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Serica (सेरिका) was one of the easternmost countries of Asia inhabited by Seres people known to the Ancient Greek and Roman geographers. The Greco-Roman writers name over a dozen tribes and fifteen cities of the Seres. It is evident from their portrayals that they are not all of the same ethnicity but share a common national appellation. Their capital is named as Sera.

It is generally taken as referring to North China during its Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties, as it was reached via the overland Silk Road in contrast to the Sinae, who were reached via the maritime routes.



The Latin forms Serica and Seres derive from the Greek Sērikḗ (Σηρική) and Sḗres (Σῆρες).[2]This seems to derive from their words for silk (Greek: σηρικός, sērikós; Latin: sericum), which since Klaproth[3] has often been linked to the Chinese 絲,[4] whose Old Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as /*[s]ə/. The rhotic final of the Greek and Roman term may have been dialectical or a Central Asian addition. Yule notes the Korean, Mongolian, and Manchu forms of the word as sir, sirkek, and sirghé respectively.[5]The Greeks and Romans knew of silk long before they understood its origin from silkworms, making sēr (σὴρ) a backformation.[6] Other forms of the name include Serica Regio.[7] Flavius Josephus, in his book Antiquities of the Jews, book 1, paragraph 147, call that region "Σηρια", that in Latin letters is "Seria".

Some classicists have argued that it was extremely improbable that a nation would be named after an insect. Lassen claimed to have identified references to the Seres in Hindu scripture, as the "Çaka (Sakas), Tukhâra (Bactria), and Kanka (Kangju)".[8]

Jat Gotras Namesake

Seres people

The people of Serica were the Seres (Ancient Greek: Σῆρες),[9] whose name was also used for their region. Access to Serica was eased following the Han conquest of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang) but largely blocked when the Parthian Empire fell to the Sassanids. Henry Yule summarized the classical geographers:[10]

If we fuse into one the ancient notices of the Seres and their country, omitting anomalous statements and manifest fables, the result will be something like the following:—"The region of the Seres is a vast and populous country, touching on the east the Ocean and the limits of the habitable world, and extending west to Imaus and the confines of Bactria. The people are civilized, mild, just, and frugal, eschewing collisions with their neighbours, and even shy of close intercourse, but not averse to dispose of their own products, of which raw silk is the staple, but which include also silk-stuffs, fine furs, and iron of remarkable quality." That is manifestly a definition of the Chinese.[11]

Some scholars, however, contend the Seres were not the Chinese themselves but tribes speaking Indo-European languages on the western edges of the Chinese dynasties and empires who traded with the ancient Indians, such as the Yuezhi, Saka, and Tocharians.

Mention by Pliny

Pliny the Elder discussed the Seres in his Natural History, Book VI, chapter xx.[12] He similarly placed the Seres beyond a wasteland on the other side of Scythia; like Vergil before him, he patently misunderstands sericulture, believing the silk to be a product of certain trees:

Then [sc. east of the Caspian], we again find tribes of Scythians and again desert tracts occupied only by wild animals, till we come to that mountain chain overhanging the sea which is called Tabis. Not till nearly half the length of the coast which looks north-east has been past do you find inhabited country. The first race then encountered are the Seres, so famous for the fleecy product of their forests ... The Seres are famous for the woolen substance obtained from their forests; after a soaking in water they comb off the white down of the leaves ... So manifold is the labour employed, and so distant is the region of the globe drawn upon, to enable the Roman maiden to flaunt transparent clothing in public ...

