Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book IV

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Kings of Kashmira

Being A Translation of the Sanskrit Work

Rajatarangini of Kalhana Pandita: Vol 1

By Jogesh Chunder Dutt

1887

London: Trubner & Co.

Book IV

[Invocation to Hara Parvati as usual.]

Durlabhavardhana

[p.61]: Durlabhavardhana: Durlabhavardhana had many children. The queen's bad character was not known to any, and she built a monastery named Anangabhavana. An astrologer predicted that Mahlana, one of the sons of the king, would not live long, so the boy raised a god Mahlanasvami. The king bestowed a village named Chandra near the hill Vishokakota, upon the Brahmanas. He also set up a Hari named Durlabhasvami at Shrinagara, and died after a reign of thirty-six year.

Durlabhaka: His son Durlabhaka by queen Ananga then reigned. He assumed the name of Pratapaditya after the title of the dynasty of his maternal grandfather by whom he was adopted as his son. He had a rich minister named Oda, who built a village named Hanumata for the habitation of the Brahmanas. This powerful king built a beautiful town named Pratapapura, where merchants from many places came and settled ; and among others Nona from Rohita. This Nona built Nonamatha for the habitation of the Brahmanas of Rohita. The king was pleased with him, and invited him, and the merchant passed with him a day and a night amidst entertainments befitting a king. When in the morning the king asked how he was, the merchant complained of headache on account of the smoke of the lamp that was burning in his room. And when after-


[p.62]: wards the king was invited by the merchant, the king saw that a rich stone, instead of a lamp, lighted his room. Astonished at the luxury and riches of the merchant, and being well entertained by his host, the king spent there two or three days.

Durlabhaka fell in love: One day the king saw Shrinarendraprabha, the beautiful mistress [wife ?] of the merchant, and she being alone in the house, the king felt a desire for her. On the other hand the lady's female attendant pointed out the king to her, and she also became enamoured of the king. This mutual love might have sprung up in consequence of the love that existed between them in their previous birth, or through the interposition of cupid. Hid for a abort time behind a pillar, she gazed on the king, and as she went away she frequently looked behind on him. The king returned to his capital, but his constant and anxious thoughts of her made him lean; and though he often rebuked himself, and reasoned with himself, it was all of no avail. " Fie," said the king' to himself, " what a sinful affection has grown up in my heart ! How powerful is love, that it overcomes reason, and reigns in the heart alone ! As a king, I should be afraid of bad deeds, but what sinful temptations have come across me ! If the king himself robs another of his wife, who then shall punish the guilty !" Thus reasoning he could neither leave the path of virtue, nor forget the lady. The king's health gave way, and he was on the point of death. When the merchant heard from the


[p.63]: people of the cause of the king's ill health, he thus privately advised his sovereign. Now that he was reduced to that state, virtue should no longer oppose his will, for when life is in danger, there is nothing that should not be done. In such a state even learned men, whose opinion is authority, have yielded. Life should not be forsaken for reputation, for when a man dies, fame is at an end, " king," continued the merchant, " you need not respect me, for your benefit. I can give up my life, why not then, an object of pleasure? If even now you refuse, to accept the offer, I shall send her as a dancing girl, for she dances well, and then you can accept her." Thus urged by the merchant and by his own affection, the king, much abashed, accepted the lady.

The queen retrieved her character by many great works, she set up a shiva named Shrinarendreshvara. In time she gave birth to a son who was named Chandrapida. This prince by his great virtues cleared the stain of his birth. Often great characters rise superior to their births, even as the white raindrops fall from black clouds. From the blunt hills is derived the sharp steel, and from the cold water springs the sea-fire. She afterwards gave birth to another son named Tārapidā, and a third was born of her named Avimuktāpida. These princes were also called by the names of Vajraditya, Udayaditya, and Lalitaditya.

After a reign of fifty, years the king died.


[p.64]: Chandrapida: His son Chandrapida, otherwise called Vajraditya, ascended the throne : he performed many good deeds, and was a very virtuous king. He equally possessed power and forgiveness, and similar opposite qualifications. He was rich without the concomitant vices ; he equally favored all, and did nothing that frightened his people , and was so modest that he felt ashamed when any one praised him for his good works. He held his ministers under due subjection ; and in disputes he always sacrificed his own interest lest he did wrong to others. He made many clear and just laws. Here must end the description of the virtues of the king for fear of prolonging my narrative.

Land acquisition for temple of Tribhuvanasvami

When building a temple to Tribhuvanasvami, the house of a tanner fell within the boundary marked for the temple, but that man would not give up his house though compensation money was offered to him. At last when the matter was reported to the king, the men in charge of the building, and not the tanner, were hold guilty, and they were censured for want of forethought in having commenced the building without obtaining the consent of the tanner in the first instance. They were told either to reduce the plan of the temple or to build it elsewhere, for he, the king, would not commit the sin of forcibly taking another's land. " For it is our duty," said he, " to administer justice, and if we act unjustly who will act rightly. At this time there arrived a man from the shoe-maker, and was sent to the king by the ministers.



[p.65]: This man said, that the shoe-maker wished to see the king, and if he was held, not fit to enter the court, he requested that he might see the king -when at leisure, and out of his court. Accordingly, on a subsequent day, the king gave audiance to the shoe-maker when out of his court, and asked him if he was the obstacle in the execution of a pious object, namely, the erection of the temple, and added that if he thought his house beautiful, he might have another house still more beautiful, or a large sum of money. Then the shoe-maker replied — "Be not proud, O king, of your learning and experience, but listen to my words according to my judgment. I am meaner than a dog, and you are a great king of the line of Kakutstha, the courtiers will therefore be vexed to see us talking together. The body of the living is brittle, but is strengthened with pride and affection. As you love your body, which is adorned with the ornaments kangkana, hara, and angada, even so we love ours though unadorned. What this handsome palace is to you, that is my hut to me, though through it the Bun penetrates. This hut, like a mother, is witness of my joys and sorrows from my birth, and I cannot bear to see it taken away to-day. The grief which a man feels when his house is taken away from him, can only be known to the god who is ousted from heaven, or to a king who has lost his kingdom. Even after all this, if you come to my house and ask for it, then out of civility I shall give it up to thee." The king went to the shoe maker's. house


[p.66]: and bought it. The good are not vain though possessed of wealth. The shoe-maker clasped his hands together and said, that the condescension of the king and the pains he had taken for the performance of a just act were well befitting him ; and as Virtue had tested Yudhishthira, so he had tested him. He then wished the king a prosperous and long life, doing such holy deeds and living admired by the pious. Thus the sinless king set up the image of Vishnu named Tribhuvanasvami. His queen Prakasha built a large Vihara named Prakashika. Mihiradatta, the spiritual guide of the king set up an image of Vishnu named Gambhirasvami ; and Chhalilaka, the mayor of the city, set up a god named Chhalitasvami for the peace of the town.*

The death of the king occurred owing to some magic performed by a Brahmana. whom the king had punished for murder, instigated by his brother Tarapida. It was from this time that the crime of destroying the lives of superiors by magic began in Kashmira. When the king was at the point of death, the Brahman was brought to him, but the king would not kill him, saying that he was innocent, since he was instigated by another. Who does not feel a pleasure in remembering the forgiveness of this king ? Fate, by a mistake, had sent him to this world with the kings of Kaliyuga, instead of sending him with those of the age of Truth. The Brahmana's intellect be-.


