into Europe."197

Lalli Jats: Incidentally, the last Jat kingdom of Jabulistan, ultimately destroyed by the Mohammedans, was a kingdom of Lalli clan of the Jats. It is factually and historically wrong to state that the so ocalled Lalli Sahi kingdom was of Brahmin origin which superseded the previous Turk Sahi dynasty of Jauvlas. No Brahman surname has ever been styled as Lalli, whereas they are even now a clan of the Jats. Further no Indian, least of all a Brahman, shall name his sons as Lalli, Turmana and Kamalu, etc., which are the names of the kings of the Lalliya Sahi dynasty. As is well

197. op.cit., Vol.II

[p.69]: known, these names are not Indian and it is unthinkable that the orthodox Brahmans gave foreign names to their children and their dynasty. What really might have happened, was that a Jat kingdom of Jauvla clan was superseded, by another Jat clan, viz., the Lalli Jats. This topic shall be elaborated later in this book. Qanungo on Jats : Qanungo considers them Aryans, but is doubtful about their origin and seems to reject the Central Asian origin of Jats. "The kingdom of Great Getoes whose capital was on the Jazartes, preserved its integrity and name from the period of Cyrus to the fourteenth century when it was converted from idolatry to the faith of Islam. Herodotus informs us that the Gatoes were theists and held the tenets of soul's immortality; and De-Guignes from the Chinese authorities asserts that at a very early period they had embraced the religion of Fo or Buddha ... The Gatoes had long maintained their independence when Tomyris defended their liberty against Cyrus." This is the view of Col. Tod.198 His inscriptional evidence shows the existence of a Jat ruling dynasty in 409 A.D., which was styled as "Jāṭ Kāṭhiḍā". Is this word Kathida a forerunner of Kathiawad? Else what is the origin of the later word?

The following quotation from Qanungo is very illuminating-

"We are told that the Jats were called the Su-Sakas, Abars, and by many other names. The fact is not that the Jats adopted the names of Su-Sakas or Abhirs but that these latter peoples took the tribal designation of the former, their more esteemed superiors. What on earth could induce all these conquering tribes, the Sakas, Yue-chis, the Hunas and other Turkish people to assume such names as 'Yeta, Gaete, etc.? This leads one naturally to suspect that there must be some fascination, some great tradition of nobler blood and higher civilisation associated with the name (Jat)."199

Here Qanungo is fully justified in stating that something nobler and finer must be associated with the name 'Jats'-that is why these people called by various names, took the name Jats as their own. This noble and great name has come down to the historical period from times immemorial. At rapid intervals in

198. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. I.

199. History of the Jats:Dr Kanungo, p. 330.

[p.70]: their history, the Jats established huge empires, embracing major part of Asia and also Europe under one administration. This was so under the Manda Empire with its capital at Ecbatana and this was so under Mao-Dun' and his successors. And it is not correct that non-Jat people adopted the name of Jats. This development was inherently impossible at least in India, because of the Brahminical caste prejudices. As we shall show subsequently also, the Jats never admitted the superiority or hegemony of the Brahmin priestly class and that is why they were never formally converted to Hinduism. It was due to this background that the Jats were considered by the Brahmins, followed by other Indian castes, to be degraded Kshatriyas and even Sudras and they were looked down upon. Not that the Jats ever bothered about it; they were the masters of the situation and holders of practically all the lands and properties and it never affected them as to whether or not they were considered as full-fledged Kshatriyas. But this situation had its effects. It is a well known historical process that people adopt the names of the higher clans and dynasties but never the names of people of a lower social status. The so-called adoption of the Jat names by the Sakas, the Hunas, the Abhirs, could have been understood if they had adopted the names of the Brahmins. But it is not possible or probable for these conquering tribes to voluntarily adopt the name with lower social status in the rigid Hindu fold. We find this process at work even among the Muslims. Many Muslims converted from the lower social classes of the Hindus, connected themselves with the family of Hazrat Ali, Sayyaid etc., although every body knows that they were not of Arabian descent but were Indians. These peoples, namely, the Sakas, the Hunas, called themselves Jats because they were Jats and they never dreamed of changing their names. Therefore, we may say with confidence that Hunas were Indo-Europeans by race, as is supported by recent excavations in Outer-Mongolia, Central Asia and other parts of Asia and Europe. But this does not exclude the possibility of some Mongoloid camp followers, or even mixing of blood. We know for certain that a Jat is proverbially liberal in the choice of life partners - he may take as wife a woman from almost any source. Any woman taken by a Jat is called Jatni, (Jāṭ Ke Āai, Jāṭni Kahalāi). This was, in fact, one of the two major grounds of differences between the Jats and the Brahmin priests.

