Chahamans of Marwar
|Author of this article is Laxman Burdak लक्ष्मण बुरड़क|
- 1 Chahamanas of Marwar
- 2 I and II Sadadi and Nadol Inscriptions of Jojaladeva V.S. 1147 (1090 AD)
- 3 III Sevadi Stone Inscription of Ashvaraja S.V. 1167 (1110 AD)
- 4 IV Sewadi Stone Inscription of Katukaraja S.V. 1172 (1115 AD)
- 5 V Bali Stone Inscription of Ashvaka S.V. 1200 (1143 AD)
- 6 VI Sevadi Stone Inscription of Katukadeva S.V. 31 (1143 AD)
- 7 VII Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapala S.V. 1189 (1133 AD)
- 8 VIII Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapala S.V. 1195 (1138 AD)
- 9 IX Nadol Stone Inscription of Rayapala V.S. 1198 (1141 AD)
- 10 X Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapala V.S. 1200 (1143 AD)
- 11 XI Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapaladeva V.S. 1202 (1145 AD)
- 12 XII Kiradu Stone Inscription of Alhanadeva S.V. 1209 (1153 AD)
- 13 XIII Sanderav Inscription of Kalhanadeva S.V. 1221 (1165 AD)
- 14 XIV Nadlai Stone Inscription of Kalhana V.S. 1228 (1172 AD)
- 15 XV Lalrai Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V. 1233 (1176 AD)
- 16 XVI Lalrai Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V.1233 (1176 AD)
- 17 XVII Sanderav Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V. 1236 (1179 AD)
- 18 XVIII Jalor Stone Inscription of Samarasimhaadeva S.V. 1239 (1182 AD)
- 19 XIX Jalor Stone Inscription of Samarasimhaadeva S.V. 1242 (1185 AD)
- 20 XX Bhinmal Stone Inscription of Udayasimhadeva S.V. 1306 (1249 AD)
- 21 XXI Sanchor Stone Inscription of Samantasimha V.S. 1345 (1288 AD)
- 22 XXII Juna Barmer Stone Inscription of V.S. 1352 (1295 AD)
- 23 XXIII Jalor Stone Inscription of Samantasimhadeva S.V. 1353 (1296 AD)
- 24 XXIV Kot Solankiyan Inscription of Vanavira S.V. 1394 (1237 AD)
- 25 XXV Nadlai Stone Inscription of Ranaviradeva S.V. 1443 (1386 AD)
- 26 XXVI and XXVII Sanchor Stone Inscription of Pratapasimhadeva S.V. 1444 (1387 AD)
- 27 See also
- 28 References
Chahamanas of Marwar
This content is manly from the book Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI
In his paper on " The Chahamanas of Naddula, the late Professor Kielhorn has edited the Sundha hill inscription of Chachigadeva, which helps to determine the order of succession and the relationship of the various princes, whose inscriptions had been published, but whose connection with one another had long remained unknown. We are now aware that they were all of the Chahamana dynasty. But there were several families of the Chahamanas that reigned in Rajputana. It was, therefore, necessary to distinguish the line that ruled over Marwar from other branches ruling elsewhere. And Professor Kielhorn chose to group them together under the title "the Chahamanas of Naddula." But some of these Chahamanas reigned at Naddula (Nadol), and some at Jabalipura (Jalor). Strictly speaking, they should, therefore, have been called "the Chahamanas of Naddula and Jabalipura." The descendants of the former are called Nadolias, and of the latter Sonagaras. Again, at Sanchor, inscriptions are found of a Chahamana prince who seems to be neither a Nadolia nor a Sonagara, but rather a Sanchora, another subdivision of the Chohans. Under such circumstances, it is best to designate these Chohans as "the Chahamanas of Marwar."
The subjoined inscriptions were discovered during the two tours undertaken by me in 1907-08 and 1908-09 in the southern and south-eastern parts of Marwar, and this paper is really a supplement to that of Professor Kielhorn, without which it would not have been possible to make my article interesting.
|Sadadi and Nadol Inscriptions of Jojaladeva V.S. 1147 (1090 AD)|
The first of these inscriptions was found at Sadadi, and the second at Nadol, both in the Desuri District, Godvad Division, Jodhpur State. The former is engraved on a pillar in the temple of Jagesvara, but as all the materials of this temple are said to have been brought from ruins elsewhere, it is clear that the inscription did not originally belong to Sadadi. It contains 11 lines of writing. The second inscription is incised on a pillar in the temple of Somesvara, and bears 13 lines. The letters of the first are deeply cut, and, excepting two or three aksharas at the beginning of lines 8-10, the record is well preserved. The second is weather-worn and has not yielded satisfactory impressions. The whole of it, however, is intact. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and both the inscriptions are in prose.
In respect of orthography, it is sufficient to state that the letters b and v are both denoted by the sign for v. Of words unknown or rarely employed, we may note the following : (1) yātrā, (2) satka, (3) vaḍaharaka, (4) shulapāla, and (5) pramadākula. Yātrā is a festival which is held on different days for different gods. The word is frequently met with in the Bhinmal inscriptions. Satka, of course means " belonging to," and, though foreign to classical Sanskrit literature, is found in later inscriptions and in Jaina literature. Vaḍaharaka, I think, is the Sanskritised form of the Marwari word baḍero, meaning "an old man." The word Sulapala, which occurs only in No. II, is given in Monier-Williams' Dictionary to mean " the keeper of a brothel or frequenter of brothels," but the sense intended here seems to be that of " associates of courtezans, who accompany them on musical instruments while singing or dancing." Pramadvkula means obviously a host of courtesans, and is used in this sense also in the Bhinmal inscriptions. The contents of both the inscriptions are almost identical. They are dated on Wednesday, the second of the bright half of Vaisakha in the [Vikrama-] year 1147 and refer themselves to the reign of Jojaladeva, who, in No. I, is styled Maharaja and, in No. II, Maharajadhiraja. They lay down the order of the king with regard to the management of festivals in connection with all the gods, such as Lakshmanasvamin and others. The order is that when the festival of any particular god commences, the courtezans attached to the temples of the other gods must also put on their ornaments and best garments and attend with their Sulapalas to celebrate it by instrumental music, dancing, singing, and so forth. Jojaladeva goes even to the extent of conjuring his descendants and other princes to keep the festivals of all the gods going in this manner, and warns them by adding that he, who, at the time of a festival, attempts to abolish this practice, be he an ascetic, an old person, or a learned man, should be prevented from doing so by the reigning ruler. The inscription ends with a curse on those princes who will not maintain this practice.