* See Appendix I.

t The sane one whose story is related in Appendix I."


[p.67]: came dull that he had destroyed such a king. This reign, though short, is replete with many virtuous acts. He reigned for eight years' and eight months.

Tarapida: The fierce and angry Tārāpida after murdering his brother succeeded him. The first act of his reign was a war with his enemies, whom he defeated with great slaughter. His prosperity was a source of annoyance to all. Envious of the gods, and thinking that the Brahmanas displayed the glory of the gods, he ceased to punish guilty Brahmanas in order that they might become corrupt. He reigned for four years and twenty-four days. He too was removed by the magic of a Brahmana. Man dies by the same mischief which he devises for others, just as fire gives out smoke to trouble the eye, but the home smoke transforms itself into water and puts out the fire.

Lalitaditya

Lalitaditya: He was succeeded by his youngest brother Lalitaditya. He was a very powerful king, and carried on wars against his neighbours, but did not fight against those who submitted even at the moment of his victory. People fled from the cities which ho attacked, and towns became empty as by miscarriage. Almost the whole of his reign was speent in conquest. He carried his victorious arms to the east. He conquered Gadhipura (Kanyakubja) where the women, were hunch-backed. Yashovarmma, the king of the place, wisely submitted. But the king's servants were prouder than the king, even as the breeze from the sandal trees is more pleasant than


[p.68]: the spring. Yashovarmma unfortunately placed his name before that of Lalitaditya in the document of the treaty which was about to be concluded between the two kings ; which ran thus — "Peace is established between Yashovarmma and Lalitaditya." This offended Mitrasharma, who was minister of war and peace, as he regarded it as a slight to his master. The king who with his army was waiting with impatience, approved of the conduct of his servant in taking offence, and was so pleased with him that he made him head of the fire office': which he created out of eighteen that had existed Before- and in which five departments, Shahi and others were made heads. The five offices are thus named - the Great Constabulary, the Military Department, the great Stable Department, the Treasury, and the Supreme Executive office. Yashovarmma and his family were extirpated. The poets Vākpati, Rājashri and Bhavabhuti, &c,, who were in the court of the king of Kanyakubja, now came over to the king of Kashmira and used to chant songs to him. Kanyakubja, from the Yamuna to the Kalika submitted to him even like the courtyard of his own house.

He marched thence with his army towards the east. He passed Kalingga, where elephants were caught. And then he came to Goura. Thence he reached the Eastern Sea, and pursued his course along the coast towards the south, conquering as he went. Karnāta submitted on his approach. A beautiful Karnāti lady named Ratti who ruled supreme in the south, her territories extending


[p.69]: as far as the Vindya hills, also submitted to him. The army then rested on the banks of the Kaveri beneath the palm trees, drinking the water of coconuts. Thence he marched to Chandanadri. And then the king crossed the sea passing from one Island to another ; and thence marched towards the west, the sea singing the songs of his victory. He then attacked the seven Kramuka and the seven Kongkana which suffered much thereby. His army was anxious to enter Dvaraka situated on the Western Sea. The army then crossed the Vindya hills and entered Avanti where there was an image of Shiva named Mahakala.

Lalitaditya, finding that almost all the kings had been conquered, turned towards the north, and had to fight his way with the haughty kings in that direction. He robbed the king of Kamvoja of his horses. In the mountains of Bhuskhāra the horses of the king became excited at the sight of the horse-faced women of the country. He thrice defeated Dussani and subdued him. He then conquered the Bouttas, and in whose naturally pale colored faces no further sign of anxiety was visible. He also conquered Darad. Here the soft wind charged with the scent of Raindeer cheered his army. Before he approached East Yotishapura, the inhabitants left that place. Here the king saw the forest in fire. His elephants then passed, through a sea of sand. Here was the kingdom of the females, and it was governed by a female and the soldiers became impatient for the women. The queen


[p.70]: submitted and came out to have an interview with the invader, and trembled before him, it is not certain whether with fear or in love. The people of North Kuru fled to the mountains for fear of Lalitaditya.

Rich with the spoils of conquest the king returned to his country. He gave Jalandhara and Lohara and other small provinces to his adherents.

To mark his conquest, he obliged other kings to wear a symbol of subjection, which they bear to this day.

The Turashkas commemorate the fact of their being bound by generally clasping both their hands behind their backs, and, shaving the front part of their heads.

To prove the inferiority of the people of the South, he caused them to wear in their clothes a tail which touched the ground.

Monuments erected by Lalitaditya:

There was not a town or village, or island, or river, or sea, where he did not raise triumphal monuments. These monuments he named according to the event or the time. When he set out on his expedition, he felt certain of conquest, and built a town named Sunishchitapura (सुनिश्चितपुर), or the " City of Certainty." When in his pride of conquest, he built another named Darpitapura (दर्पितपुर), or the " City of Pride," in which he set up an image of Keshava. And when his conquests were over, and he was enjoying the fruits of his victories, he raised another city ' which he named Phalapura (फलपुर) (phala signifying fruit or effect). He completed Parnotsa and built a house for amusement named Krirārāma (क्रीराराम), the name indicating the purpose of the building. In the kingdom of the females he set up an


[p.71]: image of Nrisingha — unsupported by any thing but placed in the air between two loadstones, one above and one below. When be was out in conquest, his viceroy built a town after the king's name, but he incurred the king's anger. In this town of Lalitapura, there was an image of the sun, to which he bestowed the city of Kanyakubja with the adjoining lands and villages. At Hushkapura he built an image of the god Muktasvami and built a large monastery with a stupa for the Buddhists. He set out on his conquest with one koti (ten millions) of current coin. On his return he bestowed eleven kotis to Bhutesha for his purification. He raised the stonehouse of Jeshtarudra and bestowed many villages and lands to it. He also planted a series of machines at Chakradhara to draw water from the Vitasta. Also he raised a strong wall of stone round the temple of the sun. He erected a town adorned with vines, and another for the spiritual benefit of the people, and bestowed it with many villages to god Vishnu.