[p.71]: Thus, we see that the Saka/Scythians, the Kushanas, the white Hunas/Hephthalites, were not only Jats, but were also called Jats, persistently and constantly, by the Chinese at least. Unfortunately, there was no Herodotus in the Oxus valley who could have done justice to the exploits of these brave people, and it is tragic that their very name finds but scant notice in the history of India and Central Asian regions bordering India on the north. This is a kind of historical revenge taken on the Jats; every effort was made to eliminate the word Jat from history, but hats off, at to these brave, hardy and simple living people, who have not only kept themselves but also kept alive their racial name and the names of their constituting clans even to this day. The names that they had 3,000 years ago, are still religiously kept and tenaciously upheld. This in itself is proof enough of their vitality and their will to survive.

To sum up, the name Jat is most probably derived from Yudh/Yodha. That is why the Chinese wrote Yetha/Yeta. The first letter 'Y' later on, changed into 'J' and 'G' and formed Jodha/Judh or Guth/Gota. Therefore, the basic forms are Gut-Goth-Got-Jott and Get-Git-Jit-Jat. In Rajasthan the word is still Jit, and in the words of Hindu Tribes and Castes, "in all the ancient catalogues of the thirty six royal races of India, the name Jit has a place, though by none, is he ever styled 'Rajpoot'." This later statement is based on the fact that Rajputs are but formally Hinduised Jats and Gujars. Those who refused to accept all the conditions and dictates of rigid Brahminical order, were not formally converted and therefore, they remain, to this day, the same Jats, Gujars and Ahirs, corresponding to the Central Asian Getae, Gusur and Avars/Abirs, respectively. That is why, the purely non-Indian, clan names are common to all the three people of Jats, Gujars and Rajputs. For example, let us take the clan name Dahiya. Dahiyas in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bhilwara area of Rajasthan call themselves Jats. Dahiyas in Jodhpur area call themselves Rajputs, and Dahiya is also the clan name of Gujars. The same is true of other clan names like, Tomar, Pawars, Dhankhads, etc. That is why Qanungo was misled into writing that the earlier Jat occupants of the soil were supplanted by the new Rajput immigrants: Parmars displaced Jats in Malwa, Tanwars snatched away Delhi from Dhillon Jats, Rathores

[p.72]: wrested Bikaner and Bhattis took Jaisalmer from Johiya Jats.200 Qanungo forgot that Pawars (Parmar), Tanwars, Bhattis, Johiyas, etc., are found in Jats as well as Rajputs. The replacements of Jats by Rajputs was because of the Brahminical instigations against the former and in favour of the latter, because these 'Rajputs' had been newly converted and it was a case of "youpraise-me-I-praise-you". The Brahmans gave Kshatriya status to 'Rajputs' and wrote Prasastis in their praise, linking them with Rama and Arjuna (Solars-Lunar races), and the Rajputs gave them, in return, handsome Dakshina" and Agraharās.

Jats as known to Panini

V.S. Agarwala in India as known to Panini mentions many Saka tribes who are now found among the Jats. The Puranic Rishikas of the Sakadvipa are mentioned. He also mentions Arjun conquering the Rishikas across the Vakshu (Oxus) river, "which flowed through the Saka country". The Rishikas were later known as Yue-che whose language was called Arsi (Asioi of the Greeks). Agarwala further mentions a number of towns with names ending with Kantha, (the Central Asian-Kand) and comes to the conclusion that these Saka cities in the heart of Punjab in the fifth century B.C., can be explained only by the fact of their arrival in India in pre-Panini times.201 In the second century B.C. it was a second wave of Sakas which came to India and later on as Kusanas. He has quoted Katyayana to show that Sakandhu and Karkandhu-two kinds of wells of the Sakas may be identified as the stepped well (vāpi) and the Persian wheel named Arghattu well respectively. Thus the Sakas of Central Asia were the originators of the stepped well and the Persian wheel well; just as the Kangs were the originators of the canal system in Central Asia in seventh century B.C. Agarwala has also quoted an authority to show that the name of places/cities, ending with Kand are of Scythian origin. Modern Samarkand, Tashkand, etc. are the examples in Central Asia of such towns.202 The well known frontier tribe which fought with the Greeks under Alexander called Katha by the Indians and by Panini and Kathoi by the Greeks are the modern Kathia,

200. ibid.