In, the temple of Jagesvara at Sadadi, where No. I was engraved on a pillar, other inscriptions also are found, but incised on another pillar of exactly the same style. From them it is clear that the temple of Lakshmanasvamin was at Nadula, i.e. Nadol. Again, in order that the festival of one god may be celebrated by courtezans attached to other temples, all the temples must be in one and the same town, ie. in Nadol. The name of the god Lakshmanasvamin suggests that he was so called, after Lakshmana, the founder of the Marwar branch of the Chauhans.
III Sevadi Stone Inscription of Ashvaraja S.V. 1167 (1110 AD)
|Sevadi Stone Inscription of Ashvaraja S.V. 1167 (1110 AD) |
This inscription is incised on the lintel of the door of a subsidiary shrine in the front corridor temple of Mahavira at Sewari, a village about 5 miles to the sout-east of Bali Pali. It contains 3 lines. The characters are Nagari. The sign for ḍ is worthy of note (e.g. in. Padraḍa, Chhechhaḍiya, and so forth), and occurs in the Nadol copper plate inscription of Kirtipala. Some of the letters are partially engraved. To take an instance, the left upper atroke of ma in Padraḍa-grame in L. 2 is missing, and the letter looks like na. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole record is in prose except the concluding benedictory verse. In respect of orthography, it is sufficient to note that the sign for v denotes both v and b. As regards lexicography, the following words may be noticed: jagati and maha-sihaniya in L. 1, and Java and Haraka in L. 2. Jagati is found in many inscriptions in the sense of f "the grounds". It corresponds, in my opinion, to the Hindi word jagah or jagya and the Marathi word jaga. Sahaniya most probably corresponds to the desi word sahani, meaning "master of stables." The same word occurs as a title of two Paramara Rajputs in an inscription incised on a jamb of the hall door of the Nlakantha-Mahadeva temple at Nana. Java and hiraka are also found in another inscription in the same temple at Sevadi. They occur as haraka and Java in No. XV below. Both are used in connection with an arahta (araghatta), i.e. a well with a wheel attached there to for drawing water. From this it appears that Java or Java must be taken in the sense of yava, barley-corn. Haraka seems to be the same as the Marathi word hara, a large basket of a particnlar form and of loose texture, often used in measuring corn. This receives confirmation from No. XV. The inscription is dated on the first of the bright half of Chaitra of the [Vikrama] year 1167, when Asvaraja was the Maharajadhiraja and Katukaraja the yuvaraja, or heir-apparent. It then records a grant by Uppalaraka, son of Uttimaraja and grandson of Puavi, the Great Master of Stables (maha-sahaniya), together with his family, the names of some of whose members are specified. The gift was made for the daily worship of Sri-Dnarmanathadeva in the temple of Samipati, and what was granted was barley-corn equal to one haraka from everyone of the wells (arahata) belonging to the villages of Padrada, Medramcha, Chhechhadiya and Maddadi.
Localities mentioned - Of the localities mentioned, Samipati is doubtless Sevadi, which is also pronounced as Semvadi. And Dharmanathadeva must be unquestionably the divinity installed in the cell, above the door of which the inscription is engraved. Chhechhadiya again must be Chhechhli, about 4 miles to the north of Sevadi. The rest are unidentifiable. :
Notes by Wiki editor -
- Samipati (समीपाटी) = Sewari (सेवाड़ी) is a village in Bali Pali Tahsil of Pali district in Rajasthan.
- Chhechhadiya (छेछडिया) = Chhechhli, about 4 miles to the north of Sevadi.
- Padrada (पद्राडा)= ?
- Medramcha (मेद्रंचा) = ?
- Maddadi (मद्दड़ी) = ?
IV Sewadi Stone Inscription of Katukaraja S.V. 1172 (1115 AD)
|Sewadi Stone Inscription of Katukaraja S.V. 1172 (1115 AD) |
The inscription is incised on the lintel of the door of another cell in the front corridor of the temple of Mahavira at Sevadi. It is highly weather-worn and cannot consequently be easily deciphered. It was again bedaubed with red-lead, when I was there, I do not know for what purpose. An estampage taken of it with my own hands has, however, enabled me to read almost the whole of it with certainty. It consists of 8 lines. The characters are Nagari. The sign for b occurs in the inscription, e.g. in vibudha-pati in L.1, bal-adhipah in L.4, and so forth. The language is Sanskrit, and., excepting the opening Om and the date at the end, the whole of the inscription is in verse. The verses are numbered and are 15 in all.
One solecism occurs in sriy-adhara in L. 2. In respect of orthography, the only points that call for notice are (1) the occasional use of the letter v both for v and b and (2) the substitution of n for ṇ in conjunct consonants, e.g. in punyavismitah L.3, vitirnnam, L.6, and so forth. As regards lexicography, attention may be drawn to the word Khattaka occurring in L.7. I came across the same -word in an inscription in a shrine of the Jaina temple at Pali, the principal town of the district of the same name, Jodhpur State. This word occurs also in the Abu inscriptions, e.g. it is used in L.40 of Inscription No. I. (above, Vol. VIII, p. 213), where the meaning of 'niche' appears to be all but certain. This sense fits here exactly. In line 3 again, is the word bhukti, which does not here simply denote a territorial division as elsewhere, but rather a province or a group of villages enjoyed aa jagir. Lastly, the carious expression Maghe Tryamva(ba)ka-sampraptau in L.6 also deserves to be noticed in this connection. It literally means "in Magha on the arrival of Tryambaka (Siva), and I am all but certain that it denotes what is popularly kuown ay the Siva-ratri, the 14th of the dark half of Magha.
