History of the Jats/Chapter VIII

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History of the Jats

Ram Sarup Joon

1967 (Eng Tr by Lieutenant Colonel Dal Singh)

Printed at the Jaitly Printing Press, 147, Lajpat Rai Market,Delhi-6

Chapter VIII: Jats and Rajputs

The Rajputs

A number of English as well as Indian historians have tried to prove the Rajputs to be descendants of foreign invaders. This is not correct. The majority of the Rajputs belong to ancient Jat gotras and only a small number to Saka and Hun communities.

Up to the reign of Harsh Vardhan, the word Rajputs is not known to have existed. It came into being after the 'Agni Kund Shuddhi' (Purification by fire) on Mount Abu, when four powerful rulers were given the title of Agni Kul Rajput. Later, as there power grew more and more tribes got attracted to join them and call themselves Rajputs. Prominent amongst these was Panwar and Pratihar who were Gujars of Hun origin.

They had established rule in the area around Mount Abu and adopted the title of Pratihar, which means aggressor in Sanskrit. With persistent invasions they had driven towards the South, the powerful Rashtrakuts from their country. The Rashtrakoots tried to establish themselves in Kannauj but were thrown out from there also.

The Pratihars were the descendants of the Huns. The proof of this is that in the area of Mount Abu their oldest habitation is Jabalpuri, which has always been revered by Pratihar rulers.

There is a controversy amongst historians as to the exact date of the institution of 'Agni Kund Yagya'

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at Mount Abu. The consensus of opinion is that it took place in the beginning of 8th century A.D. The Gujar kings transformed from Buddhism to Vaishnavism through this Yagya and were called Agni Kul Rajputs or Akshtriyas born out of the sacred fire. This episode is given in Agni Puran and published in Todd's Rajasthan and Hindi Book Jati Bhaskar.

The Agni Puran Episode Of Agni Kund

When the Kshatriyas by adopting Buddhism became non-martial and also started disregarding Vedas, Shastras and other religious scriptures, the Brahmins started this 'Yagya' at Mount Abu situated near the kingdoms of Gujars kings, to refine the Kshatriyas and safeguard the religion. There was a huge congregation of Brahmins who brought with them the idols of Rishis, Munis, Brahma, Vishnu and other Hindu gods. The Brahmins recited 'Ahutis' against Budh devils.

  • First a man arose dramatically out of 'Agni Kund'. He had the countenance of a brave man and was called Parmar.
  • Then came a second person and he was named Pratihar.
  • The third person rose from the palm of the priest and was called Chalukya. He was also a brave man.
  • The fourth person who emerged through this process was big built, broad chested man, with a wide forehead and radiant eyes. Due to his impressive personally, he was called 'Chaumukha' or Chauhan. He had a bow and arrow in his hands with which he started a general massacre of Buddh Bhikshus.
  • By the side of Agni Kund there was a heap of Plantain leaves and shoots (Dodies). A man came out of this and was called Dod Rajputs.

All these brave, creatures of Agni Kund, then slayed the Buddhist 'Rakshashs' (Demons). It is said that miraculously every drop of blood of these Buddhist 'Rakshasas' gave birth to a devil. To counter this,

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Four Queens 'Ranis' started sucking the flowing blood and this stopped the rebirth of the Budh Devils. These four 'Ranis' became the goddesses of their respective races as under: -

(a) Chauhans Asa Purna mata

(b) Pratihars Gajan mata

(c) Chalukya Khew Nauch mata

(d) Parmar Sanchirya mata

After this the skies resounded with cheers of victory and gods showered flowers from the sky. Gratified, the gods and goddesses returned to their sacred abodes and the Brahmins had a hearty feast beside the dead bodies (source: Agni Puran).

Historians consider this episode as most despicable and inhuman and a stigma on the names of those who enacted it. A religion based on such ignoble deeds could have little hope of popular recognition. Their descendants have been vocal about Islam having been spread by force, but they forget how their ancestors frightened Buddhists to take shelters in the remotest corners of the country in Leh, Ladakh and in the other regions of the Himalayas and across the sea upto Japan.

This episode was denounced by Jats, Ahirs and the unconverted Gujars. They thus invited the antagonism of the newly created Rajputs and Brahmins, more so because they did not convert to Pauranic Mat even on the downfall of Buddhism.

