Rawal Moond

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Rawal Moond was a Bhatti Chief and great grandfather of Rao Jaisal (1155 AD). He was son of Deoraj in the ancestry of Salivahana (S.72 = AD 16).[1]

Genealogy of Rawal Moond

Hukum Singh Panwar[2] has given the ancestry of Bharatpur rulers starting from 1. Yadu. Shini is at S.No. 38, Krishna at S.No. 43 and Vajra at S.No. 46[3]. From Naba at S.No. 47 onward we follow James Tod[4] who has based on records of Brahman Sukhdharma of Mathura.

1. Yadu → → → → 34. Andhaka → 35. Bhajmana → 36. Viduratha → 37. Shura → 38. Shini → 39. Bhoja → 40. Hardika → 41. Devamidha → 42. Vasudeva → 43. Krishna → 44. Pradyumna → 45. Aniruddha → 46. Vajra

47. Naba → 48. Prithibahu → 49. Bahubal (w.Kamlavati Puar) → 50. Bahu → 51. Subahu → 52. Rijh → 53. Raja Gaj (founded Ghazni in Yudhishthira 3008= BC 93) → 54. Salivahana (S.72 = AD 16) → 55. Raja Baland → 56. Raja Bhatti → 57. Mangal Rao → 58. Majam Rao (Kullarsi, Moondraj, Seoraj, Phool, Kewala) → Rao KeharRao Tano (Founded Tanot: S. 787 = 731 AD) → Biji Rai (Founded Bijnot: S. 813 = 756 AD, r.814-836) → Deoraj (Founded Deogarh or Deorawal: S. 909 = 853 AD) → Rawal MoondBacharaDusaj (1043 AD) → Rao Jaisal (Lodrawa - founded Jaisalmer: S. 1212 = 1155 AD) → Kailan and Salivahan II

Jat Gotra

History

For detailed History starting from Yadu you may see Raja Baland.

Raja Baland had seven sons : Raja Bhatti, Bhupati, Kullar, Jinj, Surmor, Bhynsrecha, Mangreo. [5]

Mangal Rao succeeded Raja Bhatti, but his fortune was not equal to that of his fathers. Dhoondi, king of Ghazni, with a mighty force, invaded Lahore; nor did Mangal Rao oppose him, but with his eldest son fled into the wilds on the hanks of the river. The foe then invested Salivahanpura, where resided the family of the Raja ; but Masur Rao escaped and fled to the Lakhi Jungle. There being only a cultivating peasantry in this tract, he overcame them, and became master of the country. [6]

This would almost imply that Lahore and Salivahanpura were one and the same place but from what follows, the intervening distance could not have been great between the two cities. There is a Sangala, south of Lahore, near the altars of Alexander, and a Sialkote in our modern maps. Salivahanpura or simply Salpura, may have been erected on the ruins of Kampilanagri. We may hope that researches in that yet untouched region, the Punjab, will afford much to the elucidation of ancient history. [7]

Mangal Rao, the son of Raja Bhatti, and who abandoned his kingdom, had six sons : Mujum Rao, Kullursi, Moolraj, Seoraj, Phool, Kewala. [8]

When Mangal Rao fled from the king, his children were secreted in the houses of his subjects. A Bhomia named Satidas, of the tribe of Tak, whose ancestors had been reduced from power and wealth by the ancestors of the Bhatti prince, determined to avenge himself, and informed the king that some of the children were concealed in the house of a banker (sahukar). The king sent the Tak with a party of troops, and surrounded the house of Sridhar, who was earned


[p.204]: before the king, who swore he would put all his family to death if he did not produce the young princes of Salivahana. The alarmed banker protested he had no children of the Raja's, for that the infants who enjoyed his protection were the offspring of a Bhomia, who had fled, on the invasion, deeply in his debt But the king ordered him to produce them ; he demanded the name of their village, sent for the Bhomias belonging to it, and not only made the royal infants of Salivahana eat with them, but marry their daughters. The banker had no alternative to save their lives but to consent: they were brought forth in the peasant's garb, ate with the husbandmen (Juts), and were married to their daughters. [9]