He built a beautiful town named Parihasapura. Here he set up a silver image of Vishnu, named Shiparihāsa-keshava, and another of gold named, Shrimuktakesuava, also an image of Mahavaraha, the mail of this last image being made of gold. He also set up a silver image of Govardhanadhara. He planted a single piece of, stone fifty-four cubits high, on which was planted a banner, on the top of which he set up an image of Garura. He likewise built a temple of Buddha, which had a square


[p.72]: court-yard, also a chaitya, and a monastery. The image of Muktakeshava was built of eighty-four thousand tolas of gold, that of Shriparihisakeshava was built of eighty four thousand palas of silver. The image of Buddha which he set up was built of eighty-four thousand prasthas of brass. The monastery which had a square court-yard and the chaitya, were built for eighty-four thousand pieces of the current coin. The rich king built gods of gold and silver by the side of the great gods of the country. The jewels, furniture and villages bestowed on the gods were beyond estimation. His queens, ministers and dependent kings also set up hundreds of wonderful images. His queen named Kamalavati, who was very rich, set up a silver image of Vishnu warned Kamalakeshava. His minister Mitrasharma raised an image of Shiva named Mitreshvara ; and Kayya a subordinate king of Lata, built a god named Shrikayyasvami; he also erected a vihara named Kayyavihara, where Sarvvajngamitra a Buddhist attained the purity of Buddha. Another of his ministers named Tuskhārashchangkuna raised a vihara named Changkuna, a stupa high as the mind of a king, and a golden image of Buddha. Ishānadevi, wife of tho minister just named, caused a canal to be dug, whose waters were clear and beneficial to the healthy as to the sick. Chakramardikā, a favourite queen of Lalitaditya, built a town named Chakrapura containing seven thousand houses. A Brahmana named Bhappata set up a god named Bhappateshvara, and


[p.73]: other individuals set up Karkatesha and other gods. The prime minister Changkuna built in another place a vihara with a chaitya; and Ishanachandra the physician and brother to the wife of Changkuna, having obtained wealth through the favor of Takshaka, built a Vihara.*

The king further caused a permanent asylum for the poor to be built at Parihasapura, to which he presented one lac and one plates filled with food. He also caused a town to be built in a barren place that thirsty men might find water, there. He invited prudent men from other countries, and brought Changkuna brother of Kangkanavarsha, an alchemist, from Bhuskhara. The king exchanged with this man a statue of Buddha which he brought from Magadha for certain jewels of mysterious properties. This statue Changkuna placed in the monastery which he built, and can be seen to this day, surrounded by iron railings.

The king who was a good horseman, once rode to the woods to break a new horse. There, in a solitary part of the forest, he found a beautiful woman singing, and another dancing. When they had finished their works, they bowed and went away. The king for some days continually went to the same place, riding on the same horse, and saw the same sight. One day, being questioned by the astonished king, the girls replied, that they served, in a temple, and lived in the village of Shukhavardhamana,


* See Appendix J

† See Appendix K


[p.74]: and according to the instructions of the matrons of the place, they danced there. " Tradition speaks of a temple in this place, nor can we, nor any one else say more as to why the temple is invisible." The king heard this and caused the place, pointed out by them, to be dug. After an excavation had been made, the king on being informed by the diggers, came there and saw a dilapidated temple with closed doors. And when, the doors were opened, he found two old images of Keshava, and an inscription to the effect that they were built by Rama and Lakshmana. By the side of the temple of Parihasakeshava, the king built a separate house of stone where he placed Ramasvami, one of those two statues. His queen Chakramardiki asked for the other statue Lakshmanasvami from the king, and placed it beside Chakreshvara.

Lalitaditya and minister of the king of Sindhu

When the king set out in his wars, a man with fresh wounds laid himself down before the elephant on which the king rode. His hands were scratched, and his nose wounded and bleeding, and he begged hard to be saved. The kind-hearted king asked what had happened to him. He replied that he was the faithful minister of the king of the sandy Sindhu, and that he was beaten by the king because he advised him to submit to Lalitaditya. The king of Kashmira determined to chastise the king of Sindhu, and caused good surgeons to attend, on the ex-minister. The ex-minister told the king that after suffering the injury he had received, he did not care to



[p.75]: live, except for the sake of vengeance, and that when he was revenged, it was fitting that he should die, bidding farewell to the joys and griefs of this world. " But it is meet," said he, " that I should injure him more than he has injured me. How can you," he then continued, "reach that country sooner than in three months, or reaching his country, how will you maintain yourself against him? I will show you a way by which you can reach that country in half a month, but no water can be had by that route, so you will have to carry water for your army. My friends there will give no alarm of your approach, so you will be also to capture the king with his ministers and his females." Thus saying, he led the king's army and entered a sandy desert. When fifteen days were past, the store of water became exhausted. Still the king pressed on for two or three days more, but finding that the soldiers were suffering from want of water, he said to the guide that more days had passed in the way than he had mentioned, and that the soldiers were almost dying for want of water. He then asked how much of the way was yet remaining. Then replied the guide smiling, " Askest thou of the way to the country of your majesty's enemy, or to that of Death? For the benefit of my master I have disregarded my life, and have devised this plan, and have brought you and your army to the way of death. This is not merely a barren place, but a terrible sea of sand, no water can be had here, who will save you


[p.76]: to-day?" Hearing this speech, the whole army became motionless like a shali crop destroyed by hail stone. The king heard the lamentations of the frightened soldiers and lifted his hand to stop their cries and said, " I am glad, ! minister, to see your devotion to your master, but on me your deception is in vain, as the blow of the iron on the stone Vajramani ; and you will now grieve for your falsehood as one does who grasps a flame mistaking it for a jewel. As the sound of a thunder opens the Vidura ground, so look at my order -waters will spring from underneath tho ground." The king then began to dig the earth with a kunta ; and as Shiva with his spear made the Vitasta flow, there he brought out from patala, a river the life-hope of his soldiers, which relieved them.

The ex-minister of the king of Sindhu, his labours now being abortive, and wounded as he was, returned to the country of his master, where Death entered after him; for the king of Kashmira defeated the wily king of Sindhu, reduced him to the condition in which his minister had appeared before him, and devastated his country. The river Kuntavahini, which the king struck out in the desert, and which ran according to the wants of the king through various tracts, is still flowing in Uttarapatha.

Though there are thousands of wonderful anecdotes of this king, I do not narrate them for fear of lengthening the history. Time and country give some traits to the character even of the great; as even noiseless and deep rivers clatter when passing over rocks, and their clear


[p.77]: water is turned muddy in the rainy season. Is it the fault of Kaliyuga, or of the throne that even this prince showed some bad traits in his character?

Once, when dwelling at Parihasapura in the company of his women and intoxicated with wine, he told his ministers that if they wished to increase the beauty of his city, they should burn Pravarapura, the city built by king Pravarasena. His orders could not be disobeyed, and the ministers hurried to the place and set fire to the dry grass and heaps of grain at Vātulānaka. The king saw from his palace the burning flames and laughed loudly. Even a good man, when filled with envy, sees things belonging to others, as more plentiful than they really are ; as the eye afflicted with Timira sees moon &c, double. For if it were not so, why should this king, who built numberless cities, consider the single one built by Pravarasena to be fit to be destroyed. But when he became sober he grieved at the sin committed in burning the town. Grief in the heart corrodes the body as long as life remains, like fire within the hollow of a dried-up tree. On the morning when his ministers saw him repenting, they removed his grief by assuring him that they did not burn the town. The king was glad to learn this fact, as one is to see his son whom in dream he thought he had lost. He then praised his ministers, and instructed them not to obey him, when he issued orders under the influence of wine. The world is like a woman of the town, and the king



[p.78]: like her temporary lover. Fie to those who for their own pleasure want to please such a king ; but those who disregarding life, prevent the king from following a wrong way, hallow the world.