201. India as Known to Panini, pp. 68-69.

202. See H.W. Bailey, ASLCA, Transactions of Philological Society, 1945, pp.22-23.

[p.73]: Gathwala Jats.203 Another important tribe of the Jats mentioned by Panini is Vrika.204 He has identified the Vrikas with the Persian Varkana mentioned in the Behistun inscription of Darius205 and Varka in the plural form, of the expression Saka Hauma Varka. The country of the Vrikas was called Virkania, (Hyrcania by the Greeks) and was situated on the north of Parthia and East of Caspian Sea. The Persians considered them as Sakas (see Persepolis Tomb inscription). Agarwala also states that in Afghanistan area the word is written as Werk or Wurk. As he rightly mentions, the Virks are a section of the Jats in the Punjab who were originally Scythians.206 This name of the Jats is still existing and their mention by Panini takes their antiquity to fifth century B.C., the period of Panini. A couple of Jat tribes are also mentioned in Kasika. While mentioning the six members constituting the Trigarta confederacy, the Kasika identifies two tribes as Kaundoparatha and Dandaki. Their modern descendants are still called by these names and they are the Kundu and Dandha Jats in India. The Parsvah of Panini are the modern Parsawal Jats. V.S. Agarwala quotes Rig Veda (VIII, 6, 46) to show that they were known at that time also.207 His identification of Paravah with the Persians may well be correct but it only shows the long association of the Parswal Jats with Iran.

Yet another tribe of the Jats called Maharajaki are also mentioned by V.S Agarwala. The Maharajki Jats of Moga area, whose coins have also been found in the same area are physically robust and opposed to subordination.208

It is important to note that deliberate and systematic efforts were made to assimilate the Jats into Brahmanical fold on their arrival in India as conquerors. The famous Vrata Stomas were specifically prescribed for Indianisation of the foreigner Sakas. As mentioned by Agarwala these Stomas were very easy to perform and seem to be a mere formality, so that the foreigners who became overlords of the country may be Hinduised under priestly power. A further process in the same direction was taken by deliberate

203. op. cit., pp. 1-5.

204. ibid., p. 77.

205. ibid.

,,06. ibid., p. 444.

207. Rig Veda, VIII. 6,46.

208. Punjab Gazetteer, Vol. T, p. 453.

[p.74]: attempts at Sanskritisation of their clan name. It was under these processes that the Solgis were called Suliks/Saulikas in the Puranas, etc. The clan name Pawar was similarly changed into Parmar but the most important clan which was thus changed was the Sahrawat. The process under which the Persian title "Satrap" was Sanskritised into "Ksatrapa," was applied to Sahrawat also and this important clan of the Jats was written as Ksaharat (क्षहरात). The well known western Satraps of Saurastra, Kathiawar, Gujrat, Ujjain, Mathura, etc. belonged to this clan. The great Satraps, Chaṣṭan and Rudradaman belonged to the Sahrawat clan of the Jats. Mr Bansi Lal, former Defence Minister of India belongs to this clan. 208. It is well known to the historians that this clan of the Jats was ruling western central India for about 500 years and it was another Jat clan, namely, Dharan, misnamed as Guptas, who under Chandragupta II, Vikramaditya, incorporated these states under central rule.

Kśaharāt : The first letter in both the words Satrap and Saharavat is 'S' and when these words became common in India, both these words were Sanskritised by changing the initial 'S' into 'Ksa' (ar). Therefore the clan name was written as Kśaharāta. But it is a matter of gratification that the Jats have retained almost all their clan names in their original form, and Saharavat is still written and spoken as such. The suffix, wat, is only partly Indianised and it may be original also. We find that another Jat clan is called Gurlet in Central Asia, whereas it is called Gurlawat in India. The Kśaharāt and Sahrawat difference can be explained on this analogy. It is worth noting that E.J. Rapson while mentioning the coins of Satrap Bhumaka, writes both these words with an initial 'Ch' in Kharoshhi script and with an initial 'Ksa' in the Brahmi script.209 A reference to Sten Konow's article will be illuminating. First of all, Konow mentions that the Kusanas were in reality Sakas. While stating this Konow seems to have been dragged into the unnecessary controversy about the difference between the Sakas, Kushanas, Yue-che, etc.210 This controversy is quite futile and needless. There was no difference between