The inscription opens with an invocation of Shntinatha, the sixteenth Tirthankara. Verse 2 gives the name of Anahila, and his son named Jimda is mentioned in the verse following as proficient in polity and as belonging to the Chahamana dynasty. His son was Ashvaraja, and the son of the latter was Katukaraja (vv. 4-5). In verse 6 we are told that in his bhukti, i.e. the province enjoyed by him, was the town named Samipati (Sevadi), and at this place there was a temple of Viranatha (Mahavira), bearing comparison with paradise. From verse 7 onwards we are introduced to a different line of descent. In this verse we are informed that there was one Yasodeva, leader of the army (bal-adhipa), of pure soul, and foremost in the assemblies of kings and mahajanas (banias). The next verse says that he, of equable mind, was never flagging in conferring favours on the relatives, friends, and virtuous people of the Shanderaka gackchha. His son was Bahada, who was well known amongst the learned like Visvakarma (verse 9), and the son of Bahada was Thallaka, who was devoted to the Jaina religion and was an object of the king's favour (verse 10) . To Thallaka an annual benefaction of eight drammas was made by Katukaraja on the Siva-ratri day in the month of Magha (vv. 11-12). Verse 13 expresses a wish for the continuance of the gift so long as the sun and the moon last made for the worship of Shaninatha in the Khattaka of Yasodeva. In the next verse we are told that the image of Shantinatha in the temple of Jina in Samipati was caused to be made by his grandfather. The last is an imprecatory verse, threatening with punishment those who would resume the grant. The inscription ends with the mere date Samvat 1172, corresponding to A.D.1115. It will be seen from the above account that the grantor was Katukaraja, son of Asraraja. But he does not appear to have been a ruler at the time. For in none of the verses is he spoken of as king, and in verse 6 we are informed, as we have seen, that Samipati (Sevadi) was in his bhukti. Here neither the word rajya which would have suited the metre, nor any other term synonymous with it is used. This shows that even in A.D. 1115, the date of the inscription, he was a yuvaraja enjoying some villages as jagir. Shamderaka-sad-gachchha is no doubt the same as the Samderaka gachchha of the Nadol plates of Alhanadeva dated V.E. 1218, and the Sandera or Shanderaka gachchha, of the Mount Abu inscriptions. Sandera or Shanderaka is to be identified with the present Sanderao, 10 miles north-west of Bali, the principal town of the district of the same name, Godvad Division. The name occurs also in an inscription in the temple of Mahavira at that place (below No. XVI). It is one of the many instances in which the Jaina gachchhas are called after the names of places in Marwar.
Notes by Wiki editor -
- Shanderaka (षंडेरक) = Sanderao in Sumerpur tahsil in Pali district, Rajasthan.
- Shamipati (शमीपाटी) = Sewari is a village in Bali Tahsil of Pali district in Rajasthan.
- Khattaka (खत्तक) = niche
V Bali Stone Inscription of Ashvaka S.V. 1200 (1143 AD)
|Bali Stone Inscription of Ashvaka S.V. 1200 (1143 AD) |
This inscription was found at Bali. It is engraved on one of the lintels resting on the pillars of the sabhamandapa of the temple of Bola alias Bahuguṇa-mata. It contains 6 lines of writing. Excepting the greater portion of line 1 and a few letters in line 5, it is well preserved. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the record is in prose, excepting one verse in ll.4-5, In respect of orthography, the only point that deserves to be noted is the doubling of a consonant in conjunction with a preceding r. As regards lexicography, attention may be drawn to the word grata in L.2, which corresponds to the modern giras, signifying the landed possesses of a member of one of the ruling tribes. In linee 3 antf 4 occur some abbreviations such as bho, pu, vaand so forth. I do not know what their full forms are.
The inscription opens with the date, of which all the details are lost except the vikrama year 1200. It refer, itself to the victorious and blessed reigns of Maharajadhiraja-Jayasimhadeva of Chalukya dynasty and speaks of Maharaja Shri-Ashvaka as his feudatory. At that time the village of Varahi was enjoyed as giras by the queen Shri-Tihunaka. It then records a grant of four drammas by Bopanava-sthabhana, son of Palha, in connection with festival of goddess Bahugughrina. It records one dramma given to goddess, two drammas to the Samgha-pati Galapalyadiya, son of Chohadi and resident at the village of Thambhila, one dramma to Valhana and Garavata, sons of Mohana, one dramma each to the machine wells, such as those named Sitka, Bhariya, Bohada, Mahiya, and so forth, one dramma to the Bhumidari Buta, and so on. The record was written by one Kulachandra. The feudatory chieftain Asvaka referred to herein is doubtless identical with the Asvaraja of the two previous inscriptions. Valahi must be the modern Bali, and the goddess Bahughrina the same as Bahnguna or Bola-mata, in whose temple the inscription is engraved.
Notes by Wiki editor -
- Balahi (बालही) = Bali Pali. There is also one village named Balahi in Thanesar , Haryana.
- Thambhila (थांभिल) = ?
- Bhariya (भरिया) = A Jat clan
- Bohra (बोहङा) = A Jat clan
- Mahiya (महिया) = A Jat clan
- Bola = Name of goddess also Bahuguṇa-mata.
VI Sevadi Stone Inscription of Katukadeva S.V. 31 (1143 AD)
|Sevadi Stone Inscription of Katukadeva S.V. 31 (1143 AD)|
This inscription also was found at Sevadi, near a house in front of the Jaina temple of Mahavira. It is what is called there a surabhi stone, i.e. a stone which is surmounted with the sculpture of a cow and her calf and with the sun and the moon on each side. Inscription is mutilated in several places, and the letters have become very much worn. The inscription is of no importance except for what is contained in the first three lines, about the reading of which there remains no donbt. They give the date Sam 31 Bhada[va]da [su]di 11, and state that Katudeva was at that time Maharajadhiraja and reigning at Nadula (Nadol) aud that Samipati was being enjoyed by (his son) Jayatasiha, the Yuvaraja, or heir-apparent. This Katudeva is the same as the Katukaraja of Nos. III. and IV., above, and, as we know that he was the Yuvaraja from V.E. 1167 to 1172, the only era, to which we can refer the year 31, the date of this inscription, is that started by the Chalukya sovereign Siddharaja- Jayasimha, commonly known as Simha-Samvat. It then becomes equivalent to V.E. 1200 or A.D. 1143. That the province of Gadvad was included in the dominions of Siddharaja-Jayasimha is proved by the preceding inscription. It is, therefore, not at all improbable the year 31 of our record belongs to the Simha era.