Pliny also reports a curious description of the Seres made by an embassy from Taprobane to Emperor Claudius, suggesting they may be referring to the Indo-European populations of the Tarim Basin, such as the Tocharians:[13]

They also informed us that the side of their island which lies opposite to India is ten thousand stadia in length, and runs in a south-easterly direction—that beyond the Emodian Mountains (Himalayas) they look towards the Serve (Seres), whose acquaintance they had also made in the pursuits of commerce; that the father of Rachias (the ambassador) had frequently visited their country, and that the Serae always came to meet them on their arrival. These people, they said, exceeded the ordinary human height, had flaxen hair, and blue eyes, and made an uncouth sort of noise by way of talking, having no language of their own for the purpose of communicating their thoughts. The rest of their information (on the Serae) was of a similar nature to that communicated by our merchants. It was to the effect that the merchandize on sale was left by them upon the opposite bank of a river on their coast, and it was then removed by the natives, if they thought proper to deal on terms of exchange. On no grounds ought luxury with greater reason to be detested by us, than if we only transport our thoughts to these scenes, and then reflect, what are its demands, to what distant spots it sends in order to satisfy them, and for how mean and how unworthy an end!

Mention by Pliny

Pliny[14] mentions 'The Caspian Sea and Hyrcanian Sea'....Agrippa bounds the Caspian Sea and the nations around it, including Armenia, on the east by the Ocean of the Seres4, on the west by the chain of the Caucasus, on the south by that of Taurus, and on the north by the Scythian Ocean.

4 The supposed Eastern Ocean of the ancients.

Mention by Pliny

Pliny[15] mentions The Seres....The first people that are known of here are the Seres,4 so famous for the wool that is found in their forests.5 After steeping it in water, they comb off a white down that adheres to the leaves; and then to the females of our part of the world they give the twofold task6 of unravelling their textures, and of weaving the threads afresh. So manifold is the labour, and so distant are the regions which are thus ransacked to supply a dress through which our ladies may in public display7 their charms. The Seres are of inoffensive manners, but, bearing a strong resemblance therein to all savage nations, they shun all intercourse with the rest of mankind, and await the approach8 of those who wish to traffic with them.

4 The people of Serica, which country with Ptolemy corresponds to the north-western part of China, and the adjacent portions of Tibet and Chinese Tartary. The capital, Sera, is by most supposed to be Singan, on the Hoang-ho, but by some Peking. Pliny evidently refers to the same people, and has some notion of the locality of their country.

5 This is generally supposed to bear reference to the cloths exported by the Seres, as Serica, and corresponding to our silks. On examination, however, it will appear that he rather refers to some textures of cotton, such as calicos or muslins; it being not unknown to Pliny that silks or bombycina were the produce of the bombyx or silk-worm; see B. xi. c. 22. The use of the word "canities" points strongly to cotton as being the substance meant.

6 Whether it is silk or cotton that is here referred to, Pliny seems in this passage to allude to some peculiarity in the texture, which was perhaps so close, that when brought to the Western world it was the custom to draw out a portion of tie threads. In such case it perhaps strongly resembled the Chinese crapes of the present day. Speaking of Cleopatra in B. x. 141, of the Pharsalia, Lucan says, "Her white breasts are resplendent through the Sidonian fabric, which, wrought in close texture by the sley of the Seres, the needle of the workman of the Nile has separated, and has loosened the warp by stretching out the web."

7 He either refers to dresses consisting of nothing but open work, or what we may call fine lace, and made from the closely woven material imported from China, or else to the 'Coan vestments' which were so much worn by the Roman women, especially those of light character, in the Augustan age. This Coan tissue was remarkable for its extreme transparency. It has been supposed that these dresses were made of silk, as in the island of Cos silk was spun and woven at an early period, so much so as to obtain a high celebrity for the manufactures of that island. Seneca, B. vii. De Benef. severely censures the practice of wearing these thin garments. For further information on this subject, see B. xi. c. 26, 27, and B. xii. c. 22.

8 Meaning that they do not actively seek intercourse with the rest of the world, but do not refuse to trade with those who will take the trouble of resorting to them. This coincides wonderfully with the character of the Chinese even at the present day.

Other descriptions

Ctesias: The first surviving European accounts of the Seres are those in Ctesias's 5th-century BC Indica, where he calls them "a people of portentous stature and longevity".[16] The authenticity of the account is, however, disputed.