On another occasion the king assured the king of Gaura of his safety by the god Shriparjhasakeshava, but afterwards caused him to be murdered by wicked men at Trigrāmi. The people of Gaura were then very powerful, and for the death of their king they were ready to give up their lives. Some of them entered Kashmira under tho pretense of visiting Sarasvati, and having collected themselves into a body besieged the temple of Parihasakeshava. The king was not then in the city, and the priests seeing that they intended to get an entrance, shut up the gates of the temple. On the other hand the people of Gaura seeing Ramasvami, whose temple stood by the side of the other, built of silver, and mistaking it to be Parihisakeshava, tore it from its seat and broke it to atoms, scattering the pieces on every side. They were, however, overtaken by the soldiers who were in the city, and were killed at every step. They were cut to pieces — their sable bodies besmeared with blood fell on the ground. Thus they lied nobly for the love of their king. What cannot gallant men do? They came all this distance, and perished for the death of their king. Even Vidhata cannot exhibit such heroism. And at that age kings had several such devoted and powerful servants, The favourite god Parihasakeshava


[p.79]: was thus saved by the destruction of Ramasvami. The place of the latter is vacant to this day, but the glory of tho heroes of Gaura fills the whole world.

Thus passed the days of the king; the greater part of his reign was spent outside his kingdom. Anxious to see no one but himself king in the world, he again led an expedition against Uttarapatha. The orders of this king were obeyed in realms where the sun did not shine. The ministers for a long time had no intelligence of him, and the messengers whom they had sent returned with the following message from the king. — " What a mistake it is on your part to expect my return when. I have entered these regions? What business have I to enter my own kingdom leaving behind the new kingdoms which I conquer every day? The river issuing from its source terminates in the sea, but the career of him who conquers for the sake of conquest has no termination. I am instructing you what you have to do, and reign accordingly. Let not the great men of the country effect a quarrel among you, for like atheists they have no fear of the future world. The people who dwell in the caves of mountains should be punished even without fault, for if they can get money and fortify themselves they will turn out formidable. Let not the villagers get grain more than would suffice them for one year, and let; them have no more bullocks than what is required for cultivating their lands, for if they gain more than they require for the year, these cruel Dāmaras will become powerful


[p.80]: enough to set aside the orders of the king, and shall become strong before the sovereign can know of it. When the villagers have clothes, wives, eatables, elephants, ornaments, horses and houses like the citizens; when kings neglect to watch important forts ; when they are not able to know the hearts of their servants; when the jigeers are granted to soldiers in one district only ; when the Kayasthas are united to one another by marriage ; when kings see their officers behaving like Kayasthas; then you will know for certain that the people's lot is going to be changed for the worse. After careful consideration follow my advice, and let not outsiders know of this. As by scent the nearness of an elephant is known, and by lightning that of the thunder-clap, so by one the heart of man can be ascertained. My sons Kuvalayāditya and Vajrāditya are the same to me, but being born of different mothers, there is difference in their intellect. The elder should be anointed when he is strong, still if it be necessary you may disobey his orders. If he leaves his kingdom, or commits suicide, remember my words, let none of you be grieved. My younger son you should not raise to the throne, or if you do never disobey him. And though he be oppressive still you should guard him. To my youngest grandson, the boy Jayāpira, yon should always say, 'be like your grandfather.'"

The ministers, understanding his purpose and despairing of his return, bowed to his orders and wept. One


[p.81]: day Changkuna after much weeping said to the poople — " Anoint Kuvalayipira, for the king is dead." He learnt the foot by magic ; for though the minister was at a distance yet by force of good fortune he could accomplish difficult things. Although the sun be clouded, yet expands the lotus ; though the clouds be at a distance, yet they cool the sunbeams. The great have some secret powers, not apparent to others, by which they can effect difficult things from a distance. The king died after a reign of thirty-six years, seven months and eleven days. Some say he perished at Aryanaka by an untimely fall of heavy snow. Some again maintain that in order to keep up his glory he burnt himself when in a danger. Again, there are others who are of opinion that he with his army entered the abodes of the gods through Uttarapatha. As the history of the acts of this king is strange, so also is the history of his death. When the sun sots, some say he enters the sea, others say he enters into fire, some again say, that he goes to another world. Even so when the great are dead the tidings of their death proclaim their greatness.

Kuvalayāpira

Lalitaditya was succeeded by Kuvalayāpira born of queen Kamaladevi. He ennobled his royalty by charity, as the serpent brightens his skin by casting off his old slough. His reign was for a short time darkened by his quarrel with his equally valiant brother. The quarrel for some time remained undecided owing to their dependants very often changing sides for money. At last the


[p.82]: king overcame his younger brother and also the dependants who took money from- both sides. Now, having maintained peace in the kingdom, and gaining strength, he was ambitions of making foreign conquests. But at this time one of his ministers, either remembering the instructions of the late king, or through pride, disobeyed Kuvalayipira ; at which he was so angry that he could not at night sleep even for a moment, and thought not only of killing him but several of his partisans. But afterwards when his anger was assuaged, he wondered how he had ever thought it fit to take so many lives. And he thus questioned himself — " Who ever lives in peace after committing crimes for the sake of self? What reasonable man wants to violate the path of virtue for his ungrateful person ? None takes notice of the changes time brings on him. The immortal beings laugh at us, for they found us yesterday thoughtlessly laughing in childhood ; to-day they see our beards grown and our faces looking red like copper in anger; and to-morrow they will behold our countenance and hair disfigured like the head of an old goat." Thus thinking on the mutability of man, and valuing peace, he left his kingdom and went into the woods of Plakshaprasravana. At the time of his departure he wrote on his seat the following line which show his asceticism—" Go to the woods, fix your mind in devotion, for the riches you see are perishable, and of short duration." This seer-king may be seen by the


[p.83]: good even to this day at Shri hill and other places. When the son of his master thus left the kingdom, the minister Mitrasharmma with his wife drowned himself for grief in the waters of Vitasta. This king reigned for one year and fifteen days.

Vajraditya: Him succeeded his brother Vajraditya also called Vappiyaka or Lalitaditya, born of queen Chakramardika. The cruel temper of this king contrasted strangely with the gentle character of his brother. He robbed Parihasapura of many gifts with which his father had adorned it. This luxurious King had many females in his zenana. He sold many people to the Mlechchhas, and introduced their evil habits. After reigning seven years this vicious king died of consumption, the effect of his debauchery.