208a. On further enquiry, it is learnt that the clan of Mr Bansi Lal is, not Sahrawat, but Legha (cf James Legge, author of "A Record of Buddhist Kingdoms by Fa-hien" Oxford, 1886)

209. In JRAS, 1904, p. 372.

210. His article in IHQ. 1938, Vol. XIV, p. 137.

[p.75]: these people called by various names. The main point however, that we want to refer to, is the belated and futile attempt by Dr Banerji and Jayaswal to Sanskritise the name of Nahapāṇa into Nahavana or Nakhapana or Nabhahpana. Konow has ably refuted the theories of Dr Banerji and Jayaswal by pointing out that Nahapana is an Iranian word meaning, "people protecting".211 His son-in-law was also named as Usavadata who was son of Dinaka. In the first name the last syllable is 'Data' meaning "Law". And the second name Dinaka is formed from the Persian word "Deena" meaning "religion", from which the modern 'Din' of Din-e-Ilahi of Akbar has been derived. Similarly the name of another Satrap, viz., Chaṣṭan (चष्टान) is also of Iranian origin. It may be related to Pusto word "Chastan" meaning "Master".

Therefore, we see that the names of the Satraps as well as the title itself, are not of Indian origin, despite the efforts made earlier and now, to Sanskritise the same. It is interesting to note that when the Muslims came to India, they took the title of Sultan. But in the Indian records these Muslim Sultans of Delhi were called Sakas and Turushkas and their title was written as Suratrana or Svararatana. Even the name Mohammad was written as Mahamanda. So this process of Sanskritising the foreign name continued even up to the Mughal period (seethe inscription of 1335 V.S. found at Boher, district Rohtak). 212

Therefore the Jat clan Sahravat was sought to be Sanskritised perhaps deliberately and with intention. We find that there is no clan name called Kshaharata in any section of the Indian population. Sten Konow'S idea that it may be a title is not correct.213 Sahravat is not a title but a clan name, originally written as Sahrauta. They now hold 24 villages in Gurgaon district, including the town of Hodal.

The Kangs: The Kang Jats are also a clan of remote antiquity. They are mentioned as early as seventh century B.C. The Chinese mention them as, Kiang-nu. R. Sankrityayana says that the Kangs were branch of Massagetae. 214 He traces the word Massagetae from Massaga which in turn is taken from Mahasaka. In the Ramayana

211. JRAS, 1906, p. 211.

212. JASB, Vol. VLIII, pt. I, p. 108 and EI, Vol. XX, p.79.

213. Op. cit.

214. MAKI, p. 75; also see Bergermann, Les Scythes.

[p.76]: the Mahi-Sakas are mentioned with Rishikas.215 Kasika on Panini says: ऋषिकेषु जात आर्षिक:, महिषिकेषु जात: महिषिक (Arshikas are born of Rishikas and Mahi-Sakas are born of Mahishikas). This also establishes the connection of the Massagetae, viz., the great Jats with the Sakas. About the Kangs, R. Sankritayayana says that the founders of the canal system in Central Asia were the ancestors of the Kangs, viz., Massagetae.216 These canals of the Jats in Central Asia are now being excavated by the Russians. The ancient canals are practically intact, only filled with sand of the nearby deserts. Numerous cities of the Kangs are being uncovered. Coins, images, and even inscriptions of the Kang language have been found in Toprak Kala.217

These findings refute the theories of the barbaric nature and nomadic living habits of the Jats in Central Asia. Cities, languages, coins, images and canals, presuppose a well settled population in seventh century B.C. Of course, as is well known, the Jats had only two professions, viz., war or fighting and agriculture-cum-cattle breeding. That is why they had dug up a huge canal system for irrigation and that is why they had developed the stepped well and the Persian wheel well are mentioned by Agarwala.218 Of course, for grazing the cattle, the people used to cover extensive areas. This habit is still there and we find huge herds of cows, etc., coming to U.P., Haryana and Punjab areas from Jodhpur, Jaisalmer side almost every year during the dry seasons. Therefore, although a large portion of the population was definitely settled in villages and cities, a fairly large section were constantly on the move with their cows and horses and of course, their arms.

