Scythia

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Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent
Map showing Scythia

Scythia (Hindi: सीथिया, Persian: اسکیت ها or سکا ها‎), (/ˈsiθiə/; Ancient Greek: Σκυθική) was a multinational region of Central Eurasia in the classical era, encompassing parts of Pontic steppe, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe.

Ancient Greeks gave the name Scythia (or Great Scythia) to all the lands north-east of Europe and the northern coast of the Black Sea.

Location

Its location and extent varied over time but usually extended farther to the west than is indicated on the map opposite.[1]

The region known to classical authors as Scythia included:

सीथिया देश

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[4] लिखते हैं:

सीथिया देश - “यह देश (देन्यूब नदी) से लेकर ठीक दक्षिणी रूस के पार तक, कैस्पियन सागर के पूर्व में अमू दरिया एवं सिर दरिया की घाटी तक, पामीर पहाड़ियों की शृंखला तक तथा तारिम नदी की घाटी तक फैला हुआ था। शकवंशीय जाटों ने आर्यावर्त से बाहर जाकर शक देश आबाद किया जो कि उनके नाम पर शकावस्था कहलाया, जिसका अपभ्रंश नाम सीथिया पड़ गया।”

मध्य एशिया - सीथिया देश की सीमा के भीतर ही मध्य एशिया या तुर्किस्तान देश की स्थिति है। चीन देश के पश्चिम, ईरान तथा अफगानिस्तान के उत्तरपूर्व, तिब्बत के उत्तर और एशियाई रूस के दक्षिण में जो विशाल खण्ड है, उसे मध्य एशिया या तुर्किस्तान कहते हैं। चन्द्रवंशज सम्राट् ययाति के पुत्र तुर्वसु के नाम पर इस देश का नाम तुर्वसस्थान-तुर्कस्थान-तुर्किस्तान पड़ा,


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-332


तुर्की भी इसी नाम पर है। (देखो तृतीय अध्याय, शक एवं तंवर-तोमर जाटवंश)

Scythian tribes

The Scythians – the Greeks' name for this nomadic people – inhabited Scythia from at least the 11th century BC to the 2nd century AD.[5]

Many different groupings of Scythian tribes include the following:

Origin of Scythian

James Todd[7] writes that the origin of the Scythic nations, as related by Diodorus; . when it will be observed the same legends were known to him which have been handed down by the Puranas and Abulghazi.

The Scythians had their first abodes on the Araxes.[8] Their origin was from a virgin born of the earth[9] of the shape of a woman from the waist upwards, and below a serpent (symbol of Budha or Mercury) ; that Jupiter had a son by her, named Scythes," whose name the nation adopted. Scythes had two sons, Palas and Napas (qu. the Nagas, or Snake race, of the Tatar genealogy ?), who were celebrated for their great actions, and who divided the countries ; and the nations were called after them, the Palians (qu. Pali ?)[10] and Napians. They led their forces as far as the Nile on Egypt, and subdued many nations. They enlarged the empire of the Scythians as far as the Eastern ocean,


[p. 71]: and to the Caspian and lake Moeotis. The nation had many kings, from whom the Sacans (Sakae), the Massagetae ( Getae or Jats), the Ari-aspians (Aswas of Aria), and many other races. They overran Assyria and Media . [11] [59], overturning the empire, and transplanting the inhabitants to the Araxes under the name of Sauro-Matians. [12]

As the Sakae, Getae, Aswa, and Takshak are names which have crept in amongst our thirty-six royal races, common with others also to early civilization in Europe, let us seek further ancient authority on the original abodes.

Strabo [13] says : " All the tribes east of the Caspian are called Scythic. The Dahae next the sea, the Massagetae (great Gete) and Sakae more eastward ; but every tribe has a particular name. All are nomadic : but of these nomads the best -known are the Asii, [14] the Pasiani, Tochari, Sacarauli, who took Bactria from the Greeks. The Sakae (' races ') have made in Asia irruptions similar to those of the Cimmerians ; thus they have been seen to possess themselves of Bactria, and the best district of Armenia, called after them Sakasenae." .


[p.72]:

shall not now stop to inquire, limiting our hypothesis to the fact of invasions, and adducing some evidence of such being simultaneous with migrations of the same bands into Europe. Hence the inference of a common origin between the Rajput and early races of Europe ; to support which, a similar mythology, martial manners and poetry, language, and even music and architectural ornaments, may be adduced.