Prithivyapira: His son Prithivyapira by queen Mangjarikā, then came to the throne. He was a great persecutor of his subjects, and reigned for four years and one month.

Sanggrāmāpira: He was dethroned by his step brother Sanggrāmāpira born of queen Massa. This prince reigned only seven days. These two kings did not benefit the kingdom.

Jayāpira

Jayāpira: After the death of Sanggrāmāpira, Jayāpira the youngest son of Vappiya or Lalitaditya, ascended the throne. This prince remembered the words of the ministers, " Be like your grandfather," which they used to repeat to him according to the direction of king Lalitaditya I, and being ambitious of conquest, he collected an army and set out of his country. Arriving at the gate of Kashmira with his feudatory chiefs, he asked the old


[p.84]: men there as to the numerical strength of the army with which his grandfather had set out. The old men smiled and said, "What is the use of asking that question ? For that which was then accomplished cannot be repeated again. He had one lak and twenty-five thousand litters of war with him, while you have only eighty thousand." But the king did not think the conquest of the world difficult with the army he had collected, as he thought times had much changed since the days of his grandfather. The old men found in him the spirit of his grandsire. When the king had gone far out of his country, his wife's brother rebelled and ascended the throne of Kashmira. On the other hand, many soldiers who had not much loyalty in them, and longed for home, daily deserted his army and returned to their country. Thus deserted, yet resolved to show his personal valor, the king made a solemn vow. Through his pride which was not yet humbled, he surmounted the frowns of fortune.

Jayāpira went to Prayaga: Sending his feudatory kings who followed him, to their respective countries, he with a few followers went to Prayaga. There having ascertained the number of his horses, he presented one lak minus one to Brahmanas with rich offerings. And there on the banks of the Ganges he erected a monument marked with his name, and an inscription to the effect that he who should be able to present one lak of horses might pull down Jayapira's monument, and erect his own. The Ganges still laves with its waters the


[p.85]: monument marked with the name of Jayapira.

In the city of Paundravardhana: He then ordered his soldiers to return home, and separating him-self from them, went out alone one night, and entered the city of Paundravardhana, the possession of Jayanta, the king of Gaura.

Long peace had made the citizens rich which it gave him, delight to see. The king know dancing, and naturally enough wished to see a dance, and entered the temple of Karttikeya. For a time he sat on a stone at the door of the temple. He had an air of majesty in him which, the people perceived and wondered, and they moved abide from him. It so happened that the dancing girl Kamala, saw with wonder the beautiful king, and his uncommon mein. She also marked that he frequently touched his shoulders and concluded that he must be some great man travelling over the world in disguise. " May be," she thought, " he is a king or a king's son or born of some high family who is accustomed to take betel from behind him, since he is frequently touching his back. The elephant shakes his ears though there be no black bees, the lion looks behind as he goes though there be no elephant near, the peacock dances though the clouds be dispersed; thus habit makes one work though there be no cause for so working." Thus thinking she made a sign to a bosom friend of hers, bidding her to approach the king; and when he placed his hand on his back as before, Kamala's friend placed a betel there, which the king took, and


[p.86]: putting it to his mouth looked back and saw her. He asked her by a movements of his eyebrows who she was. She replied his question. He was pleased with her sweet conversation ; and when the dance was over, she accompanied him to Kamala's house. The king was struck with Kamala's courteous behaviour, her tenderness and beauty. Now when the moon had risen, she took her guest by the hand, and led him to her bed room. There lying on a golden couch, the girl, drunk with Maireya wine, practised her arts on the king, but he did not touch her. And when she became ashamed of her forwardness, the king clasped her to his bosom, and gently said : " It is not, ! beauteous-eyed, that you have not touched my heart, but owing to my present misfortunes I am obliged to offend thee by not responding to your caresses. I am your servant, your simplicity has bought me, and you will soon know my history, and then, excuse me. Know that I have vowed not to enjoy pleasures till I have done my task." So saying he played a tune with his fingers on the couch, and sighed and recited a verse : " Whose lust of conquest is not satisfied, can he think of woman ? The sun does not come to his spouse in the evening without conquering the whole world." When he had finished the recitation, the girl took him to be some great man. On the morning when, the king was about to depart, Kamala requested him not to go, and gave him a lodging in her house.

Once the king went out to a riverside to perform his evening prayer, and it was late when he returned, and


[p.87]: found tho whole household extremely anxious on his account. When he asked the cause of their anxiety, Kamala smiled and said : — " At night there comes a great lion which kills many lives ; day by day it destroys man, elephant, horse, and you being late we were apprehensive of your safety. Be he king or prince, no one stirs from his house at night." The king smiled at her tale. That night passed, the king went out of the city next evening, and waited beneath a large Banyan tree for the lion. From a distance he spied the animal looking like the very smile of Yama moving about. He shouted in order to draw the attention of the boast, and at that deafening noise, the lion yelled and approached, his mane shaking, his eyes burning, and his ears erected. He lifted up the forepart of his body and opened his mouth. The active king thrust his hand up to the elbow into the mouth of the lion, and cut inside his chest. The lion vomited blood and died of that single stroke. The king washing his blood, and hiding the wound in his elbow, slept as before in the house or Kamala. In the morning king Jayanta heard that the lion had been killed, and urged by curiosity, went out to see it. There, he beheld the huge carcase of the animal killed by one single person, and felt sure that he who had destroyed it was more than man. He was, however, surprised when a follower of his gave him a keyura [an ornament worn, on the upper arm] taken out from the mouth of the lion, marked with the name of Shrijayapira.


[p.88]: How came he here? Asked the king, and the city became alarmed at the information. After assuaging the fears of the citizens, king Jayanta thus addressed them — "Why are you afraid, O men of little sense, now that you should be glad? It is rumoured that for certain reasons the powerful king Jayapira is travelling in the world alone under the false name of prince Kallata. I have no son," continued the king of Gaura " and am resolved to marry my daughter Kalyanadevi to him. " He ought to be sought after, and if he be found without seeking, it will be as one who seeks for jewels and finds the island where there are all precious stones. He must be in this city, and he who will be able to give any information about him will obtain in return whatever he desires." The citizens, trusting in the word of their truthful king, made search after Jayapira, and at last informed Jayanta that the king of Kashmira was stopping in the house of Kamala. The king with his ministers and his ladies came to the place, and with due attention conveyed him to his palace. And then he married him to Kalyanadevi. Jayapira then subdued the five kings of Gaura, and made his father-in-law paramount over them. The army which he had left behind under the command of Devasharmma, the son of Mittrasharmma, the minister of his grandfather, joined him : and at the request of his general he returned to his country with his wife and Kamala. On his way he defeated the king of Kanyakubja, and took away from him his splendid throne.