Thus the offspring of Kullar-rai became the Kularia Jats. [10]

Those of Moondraj and Seoraj, the Moonda and Seora Jats.[11]

The younger boys, Phool and Kewala, who were passed off as a barber (nai), and a potter (kumhar), fell into that class.[12]

Mangal Rao, who found shelter in the wilds of the Garah, crossed that stream and subjugated a new territory. At this period, the tribe of Baraha inhabited the banks of the river; beyond them were the Boota Rajpoots of Bootaban. In Poogul dwelt the Pramara. Poogul from the most remote times has been inhabited by the Pramar race. It is one of the No-Koti Maroo-ca, the nine castles of the desert. In Dhat in habit the Soda race. The Sodas of Amarkot have inhabited the desert from time immemorial, and are in all probability the Sogdi of Alexander. The Lodra Rajuts lived in Lodorva. See Vol. I, p. 85. [13]

Mangal Rao found security, and with the sanction of the Soda prince, he fixed his future abode in the centre of the lands of the Lodras, the Barahas, and the Sodas. [14]



Mention of Tak - James Tod writes that This incidental mention of the race of Tak in Annals of Jaisalmer, and of its being in great consideration on the settlement of the Yadus in the Punjab, is very important. I have given a sketch of this tribe (Vol. I, p. 93), but since I wrote it, I have discovered the capital of the Tak, and on the very spot where I should have expected the site of Taxila, the capital of Taxiles, the friend of Alexander. In that sketch I hesitated not to say, that the name was not personal, but arose from his being the head of the Takshac or Naga tribe, which is confirmed. It is to Babar, or rather to his translator, that I am indebted for this discovery. In describing the limits of Banu, Babar thus mentions it : "And on the west is Desht, which is also called Bazar and Tak ;" to which the erudite translator adds, "Tak is said long to have been the capital of Damān." In Mr. Elphinstone's map, Bazar, which Baber makes identical with Tak, is a few miles north of the city of Attoc. There is no question that both the river and city were named after the race of Tak or Takshac, the Nagas, Nagavansi, or 'snake race', who spread over India. Indeed, I would assume that the name of Omphis, which young Taxiles had on his father's death, is Ophis, the Greek version of Tak, the 'serpent' The Taks appear to have been established in the same region at the earliest period. The Mahabharata describes the wars between Janamejaya and the Takshacs, to revenge on their king the death of his father Parikshita, emperor of Indraprastha, or Dehli.[15]

Mention of Jats - James Tod writes, Thus it is that the most extensive agricultural races spread all over India, called Jats or Jits, have a tradition that they are descended from the Yadu race, (qu. Yuti?) and that their original country is Kandahar. Such was stated to be the origin of the Jats of Bayana and Bharatpur. Why the descendants of Saran assumed the name of Juts is not stated. [16]

Majam Rao leaves Salivahanpura (731 AD)

On the death of Mangal Rao, he was succeeded by Majam Rao, who escaped from Salivahanpura with his father. He was recognized by all the neighbouring princes, who sent the usual presents on his accession, and the Soda prince of Amarkot made an offer of his daughter in marriage, which was accepted, and the nuptials were solemnized at Amarkot. [17]

Majam Rao had three sons, Rao Kehar, Moolraj, and Gogli.[18]

Rao Kehar had five sons; viz., Tunno, Ooti-rao, Chunnur, Kafrio, Thaem. [19]