They continued their unabated respect for Buddhist Monks and interest in their sermons.

Although they did later appoint Brahmins as Purohits (Priests), the Jats never developed complete faith in Brahmins maintained their inborn dislike of Jats and never hesitated in calling them wicked and devilish.

The Rajputs discarded widow marriage according to the precepts of Brahmins. Thus people who were in favour of widow marriage again joined Jats, Ahirs and Gujars by and by, adding to their numbers.

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Comments On The Agni Purana

The presumption in Agni Puran that due to Buddhism, the martial races of India had become non-martial has no relation to truth because the martial races never lagged in showing their mettle. The Jats gave a tough resistance to Alexander in the Punjab; it was only the fear of the Jats, which made Alexander's army to retrace its steps. Jats seized Mahmud Ghazni's booty when he was passing through their territory near Hansi and Multan. Mohammad Ghauri was beheaded by Khokar Jats. These are illustrative but not exhaustive examples of the martiality of the martial races remaining unchanged.On the other hand India became a victim of Pauranic superstitions on the advent of which a vast and stable empire could never be established. The internal strife of Rajputs rendered them incapable of defending the country. The Akshatriyas have always cultivated land, bred cattle and fought for the country. These races continue to follow their old occupations. The Gujars who were transformed by 'Agni Kund' were a spirited lot but lost their effectiveness as a result of internecine troubles.

Rajputs chroniclers, in an effort to glorify the race concocted and recorded fictitious genealogical tables, which were not related to Indian history.This encouraged the British historians to conclude that the Rajput was not Indians but foreign invaders settled in India. But a survey of Rajput gotras clearly shows that though there may be a sprinkling of Hun amongst them, they are mostly real Aryans, who prior to being called Rajputs, were Jats or Gujars.

This has already been mentioned that Agni Kund Yagya converted a large number of Gujars to Rajputs. Similarly some Jat gotras also converted to Rajputs. The background of Pratihars has been given in the beginning of this chapter.

General Cunningham has proved that the Kachwaha

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Rajputs are also from the Pratihars and were not the descendants of Ram Chandraji's son Kush as they claim to be.

The Solanki Rajputs ware originally called Chalukya and had their kingdom in Southern India. Raja Chol was their bitter enemy. They had matrimonial relations with Harsh Vardhan, the Bhatti Jats, and the Virk Jats of Malwa.

Chandela is also a Jat gotra as has been proved by Thakur Bahadur Singh Pattedar of Badesar in his book "Gyan Sagar Gutka.

The Gondal, Tiwana, Janjeha, Dahiya, Chhonkar, Khokhar Rajputs converted from Jats in comparatively recent times.

The Tanwars call themselves descendants of Pandavas. Actually Raja Anangpal's ancestors had migrated from Punjab to Delhi and were known as Tushars. The territory between Satluj and Chenab was called Tusharstan. The Tushars were closely related to Rasks both of who were Jat gotras.

The Bhatti Rajputs are a branch of Madrak Jat gotra and are named after Bhatti Rao, son of Gaj, ruler of Gajni. The Bhatti Raja of Jaisalmer later converted to Rajput.

Todd, writes that the Chauhan King Anhal I, who ruled 39 generations before Prithvi Raj was a Takshak.

The Rathores were ruling Kathiawar, Gujrat and Jodhpur. They were called Rashtar Koot; the Hun Vansi Parmars succeeded in expelling them towards the East and South. They then established themselves in Kannaj and got converted to Rajputs. The Rathore, Rathi, Rath, Rashtra Kot and Rathore are the same people.

From certain rock edicts it has been proved that the old gotra of Rathores is Girahwar which is a large Jat gotra also called Grewal amongst is Punjabi Jats.

Mr. Smith writes that Rajputs are descendants of Jats, Ahirs and Gujars including some Hun tribes. Rajputs however like to conceal their historical relations with Jats and Ahirs.

Mr. Bakunin writes in his book (Census P.456) that Rajputs are sons of other class woman.

Mr. Ramsefield writes in his book Census (1869) that some Rajputs got themselves recorded as descendants of Saraswat Brahmins.