[p.89]: His brother-in-law Jajja usurped his throne:

When he entered Kashmira, his brother-in-law Jajja, "who had usurped his throne, came out against him. An obstinate battle was fought for several days at the village of Pushkaletra. During these days the dwellers of the villages and forests who could not brook the usurper, flocked to Jayapira, who was beloved of his subjects. In the course of the battle, one Shrideva, a villager, and a Ghandila by caste, sought for Jajja. They pointed out to him Jajja riding on horseback in the thick of, the battle, but being thirsty he was drinking water from a golden vessel. " Now Jajja is killed by me," cried out Shrideva as he struck him with a stone tied to a tiling. When he had set out for battle, he had said to his mother that he was going to help the king, and had asked for food. His mother laughed, but he resolved to kill Jajja. Jajja's army seeing him struck down to tho ground with stone, and motionless, left; him dying. Thus he reigned foe three years in the kingdom which lie gained by rebellion. He lived in anxiety, dreading the arrival of his powerful foe. The riches of merchants last not, if they appropriate what is entrusted to them, nor of prostitutes, if they deceive their paramours nor of kings, if they get the kingdom by rebellion. After the death of Jajja, Jayapira reigned, and by his good works he attracted the hearts of the good. His queen Kalyanadevi bounded a town named Kalyanapura on the field of her husband's victory. The king founded A city named Mahlānapura, and set up a large image of Keshava,


[p.90]: and Kamala also raised a city named Kamala after her name.

Improvements in the kingdom: The king made several improvements in the kingdom. He introduced such sciences as were long forgotten in the country, even as Kashyapa brought the Vitasta, and encouraged his subjects to cultivate learning. He invited learned men from other countries and employed them in collecting the fragments of Patanjali's commentary , on the annotations of Katyayana on Panini's grammatical aphorisms. The king himself used to take lessons from Kshira, a Professor of Grammar. He never liked nor tolerated self-praise, but valued the praise of the learned. The title of pandita was more prized in his reign than that of the king. He listened to whatever learned men said, and so the inferior kings who had any favor to ask crowded in the houses of the learned. Such was his assiduity to get together learned men, that men of lore became scare in the courts of other kings. In Shukradanta's house of charity, where boiled rice was distributed, one learned man named Thakriya was made the head. Another learned man named Udbhatabhatta was made the president of his court on a daily pay of one lak of diniras. He made Damodaragupta a poet, who had the art of procuring women, his principal minister. The poets of his court were Manoratha, Shangkhadatta, Chataka and Saudhimāna; and his ministers were Vamana and others. Once the king dreamt, when in deep sleep, that the


[p.91]: sun was rising from the west, and he knew thereby that some virtuous panditas had entered his kingdom. This noble and eloquent king appreciated learning in which he took so great a pleasure. What joys can those kings feel, who, like blind balls, are bent only on satisfying their appetites. As the embrace of the wife who is determined to fellow her lord to the other world, is to the dead when placed on the funeral pyre ; as the juice of the sugarcane is to one who has lost his taste by Mahamoka , disease; as the went of the garland is to the dead; even so is tho grandeur of learning to the senseless.

Rakshasas from Ceylon: The king once ordered one of his messengers to get five Rakshasas from Ceylon. The messenger who was none other than his minister for war and peace, fell over-board the vessel, and was swallowed by a Timi fish ; but he tore the bowels of the fish and reached the shore. Vibhishana, king of Ceylon, gave him five Rakshasas and sent him back to his country. The king bestowed much wealth on the messenger, and caused the Rakshasas to fill up a deep tank, and build a fort named Jayapura which equaled heaven in beauty. The king set up three large images of Buddha, a monastery, and an image of a goddess named Jayadevi in that town. He also set up images of Rama and his brothers, and of Vishnu reposing on a snake. Some say that the king caused, the tank to be filled up by his workmen, and employed the Rakshasas in doing some other work.

Acha of Mathura:

Once the king dreamt that Vishnu asked him to cause a city


[p.92]: like Dvaravati to be built surrounded by water, and he built a town so surrounded, which the people, even so , this day, call Abhyantarajayapura. In this city, Jayadeva, who was at the head of the five departments [mentioned before] built a monastery ; and A'cha, the son-in-law of Pramoda the king of Mathura, who was subject to the king of Kashmira, set up an image of Mahadeva named A'cheshvara.

The king again set out for conquest. He had a large army with him; his elephants appeared as a continuation of hills as far as the sea, and his army stretched from the Himalaya to the Eastern Hills. At night Summuniraja, and others with the Chandalas kept watch over the army. The king adopted the name of Vinayaditya and founded a city in the east named Vinayadityapura.

King entered the fort of Bhimasena, king of the East:

Kings may be great and brave and persevering, yet sudden dangers often render their fortunes doubtful. Once disguised as a hermit, the king entered the fort of Bhimasena, king of the East. He was, however, recognized by Siddha, brother of Jajja, and understanding that the king had come as a spy, he gave information to Bhimasena who, all of a sudden, captured, and confined him. Here fate overcame the efforts of man. Jayapira, however, did not lose his presence of mind in this great danger, and began to plan his escape. It so happened that, at this juncture, a disease caused by spiders, broke out among the people of Bhimasena. The disease was contagious, and fatal in its effect, and persons


[p.93]: attacked with it wore deserted by their fellows. Jayapira heard of this, and caused his men secretly to bring something that increased bile ; he ate it and had an attack of fever and applying the juice of Vajra [a species of Euphorbia] he produced eruptions on his body. Now the guards reported to Bhimasena that the king of Kashi infra had an attack of what they thought to be the prevailing disease, and Bhimasena apprehending danger therefrom, sent out Jayapira. Thus effecting his escape, he captured the fort.

Nepala King Aramuri in war with Jayapira: Aramuri, the learned and wily king of Nepala, wished to engage himself in war with Jayapira. When the king of Kashmira entered Nepala, Aramuri collected his army, and without submitting retired before tho army of Kashmira, Jayapira not caring to fight with other kings, pursued Aramuri through various countries like a falcon that follows a pigeon, sometimes gaining and sometimes losing sight of his enemy's army. Having conquered the countries around, he encamped with his soldiers by the side of a river that flows into the sea within a short distance. Thence he continued his march towards the Eastern Sea for two or three days, his banners flying in the breeze which came from the sea. After which he got within sight of the Nepala army encamped on the southern bank of the river, under the Nepala umbrella. The anger of Jayipira was roused at the eight of the army of the enemy, and on hearing their notes of war. And finding that the water in tho river was only knee-


[p.94]: deep, and not knowing the nature of the place, he descended into the river. When he had gone half way, the flood tide came in, and immensely increased the bulk of the water, the place being near the sea. His army consisting of men, nagas, horses, elephants, were borne away by the current. The king's ornaments and clothes were swept away, and he was carried by the stream to a great distance, but he kept himself above water by swimming. The cries and shrieks of the army, mixed with the roar of the waters, filled all sides. At this opportunity the king was quickly picked up by the enemies by means of leather bag, and thus to their great joy he was captured. The favors of Fortune and of clouds own no law, for Fortune often bestows great favors, but in the next moment causes mishap ; and clouds, while assuaging the heat of a long summer day, hurl down thunderbolts. The king of Nepala confined him in a high stone-built house on the banks of the Kālagandikā, and appointed his faithful guards to watch over him. The king of Kashmira once more in danger, and not knowing what to do, burnt with grief. The confinement was so strict that neither the moon nor the sun could see him. But by some means he saw that the river was nigh, and he planned his escape. Even to this day the kind-hearted punditas remember the lines which the king then composed regarding his condition.