According to MAKI, the canals laboriously constructed by the Messagetae were covered by sand in 5th century A.D. or later. These were constructed prior to Akhamenian Empire or Persia and the Kangs refused to be defeated by Cyrus the Great. These canals are now lying in the womb of the desert of Kizilkun. 219 The same author says that Yue-che were linguistically Sakas. Further, Wusun, Saiwang, Kang and Parthian (Pahlva) are dialects

215. Kishkindha Kanda, 41.10. अब्रवंतीम् अवंतीम् च सर्वम् एव अनुपश्यत । विदर्भान् ऋष्टिकान् चैव रम्यान् माहिषकान् अपि ॥४-४१-१०॥

216. op. cit.

217. ibid., p. 162, and Archaeology in USSR.

218. op. cit.

219. MAKI, p. 160.

[p.77]:of Saka language.220 That is why the Chinese traveller, Changkian writes that from Fargana to Parthia, the same language was spoken.221 Parthian was in fact a minor Saka tribe and helped by the Kangs and other clans, the Parthians established their empire up to Caspian sea.222 It was during this Parthian Empire that many Sakas from the Yue-che lands were established in Eastern Iran and the area of their settlement was named after them as Sakasthan, modern Siestan. That is why the Sakas and , the Parthians, though bitterly fighting among themselves outside and inside India also, were treating each other as brothers during peace time. After the start of the Christian era, they gave many royal houses to India such as the Sahravat, the Kasvans, the Dharan (Guptas), etc. And it is not only to India that they gave such royal dynasties. At least three dynasties of China were established by these people. As is well known, a number of Chinese ladies were married by these people and for centuries this process was continued. It was due to the mixing of Chinese blood in this manner that these people acquired in the later periods of history some Mongoloid features.

The Sibia Jats:

This is yet another clan of the Jats which is being mentioned from remote antiquity. The word Sibiya is derived from Sibi, their first ancestor. Rig Veda mentions the Sivas, who fought against Sudasa in the Battle of the Ten Kings.223 They are also mentioned by the scholiast on Panini. Their ancestor Sivi was the son of Usinara.224 Another king of the Sivis was named Amitrat apana. 225

The famous Shorkot inscription mentions their capital city as Sibipura.226 The Shorkot mound in Jhang district (Pakistan) is the sight of Sibipura. It was lying between the rivers Ravi and Chenab in the Punjab.

The Greek writers mention them quite often. Arrian mentions them as Sibai.227 They are also noted by Diodorus. At

220. ibid., p. 186.

221. JAOS, 1917, p. 89.

222. op. cit., p. 189.

223. Rig Veda, VII, 18,7. आ पक्थासो भलानसो भनन्तालिनासो विषाणिनः शिवासः । आ योऽनयत्सधमा आर्यस्य गव्या तृत्सुभ्यो अजगन्युधा नॄन् (VII.18.7)

224. Shrauta Sutra, III, 53/22.

225. Aitereya Brahmana, VIII, 23/10.

226. EI., 1921, p. 16.

227. Indica, V, 12.

[p.78]: the time of Alexander's invasion in 326 B.C., they had 40,000 soldiers under arms, ready to fight the Greeks. Arrian records,

"When the army of Alexander came among the Sibai, an Indian tribe, and noticed that they wore skins, they declared that the Sibai were descended from those who belonged to the expedition of Herakles, (again the connection of Jats with Hercules!) and had been left behind, for besides being dressed in skins, the Sibai carry a cudgel, and brand on the backs of their oxen, the representation of a club, wherein the Macedonians recognised a memorial of Herakles."228

B.C. Law, who gives these references, without identifying them with the Jats of Sibia clan, evades the point by saying, "It seems reasonable to suppose, from the above description of their dress and weapons that the tribe belonged to a racial group not distinctly Aryan.229 Only B.C. Law has the magic power to know the racial features of a people from their weapons and dress! His phrase, "not distinctly Aryan", is without any basis. Were they indistinctly Aryan? They must have come to Punjab in the sixth century B.C., at the time of the fall of Manda empire at the hands of Cyrus the Great, and Darius. Their dress only shows their hardy nature, unspoilt by luxury which makes nations weak and cowardly. Their cows and oxen, show their cattle breeding and agricultural profession, while their army and weapons prove them to be what Panini calls, "Ayudhajivi" (living by fighting).