VII Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapala S.V. 1189 (1133 AD)
|Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapala S.V. 1189 (1133 AD)|
This inscription was found in a Jaina temple at Nadlai, 8 miles to the north-west of Desuri, the principal town of the district of the same name, Godvad Division. The temple is now dedicated to Adinatha, but there can be no doubt, as will be seen from other inscriptions, that it was originally dedicated to Mahavira. The inscription in question is engraved on a lintel standing on two pillars in the sabha-mandapa. The lines of the inscription run parallel to one another but not to the edges of the lintel, and the tops of some of the concluding letters in the first line have been cut off, necessarily being outside the upper edge of the lintel. This points to the conclusion that the sabha-mandapa was rebuilt some time after the date of the inscription, and that the lintel on which it is incised is no longer preserved in its original form. The record contains 6 lines of writing. The surface of the stone does not appear to have been dressed before engraving the inscription, and the letters also do not seem to have been carefully incised. The characters are Nagari. Of these y is written as if it were p, as is often seen in Sanskrit manuscripts. Next, the form of the letter 4 in Naduladdgika, L.2, is worthy of note and is exactly like that noted in No. III. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose, excepting a verse at the end, which, however, offends against the metre. In respect of orthography, it deserves to be noticed first that there is but one b in the inscription and it is denoted by the sign for v, in vrahama(hma), L.5, and secondly, that the final consonant is represented by the addition, of the suffix u as, e.g. yad by yadu in L.5. The same orthographic peculiarity I have noticed in the later copper-plate inscriptions of the Guhilot princes, which are found in Godvad. As regards lexicography, the words pala, and palika employed in L.3 doubtless denote some kind of liquid measure. Details of it have been, set forth in Beruni, Indica, Vol. I. p. 164. Attention may also be drawn to the abbreviated forms herein employed, bham, L.3, and ra and vi, L.4. bham , of coarse, stands for bhamdari, the name of a well-known subdivision of the Osvals, and ra for rauta which is supposed to be a corruption of rajaputra, and is the same as the modern Ravat, one of the designations borne by Rajput jagirdars. I do not know the full form of vi. In L.3 is used the word ghanaka, which corresponds to ghani and signifies an oil-mill. It is frequently met with in inscriptions. The inscription is dated the 5th of the bright half of Magha in the [Vikrama] year 1189, and speaks of a grant made by Rudrapala and Amritapala, sons of the Maharajadhiraja Rayapala of the Chahamana dynasty, in conjunction with their queen-mother Manaladevi. The gift was of two palikas out of those due to the royal family from each oil-machine (ghanaka) and was made for the (Jaina) saints in and outside Naduladagika (Nadlai). The witnesses to this religious benefaction were the villagers (graminaka) Ttimata, a Rauta, Siriya a vi, Posari a bania, and Lakshmana, headed by Nagasiva, a bhandari. They apparently formed the pamcha of the village.
VIII Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapala S.V. 1195 (1138 AD)
|Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapala S.V. 1195 (1138 AD)|
This inscription also was found at Nadlai, but in the temple of Neminatha, locally known as Jādvāji, situated on a small hill to the south-east of the village. It is engraved on a pillar, and is, on the whole, well preserved. It consists of 26 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, As regards orthography, the only point that calls for notice is the use of matu for mat(a) in matulattah, L.22. Of unknown or rare words bhoktari, L.9, Sheka, L. 11, and ābhāvya, L.12, may be noticed. For the first I can suggest no meaning. Seka is perhaps the same as the Sanskrit sikya meaning " a kind of loop or swing made of rope and suspended from either end of a pole or yoke to receive a load (also applied to the load so carried). The word abhavya has, in my opinion, the sense of " income, proceeds," and occurs in no less than three different compounds in a Mangrol inscription of V.E. 1202. It is also employed as a component of another compound in Bhinmal inscriptions Nos. XII and XV. Perhaps another word may also be noticed, vis. rāuta, which occurs in LL. 8 and 21. It is evidently a corruption of Rajaputra and is the same aa Rajput, but is here nsed to denote apparently a jagirdar. The inscription opens with obeisance to the Omniscient, who is here Neminatha. It then gives the date, m. Tuesday, the 16th of the dark half of Asvina in the [Vikrama] year 1195, and refers to the rule of the Maharajadhiraja Rayapaladeva over Naduladagika (Nadlai). It then states that for lamp, incense, offering, flowers, worship and so forth of Sri-Neminatha, the thakura, Rajadeva, son of the rauta Udharana of the Guhila family, granted for his spiritual merit one-twentieth part of the income (abhavya) derived from the loads on bullocks going on their way or coming to Nadlai. Then a request is made to future rulers for the preservation of the grant ; and Pamsila is given as the name of the individual who wrote the record. Then comes the sign-mannal of Rajadeva, who is here called a rāuta, which is followed by the name of the witness Gugi, son of the astrologer Dudupa. The last three lines are not intelligible to me.
- Naduladagika (नङलडागिक) = Modern Nadlai is a village in Desuri Tahsil of Pali district in Rajasthan.
- Rao (राउ) = A title and Gotra of Jats
- Sheka (शेक) = ? Meaning not explained. We find a Gotra Shekwal of wife of Rao Burdakdeo (1000 AD) in the history of Burdaks.
IX Nadol Stone Inscription of Rayapala V.S. 1198 (1141 AD)
|Nadol Stone Inscription of Rayapala V.S. 1198 (1141 AD)|
This inscription was discovered at Nadol, abont 10 miles north-west of Desuri, and is incised on a pillar in the temple of Somesvara. A transcript of the first 3 lines has been given by the late Professor Kielhorn, above Vol. IX. p ( 159. The record contains 39 lines of writing. The letters are so weather-worn that even a satisfactory estampage is not possible, but with a little care and patience the whole of the inscription can be read with certainty on the original stone. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose. Some of the solecisms that occur in the record are nirgamate, L.20, nirgamamtanam, L.15, and nirgamapayamtanam, L.19. In respect of orthography, it is sufficient to note (1) that t is (correctly) doubled in conjunction with a preceding r in pravarttamane, L.3, (2) that the dental s is frequently substituted for the palatal s, (3) that the sign for v is used also for b, and (4) that there is a curious tendency exhibited here of ending proper names with u or ū. The desi words employed are (1) vādā or vadau, vasu and pidi (LL. 4-8) which still in Marwar have the sense of wards or localities in a town ; (2) pela, a belly, (3) avasara, L.24, i.e. osrā or osri, ante-chamber or porch and (4) chaukadika, L.13, of uncertain meaning, hat apparently signifying a, panchayat. The unusual words used in the inscription are (1) karpatika, L.12, a pilgrim or caravan of pilgrims, (2) dauvarika, doorkeepers of kings, known as Dudidars in Rajasthan, and (3) kaya-vrata, L.21, which doubtless has the same sense as that of the word traga or chandi, i.e. a kind of privation and self-immolation so commonly practised once in Rajasthan and Gujarat by Brahmanas and Bhats to force the kings to relent and grant their wishes. Two curious expressions occurring in the record also deserve to be noticed. The first petam prishitim va darsayati, LL. 20-21, and the second va(ba)le-pi gramthir-n-asti, L. 23, both, of which are desi idioms unknown to Sanskrit literature. The former consists of two separate expressions : (1) petam darsayati lit- " shows his belly " but really " asks for means of livelihood," and (2) prishtim darsayati lit- "shows his back," i.e. " flies away and thus shirks his responsibility." The second exactly corresponds to the Hindi phrase even now in use, in Rajasthan at any rate, viz. bal par bhi gamth nahi, which is employed for absolving a man from all blame.