Devasharmmā, the proud minister of Kashmira, was grieved to think of the humiliation of the king, and de-


[p.95]: termining to rescue his master at the risk of his life, sent a sweet-tongued messenger to Aramuri, and offered to give up to the king of Nepala the wealth and the kingdom of Jayapira. And when messengers from Nepala came to him, and arrangements were made, he with the Kashmirian army entered Nepala. He reached the Kālagandikā, left his army on its banks, and crossed the river with only a few followers. He was introduced into the Nepala court by the feudatory kings, and was well received by the king who caused him to sit down in his presence. But as he was weary with travelling, the king soon dismissed him, Devasharmma came to his lodgings and there passed the remainder of the day. On the next day, he and the king after drinking retired to privacy to settle their affairs. The minister told the king of Nepala that the accumulated wealth of Jayapira was with the army, the fact being known to the king of Kashmira alone, and to some of his faithful officers. " I wish to hear from the king of Kashmira," continued the minister, "where he has kept these treasures, by holding out to him the hope of his being set free if he would give them up. I have not therefore brought the army here, for if they to whom the riches are entrusted be with the army, it will be impossible to get the treasures. But if the soldiers be brought here one by one and seized they may give out the secret" Thus deceiving the king of Nepala, he with the king's permission went to Jayipira. He was grieved to see the king,


[p.96]:and clearing the room of all others, asked his master if he still kept up his spirits. "You may succeed," said he, " if your courage fails thee not." "When I am thus unarmed," replied his master, " what can I do though I possess courage." "If your courage has not been "lost," rejoined the minister, " the danger can be got over. You can leap from this window, and cross over to the other side, for the army that is there is yours." " Without a leather bag," said the king, "the river cannot be crossed, and if a leather bag be thrown from this height, it will burst, so your plan is useless ; and after being thus humiliated I do not wish to die without first chastising the foe." "Wait for two dandas," said the minister, " and then come alone and you will see the plan I propose to cross the river, and follow it without fear." The king then retired and passed the usual time out of the room, then entering it alone he found his minister lying dead on the ground, with a piece of cloth tied round the neck; and on it was written the following sentence — " I am but dead to-day, my body is stuffed with air, and will be for you a leather bag which will not break ; ride on me and cross the river. I have tied a cloth round my thighs, thrust your legs within it up to your thighs." The sentence was written in the blood of his body, which he had taken out with his nails. At first the king was surprised and grieved at the sight, but after a while he availed himself of the opportunity, and plunging into the stream, reached the


[p.97]: opposite bank. There, being master of his army, he, within a short time, destroyed the king of Nepala, and overran his country, even before his guards knew of his escape. It is strange that the hour which gave birth to the rebellious Jajja, gave birth also to the virtuous Devasharmma who was like his father Mitrasharama? The king in spite of his victories thought every thing lost, because of the death of his minister, who was to him like the strange jewel, the possessor of which cannot be killed. In his conquests, he forgot his humiliation, but he could not forget his minister.

The king then conquered the country of women, but prided more on his conquest over his passions on that occasion. From this kingdom he brought the seat of Karna. He raised a building for the court of justice ; and being distant from his treasury, he created another treasury office, which accompanied him in his march and was called Chalaganja, or travelling treasury. His kingdom extended to the four seas. He again returned to his country, and surrounded by his feudatory kings, enjoyed the glory he had attained.

The king discovered a copper ore* in a hill at Krama, from which he brought copper, and caused one hundred koti minus one dinnaras to be struck in his name. He alone, the king prided, who will strike a hundred koti coins will beat^nie. Thus he ruled to destroy the


* See Appendix L.


[p.98]: pride of kings, and left a task to be accomplished by other princes.

King oppressed his subjects:

Unfortunately for his subjects, the king left the path of his grandsire, and walked in that of his father. The Kayasthas advised him that it was useless to undergo the fatigues of foreign conquest when he could accumulate wealth in his own country. The king took their advice, and began to oppress his subjects. Shivadasa and others of his treasurers excited his cupidity. Thenceforth he spent tho revenues of Kashmira according to his pleasure, and as advised by the Kayasthas. The devices by which he had conquered other kings, were now employed to enslave his own men. The measures which had formerly been intended for the comfort of the good, were now adopted for the oppression of the people. He murdered many persons ; and excepting those who flattered him, no one spoke well of him, even in dream. Prostitutes and kings both commit sins : the one cruelty and the other fickleness. Their senses are obscured by sins, The one is not grieved even to kill his parents, the other to embrace low men. In this way the king reigned for three years with such cruelty, and plundered even the cultivator's share of the harvest. His gain over-turned his senses; he considered the Kayasthas his friends, though they gave him but a small share of the plunder, appropriating to themselves the rest. Even Brahmanas who always have great patience, began to oppose the king. Some of them fled from the country


[p.99]: as the king began to kill many of them. ; but at last they combined and stood together, and the king could not destroy them, though he continued to plunder them. The king's character was greatly changed, and he was spoken ill of in poetry by the panditas. The cruel king once ordered that ninety-nine Brahmanas should be killed in one day. And when he was sitting on the banks of the Chandrabhaga after having forcibly taken possession of Tulamula, he was informed that ninety-nine Brahmanas had, perished in the 'waters' of that river. From that time he, ceased to take possession of lands granted to Brahnianas, but he continued to take possession of those possessed by men of other castes.

The Brahmnnas who dwelt at Tulamula once came to say something to the king, but were struck in his presence by his door-keeper, and consequently were very angry. " Brahmanas were never insulted before, even in the presence of Manu, Mandhata, Rama and other great kings ; " they said, " and when angry they can destroy in a moment the heaven with Indra, the earth with her mountains, and the nether world with its Naga — chief." The king who would not ask for advice, and was deseertd by his feudatory kings, replied with supercilious pride. "You cunning people who eat by begging, what pride is this of yours that you pretend to do what the Rishis did." The Brahmanas were cowed down by his frown, but one Iitti thus replied: "We conduct ourselves according to the times, as you are a ;


[p.100]: king, even so we are Rishis." The king scornfully enquired: "Art thou the great Rishi Vishvamitra or Vashishta or Agastha?" And, as if flaming with anger, the other replied, " If you he Harishchandra, Trishanku or Nahusha, then I am one of those you mention." The King then answered with a smile, " the curse of Vishvamitra and others destroyed Harishchandra, &c, what will your anger effect? " The Brahmana struck the earth with his hand, and said, " will not my anger bring down Brahmadanda on thee?" Then said the angry king, " let fall the Brahmadanda, why delay it longer ?" " O cruel man there it falls." And no sooner had Iitti said so than a golden bar from the canopy fell on the king. The wound degenerated into crysipelatous inflammation, and insects generated on the suppuration. He suffered great pain, the sample of what he would have to suffer in hell. After five nights, he, who had courted danger, died. Thus the king who used to punish without fault, was chastised by Brahmadanda and perished. This powerful though fickle king reigned for thirty one years.