In India, they first settled on the Chandrabhaga (Chenab) river and later some of them moved to Rajasthan and even towards south along the Kaveri river. The Shivi Jataka No. 499, mentions their king with two cities, named as Aritthapura and Jettuttara. The first is mentioned by Ptolemy, as Aristobothra, in the north of the Punjab.230 The second city Jetuttara is identified by N.L. Dey with Nagri, 11 miles north of Chittor. Alberuni mentions it as Jattararur, capital of Mewar.231 A number of their coins have been found near Chittor, at Madhyamika, and the legends on these coins are "Majhamikaya Sivijanapadasa", i.e., coins of the republic of the Sivis of Madhyamika (Chittor).

228. ibid.

229. Tribes in Ancient India.

230. N.L. Dey, Geographical Dictionary, p. 11.

231. AIS, Vol. 1, P, 202.

[p.79]:The democratic nature of their rule is further indicated by Vassantara Jataka, which shows that the king of the Sibis, banished his own son, Vassantara (वसंतर) in obedience to the demand of his people.

The Mahabharata refers to a Sibi-rashtra (country of the Sibis) ruled by king Usinara.232 According to Pargiter233 Sivi son of Ushinara not only originated the Sibis, but also extended his conquests in the whole of the Punjab, through his four sons, named Urisadarbha, Suvira, Kekaya and Madraka who founded the kingdoms named after their names.234 It was after the names of Suvira and Madraka, that the people of Punjab were called in the Puranas, as Sauviras and Madrakas. The Sibis also migrated to the extreme south of India. The Dasha Kumara Charitam refers to a settlement of the Sibis on the Kaveri river. Varahamihira in his Brihatsamhita mentions a Sivika country in the south. H.C. Ray Chaudhuri identifies the southern Sibis with the Chola ruling family.234

Proof of their being Jats:

The first proof is of course the name itself, Sibi or Sivi, is the original name of their ancestor and Sibiya/Sibia is a derivative meaning the descendants of Sibi. This clan name is only found among the Jats and in no other population group of India. Just like Dahiya from Dahi, Puniya from Puni, Tevathiya from Tevathi so Sibiya from Sibi. These Sibia Jats are still existing. Shri Gurbux Singh Sibia, ex-minister in the Punjab Cabinet is a scion of that ancient clan. The second proof is in the name of their city-Jattararur-which is based on the word Jatta-city of Jats. Incidentally, this is another proof of the fact that Mewar was under the Jats for a very long time. Hence the names of its cities, Jaisalmer, Sikar, Sirohi, etc. The last two are names of the Jat clans also. For the third proof, we will quote from Col. Tod.235

"The Suevis (or Sibai), the most important Getic nation of Scandinavia, erected the celebrated temples of Upsala, in which they placed the statues of Thor, Woden (or Odin) and Friyam-the triple divinity of the Scandinavian Asi -the trimurti of India."

232. MBT, III, 130-131. 17 जलां चॊपजलां चैव यमुनाम अभितॊ नथीम । उशीनरॊ वै यत्रेष्ट्वा वासवाथ अत्यरिच्यत ।। (III.130.17); राज्यं शिबीनाम ऋथ्धं वै शाधि पक्षिगणार्चित (III.131.20);

233. Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, pp. 41,264.

234. H.C. Ray Chaudhuri, Political History of Ancient India, p. 205, f.n. 5.

235. Annals of Rajasthan, Vol. I, p. 56.

[p.80]: Here Sibis are definitely stated to be a Jat nation (Getic).

Euric, the Got, was king of Spain in 466 to 484 A.D., and at that time the Suevis/Sibias were forced to cross over the Mediterranean sea into Africa, by their brother Jats. These facts show not only the identity of Indian Jats, German Gots, and Scandinavian Jutes, but also prove that Jats under the leadership of Suevil Sibi clan also went to Africa from Spain. And the last proof is of course their dress, living habits, cattle breeding and fighting professions, still the main occupation of the Jats. As for the dress of skins, it was the normal dress of Scythian Jats (and others also). Here is a speech of Alexander the Great, addressed to his mutinous Macedonian soldiers at Opis:

"You were destitutes and leather clad. You used to graze sheep and could not save yourselves from the Thracian Getae. In such conditions, my father took you under his protection, clothed you in soldiers' uniform and made you equal to the Getae in the art of fighting."236

236. ibid


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