Strabo: Strabo's 1st-century Geography mentions the Seres in two asides. In the first passage, he mentions that "some writers" claim the Seres to be longer lived than the Indians of Musicanus, whom Onesicritus claimed lived to the age of 130.[17] In the second, a passage discussing the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, he mentions that Apollodorus of Artemita claimed the Bactrians' borders stretched "even as far as the Seres and the Phryni".[18]

Pomponius Mela: Pomponius Mela's De situ orbis names the Seres as one of three peoples inhabiting the eastern extremity of Asia. He places the Seres between the Indians to the south and the Scythians to the north.[19][b] In a later passage, he notes:[20]

From these the course [of the Caspian shore] makes a bend and trends to the coast line which faces the east. That part which adjoins the Scythian promontory is first all impassable from snow; then an uncultivated tract occupied by savages. These tribes are the Cannibal Scythians and the Sakas, severed from one another by a region where none can dwell because of the number of wild animals. Another vast wilderness follows, occupied also by wild beasts, reaching to a mountain called Thabis which overhangs the sea. A long way from that the ridge of Taurus rises. The Seres come between the two; a race eminent for integrity and well known for the trade which they allow to be transacted behind their backs, leaving their wares in a desert spot.

Geography and economy

As Ptolemy describes it, Serica was bordered in the north by the Annibi and Auxacii Montes, identified as the Altai Mountains. The Montes Asmiraei, a Serican district, are the Da-Uri Chain while the Cassi Montes are believed to be the mountains of the Gobi Desert. Ptolemy names the principal river of the Seres as the Bautisus, identified as the Yellow River.

The Greco-Roman writers name over a dozen tribes and fifteen cities of the Seres. It is evident from their portrayals that they are not all of the same ethnicity but share a common national appellation. Their capital is named as Sera. Possible candidates include Kashgar and Yarkand. Issedon, the capital of the Serican Issedones, is thought to have been situated on the eastern slopes of the Pamirs or even the Altai Mountains, while the third notable city, Aspacara, was described as located near the source of the Yellow River.

The ancient fathers also describe the pleasant climate of Serica and its plenitude in natural resources. Among these are iron, furs and skins, and precious stones.


Beginning in the 1st century BC with Virgil, Horace, and Strabo, Roman histories offer only vague accounts of China and the silk-producing Seres of the Far East.[21] Florus seems to have confused the Seres with peoples of India, or at least noted that their skin complexions proved that they both lived "beneath another sky" than the Romans.[22] The 1st-century geographer Pomponius Mela asserted that the lands of the Seres formed the center of the coast of an eastern ocean, flanked to the south by India and to the north by the Scythians of the Eurasian Steppe.[23] The historian Ammianus Marcellinus (c. 330 – c. 400) wrote that the land of the Seres was enclosed by great natural walls around a river called Bautis, possibly a description of the Yellow River.[24] From Turkic peoples of Central Asia the later Eastern Romans (i.e. Byzantines) derived a new name for China, Taugast (Turkic: Tabghach), during its Northern Wei (386–535) period.[25] By the time of the Eastern Roman ruler Justinian I (r. 527–565), the Byzantines purchased Chinese silk from Sogdian intermediaries.[26] However, they also smuggled silkworms out of China with the help of Nestorian monks, who claimed that the land of "Serindia" was located north of India and produced the finest silk.[27]


Ser-India (सरिन्दिया) or Serindia combines Seres (China) and India to refer to the part of Asia also known as Sinkiang, Chinese Turkistan or High Asia. The art of this region is known as Serindian. This region was quite extensive from Badakshan to Lopnor Lakeand Gobi desert.