Moolraj had three sons, Raj Pal, Lohwa, and Choobar. The elder son had two sons, Ranno and Geegoh ; the first of whom had five sons, Dhookur. Pohor, Bood, Koolroo, Jeipal, all of whom had issue, and became heads of clans. The descendants of Geegoh bore the name of Khengar (qu. chiefs of Girnar ?) The annals of all these states abound with similar minute genealogical details, which to the Rajpoots are of the highest importance in enabling them to trace the affinities of families, but which it is imperative to omit, as they possess no interest for the European reader. I have extracted the names of the issue of Moolraj to shew this. The Khengars were famed in the peninsula of Saurashtra — nine of them ruled in Junagarh Girnar ; and but for this incidental relation, their origin must have ever remained concealed from the archaeologist, as the race has long been extinct. [20]


Rao Kehar became renowned for his exploits. Hearing of a caravan (kafila) of five hundred horses going from Arore to Multan, he pursued them with a chosen band disguised as camel-merchants, and came up with his prey across the Punjnud, where he attacked and captured it, and returned to his abode. By such exploits he became known, and the coco-nut (naryal) was sent to Majam Rao, and his two elder sons, by Allansi Deora, of Jalore. The nuptials were celebrated with great splendour, and on their return, Rao Kehar laid the foundation of a castle, which he named Tanot in honour of Tunno-devi. Ere it was completed, Rao Majam died. [21]

Rao Kehur succeeded Majam Rao. On his accession, Tanot was attacked by Jasrath, chief of the Barahas, because it was erected on the bounds of his tribe ; but Moolraj defended it, and the Barahas were compelled to retire. [22]

Tanot founded (731 AD)

On Mangalwar (Tuesday), the full moon of Mah, S. 787 (A.D.731), the fortress of Tanot was completed, and a temple erected to Tano-Mata. Shortly after a treaty of peace was formed with the Barahas, which was concluded by the nuptials of their chief with the daughter of Moolraj.[23]

James Tod notes that There are but six descents given from Salivahan, the leader of the Yadu colony from Zabulistan into the Punjab, and Kehur, the founder of their frst settlement in the desert of India. The period of the first is S.72, of the other S.787. Either names are wanting, or the period of Salivahan is erroneous. Kehur's period, viz., S.787, appears a landmark, and is borne out by numerous subsequent most valuable synchronisms. Were we to admit one hundred years to have elapsed between Salivahan and Kehur, it would make the period of expulsion from Zabulistan about S.687 (=630 AD). [24]

Rao Kehar

Rao Kehar, a name highly respected in the history of the Bhatti race, and whose exploit has been already recorded, must have been the contemporary of the celebrated Khalif Al Walid, the first whose arms extended to the plains of India, and one of whose earliest conquests and chief positions was Arore, the capital of Upper Sinde. [25]

Rao Kehar had five sons; viz., Rao Tano, Ooti-rao, Chunnur, Kafrio, Thaem. [26]

All of them had offspring, who became the heads of clans, retaining the patronymic. All were soldiers of fortune, and they conquered the lands of the Channa Rajpoots; (The tribe of Channa is now extinct) but the latter revenged themselves upon Kehur, whom they attacked and slew as he was hunting. [27] Rao Tano succeeded Rao Kehar. He laid waste the lands of the Barahas, and those of the Langaha of Multan. But Husein Shah advanced with the Langaha Pathans, clothed in armour with iron helms, with the men of Doodi, of Kheechee; the Khokur ; the Mogul, Johya, the Jadu, and Syed, all mounted on horses, to the number of ten thousand men, to attack the Jadoo.[28]

James Tod notes that Babar in his valuable Autobiography, gives us the names of all the tribes he met in his passage into India, and this enumeration goes far to improve the authenticity of the early annals of the Bhattis. Babar does not mention "the men of Doodi" [29]


[p.210]: They reached the territory of the Barahas, who joined them, and there they encamped. Tunno collected his brethren around him, and prepared for defence. During four days they defended the castle ; and on the fifth the Rao ordered the gates to be thrown open, and with his son, Beeji Rae, sallied out sword in hand, and attacked the besiegers. The Barahas were the first to fly, and they were soon followed by the rest of the Asuras. The victors carried the spoils of the field into Tunnote. As soon as the armies of Multan and Langaha were driven off, the coco-nut came from Jeejoo, chief of the Bootas of Bootaban, and an alliance offensive and defensive was formed against the prince of Multan. [30]