Kings thirsting for wealth, and restrained by no limits, take to evil ways, like the fishes which thirsting for muddy water leave their place and go on the dry land. The latter are caught by fishermen, and the former are sent to hell. His mother Amritaprabha set up a god named Amritakeshava for the salvation of his soul.

Lalitapira

He was succeeded by his son Lalitapira by queen Durgi. He was a very sensual king, and did not attend


[p.101]: to royal duties, and in his reign prostitutes obtained influence, and evil ways we prevalent. The ill-gotten wealth of his father was spent by him on dancers, actors, &c. Bad men gained access to the palace as friends of prostitutes, and taught him the art of pleasing the public women. The king cast aside his crown and royal ornaments, and lived in the company of females. Those who could joke and speak of women, were his favorites, not warriors or learned men. His passion increased with his enjoyments, and he thought his father was inanimate, because when he conquered the kingdom of women, he did not touch them. And pleased with the embraces of women, and surrounded by his temporary companions, he laughed at his ancestors who had felt a passion for conquest. The king rewarded his gay companions because they derided old men so as to prevent them from approaching the king. In his court, and accompanied by his courtezans, the king shamed his old ministers with loud laughter and jokes. The wicked king clothed his noble ministers with clothes marked with the foot-print of prostitutes. One proud minister named Manoratha, unable to reform the king, ceased to attend big court. There is, no way left but to desert a bad king, for it is useless to oppose him or to concur with him, or to grieve for him, or to work his evil. The king took back from Brahmanas the places named Suvarnapārshva, Falapura and Lochanotsa. He reigned for twelve years.


[p.102]:

Sangrāmapira

Sangrāmapira: He was succeeded by his step-brother Sangrāmapira, son of Jayapira, by queen Kalyana. He assumed the name of Prithivyipira, and reigned for seven years.

Chippatajayapira: After him Chippatajayapira, otherwise called Vrihaspati, the infant son of Lalitapira, was made king. He was born of Lalitipira's concubine named Jayadevi, the daughter of Kalpapala an inhabitant of Akhuva. This daughter of Kalpapāla had been taken away by Lalitapira on account of her beauty. The maternal uncles of the present king named Padma, Utpalaka, Kalyana, Mamma and Dharmma now ruled the kingdom during the king's infancy. They were all young. The eldest held the five principal posts, and the others held other posts. The orders of Jayadevi, mother of the king, were obeyed by her brothers. She set up a god named Jayeshvara. The wealth saved by parsimonious kings is soon squandered by some successor. The king spent but a small sum, but his uncles appropriated the whole. The wealth which their sister had gained by means of her beauty was now spent by her fortunate brothers. But as their nephew grew up, they apprehended their destruction. And these wicked men after consulting together, killed their nephew by magic, in order that they might rule the kingdom. The king died after reigning twelve years.

After his death, his uncles were puffed up with pride and could not brook that any one among themselves would


[p.103]: reign. They wished to set up a puppet king, but they could not agree in their choice, and so they quarreled. Tribhuvanapira, son of king Vappiya by queen Meghavali, though the eldest, was not crowned, because all did not agree.

Ajitapira: This Tribhubanapira'a son named Ajitapira by Jayadevi, was raised to the throne by Utpala in opposition to his colleagues. But the king could not please all the five brothers equally, for when he spoke to one of them the rest were displeased. The five brothers who appropriated the revenues of the realm, set up many houses of gods in the city.

They with their sons ruled the kingdom which may be said to have been without a king,

  • Utpala set up a god named Utpalasvami, and built a town named Utpalapura.
  • Padma set up a god named Padmasvami, and a town named Padmapura.
  • The wife of Padma named Gunadevi, built two temples, one within the city, and the other at Vijayeshvara.
  • Dharmma set up a god named Dharmmasvami, and
  • Kalyanavarmma set up Kalyanasvami, an image of Vishuu.
  • Mamma set up a god Mammasvami, and gave away as gift eighty-five thousand cows with calves, and five thousand dinaras with each cow and calf. Who can estimate his wealth, much less the accumulated wealth of all the brothers? Their charity made every one desire and pray for their riches, by whatever means acquired, whether by plunder or by honest means. The houses of the gods built by them were far larger than other temples which stood beside them. From the

[p.104]: Kashmiran era 89, * when their nephew died, till now they reigned without opposition for a period of thirty six years.

After this a battle was fought between Mamma and Utpalaka, and it was so obstinately fought that the Vitasta was choked with dead bodies. The poet Shankuka described this battle in his work named Bhuvanabhyudaya. Yashovarmma, the son of Mamma, defeated his opponents.

Anangapira: The victorious party then dethroned Ajitapira and crowned Anangapira son of Sangramapira. Unable to bear the ascendancy of Mamma Sukhavarmma, son of Utpala, began to aspire to the kingdom.

Utpalapira: After three years Utpala died, and Sukhavarmma raised Utpalapira son of Ajitapira, to the throne.

Ratna the minister for peace and war, who had amassed much wealth, set up a temple for the god Ratnasvami. Nara and other proprietors of the village Vimalashva, who were the judges of Darvabhisara, &c, lived at the latter place as princes. The line of Karkota became almost extinct, and the family of Utpala began to thrive.

When Sukhavarmmā was, through his prowess, on the point of becoming king, he was murdered by his envious friend Shushka. Shura the minister, then thought Avantivarmma son of Sukhavarmma, to be fit for the throne ;


* With the exception of the calculation of date at the beginning of the book, which will be found in our Appendix A. this is the first instance where the author has given a date to an event. The Kashmirians calculated era by centuries. Here the year 89 signifies the 80th year of the century which was then current.


[p.105]: and in order to prevent disturbances among the people, he in the Kashmira era '31+ deposed the reigning king Utpalapira, and raised Avantivarmma, to the throne. This man obtained with ease the kingdom for which his father and grandfather had tried so hard.

The water of coronation was poured on his head from a golden vessel, his golden ear-pendants glittering as if the sun and the moon were whispering advices in his ears and at the time of his being crowned he was surrounded by the princes of his race.

Here ends the Fourth book of Rajatarangini by Kahlana son of Champaka Pravu the great minister of Kashmira.

There were seventeen kings of the line of Karkota, who reigned over a period of two hundred and sixty years, five months, and twenty days.

Altogether there were seventy kings from the beginning.


†This is of course the 31st year of the next century.


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