Mention by Panini

Shirisha (शिरीष) is a place name mentioned by Panini under Arihanadi (अरीहणादि) ( group. [28]

Shirisha (शिरीष) is name of a place mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi under Kumudadi (कुमुदादि) ( group. [29]

Shirisha (शिरीष) is name of a place mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi under Varanadi (वरणादि) (4.2.82) group. [30]

Sarasa (सरस) is a place name mentioned by Panini under Sakhyadi (सख्यादि) ( group. [31]

Shirisha (शिरीष) is name of a place mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi under Varapadi (वरापादि) ( group. [32]

Shirisha (शिरीष) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [33]

In Mahabharata

Shairishaka (शैरीषक) Mahabharata (II.29.6)

Shirishaka (शिरीषक) Mahabharata (V.101.14)

Shirishi (शिरीषी) Mahabharata (XIII.4.58)

In Mahabharata, Sairishaka is described as being taken by Nakula in his conquest of the western quarter. It must have been a flourishing city in the 5th century B.C. as it has been mentioned by Panini.

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 29 mentions that Nakula subjugated Western Countries, which includes Shairishaka (=Sirsa) in verse (II.29.6). [34]

Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 101 mentions Bhogavati city and innumerable Nagas. It includes Shirishaka in verse (V.101.14). [35]

Mahabharata Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 4 mentions ancestry of Viswamitra, a Kshatriya whose sons became progenitors of many races of Brahmanas and founders of many clans. It includes Shirishi (शिरीषी) in verse (XIII.4.58). [36]


सेरिका एशिया के सबसे पूर्वी देशों में से एक था. इसकी जानकारी प्राचीन ग्रीक और रोमन भूगोलवेत्ताओं को थी. इसे आम तौर पर अपने झोउ, किन और हान राजवंशों के दौरान उत्तरी चीन के संदर्भ में लिया जाता है. क्योंकि यहां सिना के समुद्री मार्ग विपरीत ओवरलैंड सिल्क रोड के माध्यम से पहुंचा जाता था. सेरिका के लोग थे सेरिस. Henry Yule भूगोलवेत्ताओं के विवरण का सारांश इस प्रकार दिया है:

यदि हम सेरेस और उनके देश की प्राचीन सूचनाओं को एक में मिला दें, तो विषम कथनों और प्रकट दंतकथाओं को छोड़कर, परिणाम कुछ इस तरह होगा : - "सेरेस का क्षेत्र एक विशाल और आबादी वाला देश है, जो पूर्व की ओर महासागर और रहने योग्य दुनिया की सीमाएं छू रहा है और पश्चिम में इमौस और बैक्ट्रिया की सीमाओं तक फैला हुआ है. लोग सभ्य, सौम्य, न्यायसंगत और मितव्ययी हैं, अपने पड़ोसियों के साथ टकराव से बचते हैं, और यहां तक ​​​​कि घनिष्ठसंबंधों से भी कतराते हैं, लेकिन उनके अपने उत्पादों का निपटाने के लिए नहीं, जिनमें कच्चा रेशम मुख्य है, लेकिन जिसमें रेशमी-सामान, महीन फर, और उल्लेखनीय गुणवत्ता का लोहा भी शामिल है." यह स्पष्ट रूप से चीनी होने की एक परिभाषा है.

हालाँकि, कुछ विद्वानों का तर्क है कि सेरेस स्वयं चीनी नहीं थे, बल्कि चीनी राजवंशों और साम्राज्यों के पश्चिमी किनारों पर इंडो-यूरोपीय भाषा बोलने वाली जनजातियाँ थीं, जो प्राचीन भारतीयों के साथ व्यापार करते थे, जैसे कि यूज़ी, सका और तोखरी

ऊपरला हिन्द (सरिन्दिया)

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[37] के अनुसार चीन के प्राचीन ग्रन्थों में तुखारिस्तान का नाम ‘ताहिआ’ लिखा है। ह्यू एन-त्सांग ने इस देश का वर्णन किया है कि इसके उत्तर में दरबन्त (बदख्शां के समीप), दक्षिण में हिन्दूकुश पर्वत, पश्चिम में पर्शिया (ईरान) और पूर्व में पामीर की पर्वतमाला थी। उस समय तुखारिस्तान बौद्धधर्म का महत्त्वपूर्ण केन्द्र था । ऋषिक तुषारों का धर्म बौद्ध और जीवन युद्धमय था।[38]