The inscription opens with the date, vis. Sunday, the 8th of the dark half of Sravana in the [Vikrama] year 1198, and refers itself to the blessed and victorious reign of the Maharajadhiraja Sri-Rayapaladeva. It then makes mention of sixteen Brahmanas of the town of Dhalopa, residing in. eight different wards, Virigu and Prabhakara belonged to Merivada Asadu and Mahadu to Dipavada, Deu and Ghahadi to Dumdanavasu, Muhamkaru and Divakaru to Bhamguravadau, Devaichu and Dharaij to Pipalavada, Narayana and Mahaicha to Amvilavada, Asigu and Asapalu to Khaikhannalavada, and Devamgu and Amvigu to Bhumdavada. Headed by all these Brahmanas, two from each of the eight wards of Dhalopa and with Devaicha as the mediator, the whole people of the town tendered a document written (i.e. signed) with their own hands. It contains a solemn promise on their part to find out, in accordance with the custom of the country, by means of the chaukadika or panchayat system, whatever is lost 1 , by, or snatched away from, the bhata, bhattaputra, dauvarika, karpatika, Vannijaraka, and others on their way. If it was, however, lost at their own place, i.e. at any particular ward in Dhalopa, the responsible individuals thereof already named were to find it out in person. Money, weapons, watchmen, and so forth were supplied by the Maharaja Sri-Rayapala to them for tracing things lost, and so there was no need of assigning the duties of a watchman to any one amongst them. A declaration was also made to the effect that, if any Brahmana amongst them, when being asked by chiefs (ranaka), to find out some lost property, refused to do so, asked for means of subsistence or fled away, or, if apprehended, had recourse to kayayavrata or self-immolation, he would die like a cur, donkey, or chandala, and the chiefs (ranaka], such as Rayapala and others, would in no wise be open to blame. Then is given a list of the names of the individuals "who bore witness to the document, They are as follow: (1) Katuka and the Brahmana Sajanu come from, i.e., representing the Bhattaraka tla(?) (residing) in the avasara (osra) of the temple belonging to Sri-Jayasimhadeva, (2) the bhatttaraka Varunasiu of (the temple of) Anahilesvara, (3) the bhattaraka Mahesvarasiu of (the temple of) Jendrarajesvara, (4) the bhattaraka Jnanasiu of (the temple of) Anupamavesvara, (5) the bhatttaraka Isanu attached (pratibaddha) to the bhattaraka Bhopa of (the temple of) Prithvipalesvara, (6) the bhattaraka Muktideu of (the tmple of) Jojaleshvara (7) the bhattarakaa Vinayaka and Samtisiu of (the temple of) Tripurusha, (8) the bhattaraka Muladeu of (the temple of) Asalesvara, (9) the bhattarakaa Tatapurusha of (the temple of) Padmalesvara, (10) the bhattaraka Kedaru of (the temple of) [Tripala]kesvara, (11) the bhattaraka Brahmarasi of (the temple of) Asapalesvara, (12) the aboti Sagahari belonging to Dvaravati and of (the temple of) Prithvipalesvara, (13) the aboti Jagadharu belonging to Dvaravati and of (the temple of) Asalesvara, (14) the aboti Sri-Vachhu belonging to Dvaravati and of (the temple of) Tripurusha, (15) the whole class of bankers (mahajana), suck as Devadhara and others, belonging to Anahillapura, and (16) the whole class of bankers such as Seth Jasadhavala Katakavala, and so forth. Then in 1LL. 37-39 we are informed that the record was written, i.e. drawn up, I think, by the thakwra Pethada, son of Vadiga, a Gauda Kayastha, with the consent of the people of Dhalopa. At the end is a line, stating that the record is approved by all the people of Dhalopa.
Of the places mentioned, Dhalopa is obviously the village of that name, about 4 miles to the south-south-west of Nadol. Anahillapura is, of course, Anhilvada near the modern Patana, in the Kadi Division, Baroda State. Dvaravati is doubtless Dwarka on the western coast of Kathiavad. Of the caste names mentioned, Bhata is the same as bhat or bards, Bhatta-putra is most likely intended for Barhot, the higher class of professional panegyrists. Dauvurika is probably not a caste-name, and signifies here what are known as Dudidars in Rajasthan. Vanijjaraka is Vanjaria, whose hereditary calling is that of carrying grains on pack-bullocks. The name occurs under the form of vanajaraka in No. XI. below and vanijyaraka in a copper-plate grant of Tribhuvanapaladeva. Alotis are an inferior class of Brahmanas, who are generally temple servants, and are still chiefly found in Dvarka. Of the names of the Bhattaraka of temples, many end in siū (Siva), two in deū (deva], and only one in rasi. I have elsewher said that of the four well-known sects of the followers of Siva, those whose names ended in Siva were Saivas, and those whose names ended in rasi were Lakulisha Pasupatas. But to what sect the ascetics who bore the honorific suffix deu (deo) belonged, is not clear. Again the gods, to whose temples the bhattaraka were attached, were, it will be seen, named after the kings. The god Jayasimhadeva was doubtless called after the Chalukya sovereign Jayasimha. Anahilesvara after Anahilla, great-gradson of Lakshmana, the founder of the Chahamana family of Marwar; Jendrarajevara after Jendraraja or Jinduraja, son of Analiilla, Prithvipalesvara and Jojalesvara, after the first and second sons of Jendraraja ; and Asalesvara who is the same as Asapalesvara of L.32, after Asvapala, elder brother of Anhilla, Anupameshvara Padmalesvara and [Tripala]kesvara must similarly have been named, bat priests of these names have not yet been traced in inscriptions.