Thakur Bahadur Singh, Pattedar Badesar Thikana of Bikaner writes in 'Rajput Gyan Sagar Gutka' a book which has been acknowledged by Raja Ganga Singh of Bikaner and other Rajputs that Kanparia Rajputs are the descendants of a Brahmin widow.

The book 'Jati Bhaskar Hindi Bhasha' mentions that several Rajput Gotras originated from Kshatriya fathers and mothers of other castes. According to Shastras, the Gotra is traced from father and not from mother.

Abdul Malik Mashirmal, author of Gujar History writes that according to General Sir A Cunningham, the author of Gujar and Rajputs history, the rulers of Kanauj were Gujars (History of Gujars P-213 to 218). Their Gotra was Tomar and they are the Descendants of Hun Chief Torman. This view has been, seconded by Doctor Rodelf who refers to the following rock edicts in support: -

Edict No. 1- It was excavated at Pehwa

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(Karnal) Haryana, and belonged to the reign of Raja Mahinderpal (88?-915 A.D).

Edict No. 2- The second edict belongs to the reign of Vigrah Chauhan (972 A.D.) and describes the reign of King Bijepal (950-975 AD).

Both of the above edicts mention Torman.

It is also mentioned that King Chandan, the grandfather of King Vigrah overpowered a Tomar king and the son of King Chandan fought a Tomar king.

The Pehwa edict describes the rule of three Tomar kings. It is mentioned that they were the descendants of 'Jabala', the Hun who had ruled there before them- the third edict narrates the rule of Jabla Toraman.

There is an old saying in Rohilkhand that the Chief Toraman Kachwaha attacked Iran in 943 A.D. He conquered the territory from Iran to Bhopal. He constructed a fort at Gwalior. The descendants of Bhur Sen came to be called Kachhwaha in 945 A.D., and ruled Gwalior till 933 A.D., when Pratihars seized power. Therefore, if we accept this the Kachwaha Rajputs are the descendants of Torman, Jabla Gujars.

Charak Rai (the Bhat] who lived during the reign of Emperor Shah Jehan writes that the king of Iran was Torman. Shri Bhanderkar and General Cunningham and Mr. Smith all prove that Torman, Kachwaha and Pratihars are all descendants of Jabla Gujars. One of the edicts of Hun Chief Jabla was excavated in Malwa, at Mandsor, and is said to have been inscribed in 533 A.D.

According to this edict King Meharkul was the son of Torman, who was defeated and driven out by Yashodharaman.

Shri Bhanderkar writes in his history on page 15 that the Agni Kul Pratihar and Parmar Rajputs

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are actually Gujars and should aptly be called Torman Gujars.

In the history of Bundel Khand Mr. Bage Bahadur Mazbut S1ngh has elaborated, proving Gwalior Pratihars as Gujars. An elder of King Brijman Pratihar Laxman was on the throne of Gwalior in 933 AD, According to Shri Bhanderkar, after Brijman, the Pratihar kings adopted the title of Kachwaha. From the foregoing it is quite evident that Pratihars and Kachwahas are of the same stock.

The Tanwar and Rathore Gotras are found amongst Jats also. These were the people who did not give Widow remarriage as a custom, and stayed with the Jats, Ahirs and Gujars and did not join the Rajputs.

Most of the Rajputs were created from Gujars who were themselves off shoots of Jats. Later some Jats also converted to Rajputs. The Creation of Rajputs and their coming into power is described in detail.

Replacement Of Jat Kings By Rajputs

It has been brought out in the earlier chapters that the Jat Kings Chauhan, Solanki (Chalukya) Gehlot, Chandela, Tanwar (Tushars) came to be called Rajputs on their amalgamation with Rajput force. Other Jat kings who retained their original entity were later overpowered by the so-called common Rajputs force, and were dispossessed of their territories.

Alberuni, the eminent historian writes that Chittor was governed by Jatrana (Jat) Kings and its old name was 'Jator', where 'Mansarovar' exists in the memory of King Maninder Jatrana. According to the writings of Pandit 14 Sangwan (Jat) Kings again governed Ami Chand Chittor and their capital was in Sarso Jungle.