Rao Tano had five sons, Beeji Rai, Makar, Jeytung, Allan, and Rakecho. [31]

The second son, Makar, had issue Maipah, who had two sons, Mohola and Decao, the latter of whom excavated the lake known by his name. His issue became carpenters (sootar), and are to this day known as the Makur sootar. [32]

The third son, Jaitang, had two sons, Rattansi and Chohar. The first repaired the ruined city of Bikampur. Chohir had two sons, Kola and Gir-raj, who founded the towns of Kolasar and Girajsar. These towns and lakes are well known, but have been seized by Bikaner. [33]

The fourth son, Allan, had four sons, Deosi, Tirpal, Bhaoni, and Rakecho. The descendants of Deosi became Rebarris (who rear camels), and the issue of Rakecho became merchants (baniah), and are now classed amongst the Oswal tribe. The Oswal is the richest and most numerous of the eighty-four mercantile tribes of India, and is said to amount to one hundred thousand families. They are called ' Oswal' from their first settlement the town of Ossi. They are all of pure Rajpoot birth, of no single tribe, but chiefly Puars, Solankis, and Bhattis. All profess the Jain tenets, and it is a curious fact, though little.[34]


[p. 211]: Tanno having, by the interposition of the goddess Beejasenni, discovered a hidden treasure, erected a fortress, which he named Beejnot ; and in this he placed a statue of the goddess, on the 13th, the enlightened part of the month Megsir, the Rohini Nikhitra, S. 813 (A.D. 757). He died after ruling eighty years. [35]

Beeji had succeeded in S. 870 (A.D. 814). He commenced his reign with the teeka-dour against his old enemies, the Barahas, whom be defeated and plundered. In S. 892, he had a son by the Boota queen, who was called Deoraj. The Barahas and Langahas once more united to attack the Bhatti prince ; but they were defeated and put to flight. Finding that they could not succeed by open warfare, they had recourse to treachery. Having, under pretence of terminating this long feud, invited young Deoraj to marry the daughter of the Baraha chief, the Bhattis attended, when Beeji Rai and eight hundred of his kin and clan were massacred. Deoraj escaped to the house of the Purohit (of the Barahas, it is presumed), whither he was pursued. There being no hope of escape, the Brahmin threw the Brahminical thread round the neck of the young prince, and in order to convince his pursuers that they were deceived as to the object of their search, he sat down to eat with him from the same dish. Tunnote was invested and taken, and nearly every soul in it put to the sword, so that the very name of Bhatti was for a while extinct. [36]

Deoraj remained for a long time concealed in the territory of the Barahas ; but at length he ventured to Boota, his maternal abode, where he had the happiness to find his mother, who had escaped the massacre at Tanot. [37]

Deoraj immediately commenced erecting a place of strength, which he called after himself Deogarh, or Deorawal, on Monday, the 5th of the month Mah (sudi) the Pookh Nikhitra, S. 909 (853 AD). [38]

Deoraj conquers Lodrawa

To the south of Deorawal dwelt the Lodra Rajputs ; their capital was Lodrawa, an immense city, having twelve gates. The family Purohit, having been offended, took sanctuary (sirna) with Deoraj, and stimulated him to dispossess his old masters of their territory. A marriage was proposed to Nirp-bhan, the chief of the Lodras, which being accepted, Deoraj, at the head of twelve hundred chosen horse, departed for Lodorva. The gates of the city were thrown open as the bridegroom approached ; but no sooner had he entered with his suite, than swords were drawn, and Deoraj made himself master of Lodrawa. He married the chiefs daughter, left a garrison in Lodrawa, and returned to Deorawal. Deoraj was now lord of fifty-six thousand horse, and a hundred thousand camels.[39]