- Dhalopa (धालोप) =
- Merivada (मेरीवाडा) = ?
- Dipawada (डीपावाडा) = ?
- Pipalawada (पीपलवाडा) = ?
- Khaikhannalawada (खइखन्लावाडा) = ?
- Mundawara (भुंडवाडा) =
X Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapala V.S. 1200 (1143 AD)
|Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapala V.S. 1200 (1143 AD)|
This inscription was found in the temple of Adinatha at Nadlai, and is engraved on a lintel just opposite to that on which No. VII is inched. It contains 5 lines of writing. The letters were filled with plaster when I first saw the inscription. The plaster had afterwards to be scraped of for enabling us to read the inscription. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the record is in prose excepting the verse at the end, the last pada of which sets the metre at naught. As regards orthography, the only points that call for notice are (1) the use of Jatu for yad and (2) the use of the dental for the palatal sibilant. In line 3 occur the curious words vala and pli, of which the first appears to be incorrectly used for pala and the second apparently an abbreviated form of palika. In line 2 the word paila is used, which seems to signify a certain kind of weight. The same word occurs in the same sense in No. XL. In the Sunak grant of the Chaulukya king Karnadeva has also used this term. Local inquiries in Godvad have given me the following table :
- 4 paila = 1 payali. 5 payali =1 mana . 4 mana = 1 sei, 4 sei = 1 man
Another word that may be noted is vimsopaka, which not infrequently occurs in other inscriptions also. It is doubtless a coin, which is equivalent in value to 1/20 of the rupee that was then current. The inscription opens with the date, vis, Thursday, the 5th of the bright half of Jeshta ( Jyaishtha) in the [Vikrama] year 1200, when the Maharajadhiraja Sri-Rayapaladeva was reigning. It then records that the rauta Rajadeva, who had come on the occasion of the rathayatra, i.e. the car festival, made, for the sake of his mother, in the presence of the bankers (mahajanas), villagers and the people of the province, a religions benefaction consisting of one vimsopaka coin from the value of pailas accruing to him and two palikas from the palas of oil due to him from every ghanaka or oil mill.
XI Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapaladeva V.S. 1202 (1145 AD)
|Nadlai Stone Inscription of Rayapaladeva V.S. 1202 (1145 AD)|
The inscription is engraved on the same lintel as No. X. It contains 5 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and, excepting the usual imprecatory verse at the end, the whole of the record is in prose. As regards orthography, the only points that call for notice are that a consonant following r is doubled, and that in L.5 Jatu is used instead of yat. Of rare and unusual words herein employed and not previously noticed, desi occurs in L. 3, and kiradaud and gada in L. 4. The last is used in the sense of "cart," and kiradaua is, I am told, the same as kiradua or kirana employed to denote substances, such as gum, dry ginger, black pepper, coriander, and so forth. The meaning of the word desi is not quite certain. It seems tempting to take it in the sense of a guild, in which it occurs in the Peheva inscription of the imperial Pratihara Bhojadeva I. (above, Vol. I, p. 187, L. 8) and the Harsha inscription of the Chahamana Vigraharaja (above, Vol. II. p. 124, L. 38). And this meaning suits here excellently. The same word occurs in another inscription found in the same temple as this, and apparently in the same sense. Another expression that requires to be noted is la(la)ga-mana the meaning of which seems to be " the measure or proportion (mana) of cess (laga)." The inscription opens with the date, viz. Friday, the 5th of the dark half of Asoja (Asvina) in the [Vikrama] year 1202, when Rayapaladeva was the Maharajadhiraja and the rauta Rajadeva was the thakura of Naduladagika (Nadlai). The object of the inscription is to record that the Vanajarakas (Vanjaras) of Abhinavapuri, Badari and Nadlai having assembled together into a guild (desi), Rajadeva granted, for the sake of the pious and the ascetics in the temple of Mahavira, rupees two for each twenty pailas loaded on bullocks and rupee one for each cart filled with commodities, coming under the class of kiranas. Badari is probably Borli, 8 miles north of Nadlai. Abhinavapuri (?) is unknown to me.
Notes by Wiki editor:
- Badari (बदरी) = Garhbor in Kumbhalgarh tahsil in Rajsamand district in Rajasthan, has been identified with Badari (बदरी), See - Garhbor Inscription of 1444 AD.
- Abhinavapuri (अभिनवपुरी) = (?)
XII Kiradu Stone Inscription of Alhanadeva S.V. 1209 (1153 AD)
|Kiradu Stone Inscription of Alhanadeva S.V. 1209 (1153 AD)|
This inscription was found in a Saiva temple standing amidst the ruins of Kiradu near Hathma, about 16 miles north-north-west of Badmer, the principal town of the Malani District, Jodhpur State . A transcript and translation of it have already been published in the Bhavnagar Prakrit and Sanskrit Inscriptions, p, 172 ff. But this, like almost all the inscriptions in this book, is edited in a slovenly manner, and I, therefore, make no excuse for re-editing it here. The inscription consists of 21 lines. The middle portion of the stone as far as line 17 has peeled off. Nothing of importance, how- ever seams to have been destroyed, and the purport of the inscription is clear enough. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the record is in prose. As regards orthography, it is sufficient to note (1) that a consonant following r is doubled and (2) that the sign for is employed also for b, except once in labdha in L. 2. In L. 13 occurs the word amarirudhi which, though known to Jaina scriptures, is foreign to Sanskrit literature. It means " the edict of the non-slaughter (of animals)." The record opens with the date, viz. Saturday, the 14th of the dark half of Magha in the vikrama year 1200, when Kuma(ma)rapala was the paramount sovereign and Mahadeva was doing all the business of the seal, relating to the drawing up of documents, etc Lines 4-6 apeak of his feudatory, the Maharaja Sri- Alahadeva, who obtained Kiratakupa, Latarhada and Shiva - through his (i.e. Kumarapala's) favour. Then we are told that Alahadeva on the date which was the shivaratri day, thinking the granting of security to animals to be the highest gift, issued injunctions, for the increase of his spiritual merit and fame, to the Mahajanas, Tambulikas, and other subjects forbidding the slaughter of living animals on 8th, 11th and 14th of both fortnights of every month in three towns named above and threatening with capital punishment those who killed or caused others to kill living beings. The Brahmana priests, ministers and others were also ordered to respect this edict of non-slaughter. And amongst these, he who commits the sin of taking life, should, it is stated, fined five drammas, but if the sinner be one attached to the king, ho should bo fined one dramma only. Then comes the sign-manual of the personage who issued the edict, who is here called Maharaja Sri-Alhanadeva, followed by the approval of the great princes, Kelhana and Gajasimha. The edict was written by the thakkura Keladitya, minister peace and war. Then we are informed, in a postscript, that this gift of safety to animals was caused to be proclaimed, with the permission of the king, by Putiga and Saliga sons of Subhamkara, of the Porvad caste and residents of Nadulapura (Nadol). The inscription ends with the information that it was engraved by the sutradhara Bhaila. Putiga and Suliga are no doubt the same individuals that had a similar edict promulgated through Girijadevi queen of Punapakshadeva, a feudatory of Rayapala and ruling over the province of Ratnapura, the south most district of Marwar.