ऋषिक-तुषारों ने हूणों को हराकर मंगोलिया की ओर भगा दिया और पूर्व की ओर बहुत बड़े क्षेत्र पर अधिकार कर लिया। उनकी इस विशाल भूमि का नाम सरिन्दिया (Ser-India) पड़ा, जिसको हिन्दी में ‘ऊपरला हिन्द’ कहा जाता है।[39]

यह ऊपरला हिन्द पश्चिमी बदख्शां से आरम्भ होकर पूर्व में लोपनोर झील तथा गोबी के मरुस्थल तक विस्तृत था। इस क्षेत्र के नगरों के अवशेष इस समय काशगर, यारकन्द, नीया, खोतन, कुचि आदि में उपलब्ध हुए हैं। इनसे यह भलीभांति प्रमाणित हो जाता है कि राजनैतिक दृष्टि से भारत के अन्तर्गत न होते हुए भी ये सब भारतीय सभ्यता के केन्द्र थे। इस तुखारिस्तान में ऋषिक-तुषारों ने अपने अनेक राज्य कायम किए। आगे चलकर कुषाण वंश के राजाओं ने जिन्हें जीतकर अपने अधीन कर लिया और एक शक्तिशाली व सुविस्तृत साम्राज्य की स्थापना की। पांचवीं सदी तक तुखारिस्तान कुषाणों के शासन में रहा। [40]

रामायणकाल में ऋषिकों का राज्य था और महाभारत एवं पुराणों के लेख अनुसार ऋषिक व तुषार वंश महाभारतकाल में अपने पूरे वैभव पर थे, ये लोग महाभारत युद्ध में लड़े थे। सम्राट् कनिष्क कुषाणगोत्री जाट के शासनकाल में ऋषिकवंशी महात्मा लल्ल ने इन चन्द्रवंशी ऋषिक व तुषार जाटों के संघों का संगठन कर दिया जिनसे इनका नाम गठवाला पड़ गया। इनका पूज्य पुरुष लल्ल ऋषि था और पदवी मलिक हुई जिससे इनका पूरा नाम लल्ल गठवाला मलिक है। (पूरी जानकारी के लिए देखो तृतीय अध्याय, ऋषिक-तुषार मलिक प्रकरण)।

चीन के उत्तर में विशाल दीवार बनने के बाद, हूण लोग अब चीन के पश्चिम के उन प्रदेशों में आ बसे थे, जहां पहले ऋषिकों (युइशियों) का निवास था। ये लोग समय-समय पर पश्चिम की ओर से आक्रमण करते रहते थे; जिनका सामना करना चीन के लिए कठिन था। इस दशा में चीन के सम्राट् वू-ती (142-85 ई० पू०) ने अपने सेनापति चाङ्-कियन को 138 ईस्वी पूर्व में हूणों के विरुद्ध सहयोग प्राप्त करने के लिये ऋषिक-तुषारों के पास भेजा। उस समय इन लोगों का शासन तुखारिस्तान पर था। चाङ्-कियन को हूणों ने मार्ग में ही पकड़ लिया और उसे 10 वर्ष तक अपनी कैद में रखा। कैद से छूटकर वह सिर दरिया के दक्षिण में स्थित खोकन्द पहुंचा, और वहां से समरकन्द होता हुआ बल्ख (बैक्ट्रिया) आ गया जो उस समय ऋषिक-तुषारों के शासन में था। चाङ्-कियन ने उनसे हूणों के विरुद्ध सहयोग की याचना की। अतः ऋषिक-तुषारों ने हूणों पर पश्चिम की ओर से पुरजोर आक्रमण आरम्भ कर दिया तथा चीन ने हूणों पर पूर्व की ओर से

जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-328

दबाव डाला। ये आक्रमण 127 ई० पू० से 119 ई० पू० तक होते रहे। अन्त में हूणों को परास्त करके चीन की पश्चिमी सीमा से उत्तर में मंगोलिया की ओर खदेड़ दिया। चीन-भारत की मैत्री का यह पहला अवसर माना जाता है।[41]