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Jaipur was governed by Jats and Meena Kings. One of these kingdoms was of the Nehra Jats. All these were subjugated by Laxman Kachhwaha in 933 A.D. and their territories annexed.

Jodhpur was ruled by Dahiya Jats and one of their tribes and was called Kaurwansra. The name of their capital was Rajgarh. An edict inscribed by king Jitesen Kaukwansra was excavated in 1215 AD. It has been referred to in the book 'Indians In The Cauvery' Pages 87 and 88.

The famous 'Bhat' (bard) Mehnut Nain has written that Dahiya Jats were rulers of Thal Eshorgarh on the banks of River Godawari. The descendants of King Jai Chand of Kanauj drove them out.

The Dahiya Jats founded Phalor Kot in Jodhpur. The Rathores conquered this Jat kingdom in the 12th Century.

Before the Rathores Bikaner comprised of six Jat kingdoms. Bika conquered these and his uncle Kandal had been a notorious dacoit for forty years.

As there was bitter animosity between Godara and Johiya Jat kings and Godara were weaker; Sarnawasi the Chief of the Godara admitted the suzerainty of Bika on the condition that he would help them against the Juhiya. He would be entitled to collect one Rupee per house and one Rupee per bigha of land as tax. Bika with the help of the Godara Jats succeeded in overpowering the remaining Jat kingdoms.

Only, the Juhia Raja Sher Siagh, whose capital was Rang Mahal near Surat Garh gave a tough resistance to the Rathore. He never admitted the suzerainty of the Rathores even though he had perforce to leave the Punia territory in Bikaner and retreat towards Hissar.

Six Jat kingdoms in Bikaner

The Six Jat kingdoms in Bikaner were:

1. Punia: 300 villages (Parganas- Bahadura, Ajitpur, Sidmukh, Rajgarh, Darewaho, Sankhoo).

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2. Beniwal: 150 villages (Parganas- Bakarko, Sundres Manoharpur, Koibai).

3. Johiya: 1100 villages (Parganas- Jitpur, Kanbano, Mahajan, Peepsar, Udemukh)

4. Saran : 300 villages (Parganas- Kicher,-Phowag, Kochawas, SarKalon, Swani, Baron)

5. Godara : 700 villages (Parganas-Purwadasar, Gosiansar, Sar Kalan, Seka Sar, Garib Disar, Jangisur)

6. Sihag : 150 villages (Parganas- Pawatsar, Bihmsar, Bandusar, Kunda Tali)

In Mewar, Kot Khokhar was a Jat kingdom and Pahlukot was ruled by the Pahlu Jats.

By and by with the annexation of Jat territories and amalgamation of Jat kings with Rajputs, the power shifted from Jats to Rajputs.

The Religious Rift Between Jat And Rajput

The majority of Jats who had become Buddhist did not adopt the Pauranic Mat.

They took no interest in the dogmas of Pauranic Mat as preached by Pandits of that creed. This led to great antagonism between Pandits and Jats.

The gulf widened and ultimately Jats had perforce to drive away such Pandits from their territory. The Pandits became furious and being head and ear of the society in Pauranic Mat started decrying Jats as devils and evil creatures.

The Jats did not accept 'Agni Kula' Rajputs as superior Kshatriyas.

Neither did Rajputs succeed in conquering all the Jat areas. The Rajputs started eating meat and drinking wine against the Buddhist Law of Piety. The Jats therefore ceased mixing up with them.

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On the other hand the followers of the Pauranic Mat, Brahmins and Rajputs picked on the rite of widow marriage to condemn the Jats, Ahirs and Gujars, and made it the fulcrum of their propaganda. Even amongst the Jats, Buddhism gradually died of atrophy.

Jats accepted the priesthood of Brahmins, but their inherited hatred could never be extinguished. In Rajasthan ever since Rajputs came into power the Jats have been subjected to untold discrimination and oppression. This state continued till the departure of British and Independence of India in 1947.

It amazes me why the learned Pandits, in their eagerness to decry the Jats, selected widow marriage and not something more enduring as an excuse. By this they have displayed gross ignorance of the scriptures. For, if they had studied Vedas and Sastras they would come across numerous examples where, widow marriage has not only mentioned to be prevalent but recommended and encouraged. Examples of this have been given in chapter VII.

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