This edict applies to two classes: (1) Merchants (Mahajanas) and (2). Betel0sellers (Tambulakaras). It implies that some Brahmans at that time in Marwar were flesh eaters. The three towns mentioned were secured by Alhanadeva through the favour of Kumarapala. These are:
- 1. Kiratakupa (किराटकूप) = Kiradu in Barmer Rajasthan, where the present Inscription was found.
- 2. Latarhada (लाटर्हद) = It must be same Latarhada occuring in Bhinmal Inscriptions XI and XII and Ratarhada in Sindha hill Inscription of Chachigadeva. It must be Raḍdhaḍa which was the riginal name of district in Malani province, Marwar.
- 3. Sheo (शिव) - Sheo is present Sheo town in Barmer Rajasthan
Notes by Wiki editor -
- Kiratakupa (किराटकूप) = Kiradu in Barmer Rajasthan
- Latarhada (लाटर्हद) = ?
- Sheo (शिव) - Sheo in Barmer Rajasthan
XIII Sanderav Inscription of Kalhanadeva S.V. 1221 (1165 AD)
|Sanderav Inscription of Kalhanadeva S.V. 1221 (1165 AD)|
This inscription was found at Sanderao, about 10 miles north-west of Bali Pali. It is engraved on a lintel in the sabha-mandapa of the temple of Mahavira. The record contains 4 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose. As regards lexicography, Kalyanika or Kalyanaka occurs in LL. 1 and 3, and yugamdhari and haela in LL. 2 and 4, and talarabhavya in L. 2. Kalyanika is a term peculiar to Jaina theology. Kalyanikas are the auspicious days, five in number, on which took place (1) the chyatana (conception) , (2) janma (birth), (3) diksha (initiation), (4) kevalajnana (enlightenment) and (5) nirvana (final beatitude) of each of the Tirthamkara. The expression occurs in No. II of the Mount Abu inscriptions edited by Dr. Ludera ; and on the door jambs of the subsidiary cells in the temple of Tejapala at Delvada, the pancha-kalyanika are specified of all the , Tirthankaras to whom they are dedicated. The meaning of yugandhari and of haela is unknown to me. Bat I surmise that haela here stands for hala and that yugandhari is the name of a specific kind of corn known as jvar. The sense of the remaining word, viz. talarabhavya is also not certain. The expression no doubt occurs in Mangrol Inscription where it is translated as “the revenue of talara” which hardly helps us. The same word occurs talara or talaraksha in Chirwa inscription.
The Inscription is dated on Friday, the second half the dark half of Magha V.S. 1221 of the reign of Shri Kelhanadeva. It states that Analadevi, the queen mother of Kelhanadeva granted land which could be plaughed in one day from the king's personal property (bhoga) to the god Mahavira, the primeval deity of Sanderaka-gachchha, to celebrate kalyanika. One drumma was also given by the Rashtrakutas Patu and Kelhan and their brother's sons Uttamasiha, Mudrama, Kanhana,Ahada, Asala, Anatiga and others with reference to the same kalyanika. Similarly haela of Yugandhara was also granted by rathakaras or cart-builders Dhanapala, Murapala, Jopala, Sigada, Amiyapala, Jisahada, Delhana and so forth all residing at Sanderaka in connection with kalyanika falling on 13th of the bright half of chaitra.
Analadevi mentioned in the Inscription as queen mother of Kelhanadeva must be same as Annulladevi spoken of as in the Nadol plates as the consort of Alhana, father of Kelhana. In the last inscription she is represented as daughter of Sahula of the Rashtrauda family. Patu, Kelhana and so forth, referred to our inscription, must therefore be taken to be relatives from her father's side.
XIV Nadlai Stone Inscription of Kalhana V.S. 1228 (1172 AD)
|Nadlai Stone Inscription of Kalhana V.S. 1228 (1172 AD)|
This Inscription was found near the temple of Mahadeva, about one mile south-west of Nadlai. The shrine of it is really a natural cave, and this is the reason why it is also is written bhamyara ka mandir i.e. subterranean temple. It originally had a sabha-mandapa which is now destroyed. It contains 3 lines of writing. It is partly in Sanskrit and partly in vernacular language. Here svasti is twice used as svasti Sonana and svasti Nadule. As regards Orthography 1. it uses kunvara for kumara in L.1 and 2. itaka for ishtaka and date 1228 in L.1 is written half in ciphers and lalf in letters. With reference to rare or unusual words, the following may be noticed : (1) akshasama, (2) Lapaniya, (3) dama and (4) chakutapana, the meaning of none of which is known to me.
The inscription opens with the date viz. Monday the 13th of margashirsha in the [Vikrama] year 1228, during the victorious reign of the Chaulukya sovereign Kumarapala', when Kelhana was raler of Nadulya, and Rana Lakhamana of Voripadyaka, and Anasiha was the thakura of Sonana. It then states that the mandapa, akshasama, and dama of the temple Bhivadeshwara ware constructed by Pahini, sou of the sutradhara Mahadua and his wife Jasadevi. They conaisted of stones and bricks, and their construction cost 330 drammas. He was helped in this religious work by the sutradhara Mahidara and Imdaraka.
Notes by Wiki editor -
- Nadulya (नाडूले) = Nadol
- Sonana (सोनाणा) - Sonana in Desuri site of Khetlaji temple
- Voripadyaka (वोरिपद्यक) - Borli or Garhbor also called Badari in Kumbhalgarh tahsil in Rajsamand district in Rajasthan.