Herodotus (iv. 12) says : " The Cimmerians, expelled by the Massagetae, migrated to the Crimea." Here were the Thyssagetae, or western Getae [the lesser Getae, Herodotus iv..22]; and thence both the Getae and Cimbri found their way to the Baltic. Rubruquis the Jesuit, describing the monuments of the Comani in the Dasht-i Kipchak, whence these tribes, says : " Their monuments and circles of stones are like our Celtic or Druidical remains " (Bell's Collection). The Khuman are a branch of the Kathi tribe of Saurashtra, whose paliyas, or funeral monumental pillars, are seen in groups at every town and village. The Chatti were one of the early German tribes. [Needless to say, the German Chatti had no connexion with the Kathi of Gujarat.]

First migrations of the Indo-Scythic Getae, Takshak, and Asii, into India

James Todd[15] writes that Of the first migrations of the Indu-Scythic Getae, Takshak, and Asii, into India, that of Sheshnag (Takshak), from Sheshnagdes (Tocharistan ?) or Sheshnag, six centuries, by calculation, before Christ, is the first noticed by the Puranas About this period a grand irruption of the same races conquered Asia Minor, and [60] eventually Scandinavia ; and not long after the Asii and Tochari overturned the Greek kingdom of Bactria, the Romans felt the power of the Asi, the Chatti, and Cimbri, from the Baltic shore.

Asi was the term applied to the Getes, Yeuts, or Juts, when they invaded Scandinavia and founded Yeutland or Jutland (see ' Edda,’ Mallet's Introduction).

If we can show the Germans to have been originally Scythae or Goths (Getes or Jits), a wide field of curiosity and inquiry is open to the origin of government, manners, etc. ; all the antiquities of Europe will assume a new appearance, and, instead of being traced to the bands of Germany, as Montesquieu and the greatest writers have hitherto done, may be followed through long descriptions of the manners of the Scythians, etc., as given by Herodotus. Scandinavia was occupied by the Scythae five hundred years before Christ. These Scythians worshipped Mercury (Budha), Woden or Odin, and believed themselves his progeny. The Gothic mythology, by parallel, might be shown


[p. 73]:

to be Grecian, whose gods were the progeny of Coelus and Terra (Budha and Ella). Dryads, satyrs, fairies, and all the Greek and Roman superstition, may be found in the Scandinavian creed. The Goths consulted the heart of victims, had oracles, had sibyls, had a Venus in Freya, and Parcae in the Valkyrie."

External links

References

  1. Giovanni Boccaccio’s Famous Women translated by Virginia Brown 2001, p. 25; Cambridge and London, Harvard University Press; ISBN 0-674-01130-9
  2. Sinor, Denis (1990). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, Volume 1. Cambridge University. ISBN 0521243041.
  3. Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898) Oceanus Sarmaticus
  4. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.332-333
  5. Lessman, Thomas. "World History Maps". 2004. Thomas Lessman.
  6. [1]
  7. James Todd Annals/Chapter 6 Genealogical history of the Rajput tribes subsequent to Vikramaditya, Vol I, pp.70-71
  8. The Arvarma of the Puranas ; the Jaxartes or Sihun. The Puranas thus describe Sakadwipa or Scythia. Diodorus (Mb. ii.) makes the Hemodus the boundary between Saka-Scythia and India Proper.
  9. Ila, the mother of the Lunar race, is the earth personified. Ertha of the Saxons ; e'pa of the Greeks ; ard in Hebrew [?].
  10. The Pali character yet exists, and appears the same as ancient fragments of the Buddha inscriptions in my possession : many letters assimilate with the Coptic.</
  11. The three great branches of the Indu (Lunar) Aswa bore the epithet of Midia (pronounced Mede), viz. Urumidha, Ajamidha, and Dvimidha. Qu. The Aswa invaders of Assyria and Media, the sons of Bajaswa, expressly stated to have multiplied in the countries west of the Indus, emigrating from their paternal seats in Panchalaka ? (Midha means ' pouring out seed, prolific,' and has no connexion with Mede, the Madai of Genesis X. 2 ; the Assyrian Mada.]
  12. Sun-worshippers, the Suryavansa.
  13. Strabo lib. xi. p. 511.
  14. The Asii and Tochari, the Aswa and Takshak, or Turushka races, of the Puranas, of Sakadwipa [?]. " C'est vraisemblablement d'apres le nom de Tachari, que M. D'Anville aura cru devoir placer les tribus ainsi de-nommees dans le territoire qui s'appelle aujourdhui Tokarist'hpon, situe, dit ce grand geographe, entre les montagnes et le Gihon ou Amou " (Note 3, hv. xi. p. 254, Strabon).
  15. James Todd Annals/Chapter 6 Genealogical history of the Rajput tribes subsequent to Vikramaditya, Vol I, pp.72