Jat History

Sera = The capital of Serica. Sera is also a Jat clan. Seria is a Village situated in District Jhajjar (Haryana). Pliny has mentioned about Seres people in f.n.4 of Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 20

See also


  1. Strabo, Geography, book 15, chapter 1
  2. Schoff, Wilfred H.: "The Eastern Iron Trade of the Roman Empire", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 35 (1915), pp. 224-239 (237)
  3. Klaproth, Mem. rel. à l'Asie, Vol. III, p. 265
  4. ule (1866), p. xliv
  5. Yule (1866), p. xliv
  6. Yule (1866), p. xliv
  7. Germanus, Nicolaus, ed. (1482), Claudii Ptolomei Viri Alexandrini Cosmographie Octavus et Ultimus Liber Explicit Opus, Ulm: Leinhart Holle. (in Latin
  8. Lassen, Christian (1847), Indische Alterthumskunde, Vol. I: Geographie und die älteste Geschichte, Bonn: H.B. Koenig, p. 321. (in German)
  9. Stephanus of Byzantium, Ethnica, §S562.2
  10. Yule, Henry (1878), "China § China as known to the Ancients" , 'Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. V, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. 626–627.
  12. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 20
  13. Plin., Nat. Hist., Bk VI, Ch xxiv].
  14. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 15
  15. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 19
  16. Ctes., Ind.
  17. Strabo, Geo., Book XV, Ch. i.
  18. Strabo, Geo., Book XI, Ch. xi.
  19. P. Mela, De Situ Orbis, Bk. I, Ch. ii.
  20. P. Mela, De Situ Orbis, Bk. III, Ch. vii.
  21. Max Ostrovsky (2007), Y = Arctg X: the Hyperbola of the World Order, Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Plymouth: University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-3499-0, p. 44.
  22. Max Ostrovsky (2007), Y = Arctg X: the Hyperbola of the World Order, Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Plymouth: University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-3499-0, p. 44.
  23. Max Ostrovsky (2007), Y = Arctg X: the Hyperbola of the World Order, Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Plymouth: University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-3499-0, p. 44.
  24. Max Ostrovsky (2007), Y = Arctg X: the Hyperbola of the World Order, Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Plymouth: University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-3499-0, p. 44.
  25. Luttwak, Edward N. (2009). The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03519-5, p. 168.
  26. Luttwak, Edward N. (2009). The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03519-5, p. 168.
  27. Luttwak, Edward N. (2009). The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire. Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03519-5, p. 168.
  28. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.501
  29. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.503
  30. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.506
  31. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.506
  32. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.506
  33. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.214
  34. शैरीषकं महेच्छं च वशे चक्रे महाद्युतिः, शिबींस तरिगर्तान अम्बष्ठान मालवान पञ्च कर्पटान Mahabharata (II.29.6)
  35. करवीरः पीठरकः संवृत्तॊ वृत्त एव च, पिण्डारॊ बिल्वपत्रश च मूषिकादः शिरीषकः Mahabharata (V.101.14)
  36. श्यॊ रुहश चारु मत्स्यः शिरीषी चाथ गार्दभिः, उज्ज यॊनिरदापेक्षी नारदी च महान ऋषिः, विश्वामित्रात्मजाः सर्वे मुनयॊ बरह्मवादिनः Mahabharata (XIII.4.58)
  37. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ-328,329
  38. मध्य एशिया तथा चीन में भारतीय संस्कृति, पृ० 12, 78-79, 108-109,
  39. मध्य एशिया तथा चीन में भारतीय संस्कृति, पृ० 12, 78-79, 108-109,
  40. जाटों का उत्कर्ष, पृ० 332, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री।
  41. मध्य एशिया तथा चीन में भारतीय संस्कृति, पृ० 79, लेखक सत्यकेतु विद्यालंकार, जाटों का उत्कर्ष पृ० 332, लेखक योगेन्द्रपाल शास्त्री, जाटवीरों का इतिहास, तृतीय अध्याय, ऋषिक-तुषार प्रकरण।

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