Deoraj had two sons, Moond and Chadu ; the last, by a wife of the Baraha tribe, had five sons, whose descendants were styled Chada Rajputs. Deoraj excavated several large lakes in the territory of Khadal (in which Deorawal is situated) ; one at Tanot is called Tanosar ; another, after himself, Deosar. Having one day gone to hunt, slightly attended, he was attacked by an ambush of the Channa Rajputs, and slain with twenty-six of his attendants, after having reigned fifty-live years. His kin and clans shaved their locks and moustaches, excepting Moond.[40]

Rawal Moond

Rawal Moond, who succeeded Deoraj, and performed all the ceremonies during the twelve days. Having made his ablutions with the water from sixty-eight different wells, in which were immersed the leaves of one hundred and eight different shrubs and trees, a female of spotless virtue waved the burning frankincense over his head. Before him was placed the punchamrita, consisting of curds, milk, butter, sugar, and honey ; likewise pearls, gems, the royal umbrella, the grass called doob, various flowers, a looking-glass, a young virgin, a chariot, a flag or banner, the vela flower, seven sorts of grain, two fish, a horse, a nukhunk (unknown), a bullock, a shell, a lotus, a vessel of water, the tail of the wild ox (chaonr), a sword, a female calf, a litter, yellow clay, and prepared food. Then, seated on the lion's hide, — (on which were painted the seven dwipas or continents of Hindu cosmography, appareled in the dress of the Jogi, and covered with ashes (bhabhut), with the mudra in his ears), — the white chaonr (ox-tail) was waved over his head, and he was inaugurated on the gadi of Deoraj, while the Purohit and chiefs presented their offerings. The teeka-dour was against the assassins of his father, who had congregated for defence, eight hundred of whom were put to death. [41]

Rawal Moond had one son, who was called Bachara. When about fourteen years of age the coco-nut came from Bullub-sen Solanki, Raja of Patun.[42]


James Tod notes that This affords a most important synchronism, corroborative of the correctness of these annals. Raja Bullub-sen of Patun (Anhulwarra) immediately followed Chamund Rai, who was dispossessed of the throne by Mahmud of Ghazni, in the year A.D. 1011, or S. 1067. Bullub-sen died the year of his installation, and was succeeded by Durlubha, whose period has also been synchronically fixed by an inscription belonging to the Pramaras. — See Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol I, p. 223. [43]

Bachera forthwith proceeded to Patun, where he married the Solanki princess, and died not long after his father. [44]

Bachera succeeded on Saturday the 12th Sravan, S. 1035.3 The same rites of installation were performed ; the kanferra (split-eared) Jogi was the first to put the regal tilak on his forehead, and ' his hand upon his back.'[45]

James Tod notes that This date S. 1035, is evidently an error of the copyist Bachera married Bullub-Sen's daughter in S. 1067, and he died in S. 1100 ; so that it should be either S. 1055 or 1065. It is important to clear this point, as Rawul Bachera was the opponent of Mahmoud of Ghizni in his invasion of India, A. H 393, A.D. 1000,=S. 1056 or S. 1066, the Samvat era being liable to a variation of ten years. (Colebrooke). If we are rights a passage of Ferishta, which has puzzled the translators, should run thus : 'Mahmoud directed his march against the Bhatti, and passing Mooltan, arrived at Behra, a Bhatti city."— Compare Dow, Vol. I, p. 58, (4to. edition) and Briggs, Vol. I, p. 38. [46]

Rawal Bachera had five sons, Dusaj, Singh, Bappi Bao, Unkho, and Maal-Posao ; all of whom had issue, forming clans. [47]

A merchant came to Lodorva with a caravan of horses, of which there was one of a race so superior, that a lac of rupees was fixed as his price ; the breed belonged to a Pathan chief, west of the Indus. To obtain it, Doosaj and his son Unkho put themselves at the head of a band, crossed the Indus, slew Gazi Khan, the Pathan chief, and carried off his stud. [48]

Sing had a son, Sacha-rai ; his son was Balla, who had two sons, Ruttun and Jugga ; they attacked the Parihar prince Juggernath of Mandore, and carried off five hundred camels : their descendants are styled Singrao Rajpoots. [49]

Bappi Rao had two sons, Pahoo and Mandan. Pahoo had likewise two, Beerum and Toolir, whose numerous issue were styled the Pahoo Rajpoots. The Pahoos issued from their abode of Beekumpur,and conquered the lands of the Johyas, as far as Devi-jhal; and having made Poogul1 their capital, they dug numerous wells in the thuls, which still go by the name of the Pahoo wells. [50]

Near Khatoh, in the Nagore District of Marwar, there dwelt a warrior of the Kheechee tribe, named Jiddra, who often plundered even to the gates of Poogul, slaying many of the Jytung Bhattis. Doosaj prepared a kafila ( 'caravan,') under pretence of making a pilgrimage to the Ganges, invaded unawares the Kheechee chiefs territory, and slew him, with nine hundred of his men. [51]

Doosaj, with his three brothers, went to the land of Kher, where dwelt Pertap Sing, chief of the Guhilotes,2 whose daughters they espoused. " In the land of Kher, the Jadoon showered gold, enriching it." In the daeja (dower) with his daughter, the Guhilote gave fifteen Dewa-darries, or 'virgin lamp-holders.' Soon after, the Baloches made an inroad into the territory of Khadal ; a battle ensued, in which five hundred were killed, and the rest fled beyond the river. Bachera died, and was succeeded by Dusaj. [52]

Doosaj, in the month of Asar, S. 1100. Hamir, prince of the Sodas made an incursion into his territories, which he plundered. Doosaj having unavailingly remonstrated, reminding him of ancient ties, he marched into Dhat, and gained a victory. [53]

Dusaj had two sons;, Jaisal and Beejiraj, and in his old age a third son, by a Ranawut princess of the house of Mewar, called Lanja Beeji Rai, who, when Doosaj died, was placed on the throne by the nobles and civil officers of the state. Previous to his elevation, he had espoused a daughter of Sidraj Jey Sing, Solanki. During the nuptial ceremonies, as the mother of the bride was marking the forehead of the bridegroom with the tiluk, or ' inauguration mark,' she exclaimed, " My son, do thou become the portal of the north — the barrier between us and the king, whose power is becoming strong."[54]

External links

References

  1. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.218-220
  2. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Appendices/Appendix No.1
  3. Yadu Vamsavali of Bharatpur given by Ganga Singh in his book 'Yadu Vamsa', Part 1, Bharatpur Rajvansa Ka Itihas (1637-1768), Bharatpur, 1967, pp. 19-21
  4. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.196-201
  5. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.201
  6. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.202-203
  7. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.203,fn.1
  8. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.203-204
  9. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.203-204
  10. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204
  11. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204
  12. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204
  13. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204
  14. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204
  15. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.203 fn-4
  16. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.203 fn-3
  17. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204
  18. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204
  19. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.209
  20. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.204, fn-6
  21. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.205
  22. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.205
  23. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.205
  24. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.205,fn-4
  25. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.209
  26. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.209
  27. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.209
  28. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.209
  29. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.209,fn.7
  30. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.210
  31. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.210
  32. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.210
  33. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.210
  34. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.210
  35. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.211
  36. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.211
  37. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.211
  38. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.212
  39. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.214-215
  40. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.215-216
  41. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.216
  42. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.216
  43. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.216, fn.2
  44. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.216
  45. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.216
  46. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.216,fn.3
  47. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.217
  48. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.217
  49. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.217
  50. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.217
  51. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.217
  52. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.217
  53. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.217-18
  54. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Jaisalmer, p.218

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