XV Lalrai Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V. 1233 (1176 AD)
|Lalrai Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V. 1233 (1176 AD)|
This Inscription was found amongst the scattered ruins of a Jaina temple at Lalrai, 5 miles north-east of Bali Pali. It has 18 lines of writing. Characters are Nagari.The letter ḍ is denoted by a ear-ring sign. The record is dated Thursday, the 13th of the dark half of Jyeshtha, the vikram year 1233. It refers to the rule of Maharajadhiraja Kelhanadeva ruling at Nadula. It then tells us that Rajaputra Lakhanapalha and the Rajaputra Abhayapala proprietors (bhoktri) of Sinanava and sons of Kirtipala, doubtless younger brother of Kelhana and donar of the Nadol plates made a grant conjointly with queen Mahibaladevi in the presence of village pancha (pancha-kula) for celebrating the festival of god Shantinatha. The grant consisted of barley corn measuring one haraka as used in the country of Gujaratri, from the araghata or machine well called urahari and belonging to the village Bhadiyauva.
Localities mentioned: As regards the localities mentioned in the record Sinanava which is also called Samnanaka in No. XVI is doubtless Sonana mentioned in the last epigraph. Bhadiyauva also occurs in XVI is to be treated as Badwa (Barwa) 5 miles south-west of Lalrai. Samipati is Sevadi. Gujaratra is also mentioned in XVI is the name of Gurjaratri of Daulatpura charter of the Imperial Pratihara Bhojadeva I, which comprised the modern district of Parbatsar, Maroth and Didwana. Nadula is Nadol
इसका समय ज्येष्ठ कृष्णा 13 गुरुवार संवत 1233 है जब राजस्थान के जालोर जिले में स्थित नाडोल पर चौहान महाराजाधिराज केल्हनदेव का शासन था. उसके राजपुत्र लखनपाल व राजपुत्र अभयपाल सिनाणव के भोक्ता (जागीरदार) थे. उन्होंने तथा रानी श्री महिदेवी ने ग्राम पंचों के समक्ष श्री शांतिनाथ देव के रथयात्रा के उत्सव निमित्त भडियाउव ग्राम के उरहारी रहट से गुजराती नाप के एक हारक यव प्रदान किये. इसकी साक्षी भी प्रमुख व्यक्तियों ने दी जिनके नाम लेख में मिट गए हैं. इस लेख में उस समय की जागीर व्यवस्था तथा तारक और हारक नाप तथा उरहारी खेत विशेष के उल्लेख मिलते हैं जो उस समय प्रयुक्त नाप के बोधक हैं. इसमें पंचकुल की प्रधानता भी अंकित है.
Notes by Wiki editor -
- Bhadiyauva (भडियाउव) = Badwa (Barwa) 5 miles south-west of Lalrai.
- Samipati (समीपाटी) = Sewari in Bali Pali
- Sinanava (सिनाणव) = Sonana in Desuri site of Khetlaji temple
- Nadula (नडूल)= Nadol
XVI Lalrai Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V.1233 (1176 AD)
|Lalrai Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V. 1233 (1176 AD)|
This inscription was, like No, XV, found amidst the ruins of a Jaina temple at Lalrai. It consists oil 13 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari. From the word tatha in L.10 onwards, all the lines appear to have been afterwards added and are engraved in smaller characters. The peculiar form of the letter ḍ noticed above also occurs here. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose. As regards orthography, it may be noted that sha is nsed for kha three times (LL. 1, 2 and 6). In respect of lexicography, the following -words deserre to be noticed: (1) sira in LL. 5-6 and 12, which seems to have been nsed in the sense of, not 'a plough,' but 'a ploughman or cultivator' and (2) se in L.7 which stands for sei, a kind of weight mentioned in my remarks on No. X. The record is dated on the 3rd of the bright half of Vaisakha in the [Vikrama] year 1233, and speaks of the princes (rajaputra) Lakhanapala and Abhayapala as the proprietors (bhoktri) of Samnanaka (cf. No. XV). It then states that Bhivada, Asadhara, and other cultivators granted for their spiritual merit, four seis of barley-corn from, (the field called) Khadisira to the od Samtinatha in connection with the festival of the Gujars. The postscript (LL. 10-13) records that Aasdhara, Siroiya and other cultivators granted for the spiritual merit of Vilha, one harothu (haraka ?) of barley-corn from the machine- well of Bhadiyaua (Barwa Pali).
Notes by Wiki editor -
- Bhadiyauva (भडियाउव) = Barwa Pali 5 miles south-west of Lalrai.
- Samnanaka (संनाणक) = Sonana in Desuri tahsil Pali district, site of Khetlaji temple
XVII Sanderav Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V. 1236 (1179 AD)
|Sanderav Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V. 1236 (1179 AD)|
This inscription, like No, XIII, was found at Sanderav, and is incised on a pillar in the sabha-mandapa of the temple of Mahavira. The record contains 10 lines of writing. The first 4 lines are well preserved and can be easily read, the remainder being too weather-worn to be deciphered with perfect confidence. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of tho inscription is in prose. As regards orthography, the only point that requires notice is the doubling of a consonant following an r. Aa regards lexicograpby, attention may be drawn to the words draela, L.8, and Sara L.9. The latter occurs also in the Mount Abu inscription No, II (above, Vol. VIII p, 220, 1, 9), where the sense of 'care, supervision' has been assigned to it by Prof. Luders.
The first line of the inscription is an independent record in itself, and speaks of a column having been presented by Ralha and Palha, sons of Thamtha, in memory of their mother. The second line contains the date, Wednesday, the 2nd of dark half of Karttika in the [Vikrama] year 1286, and the inscription refers itself to tho reign of the Maharajadhiraja Shri-Kelhanadeva of Nadula. Then we are told that his own house was placed by Ralhaka, son of Thamtha, together with his brother Palha and his sons Sodha, Subhamakara and others at the disposal of shri-Parshwanatha, the god of Shamderaka (Sanderav) in tho bhukti or personal property of the queen Jalhanadevi. Four draelas were to be given to the god annually by people residing in Ralha's house: Lines 9-10 are apparently connected with line 1 and inform us that the pillar was restored for the spiritual benefit of Dharamati on Saturday, the 12th of the bright half of Jyaistna in the [Vlkramat] year 1266. Dharamati is called matri and was probably the mother of Ralha and Palha.
XVIII Jalor Stone Inscription of Samarasimhaadeva S.V. 1239 (1182 AD)
|Jalor Stone Inscription of Samarasimhaadeva S.V. 1239 (1182 AD)|
This inscription was found at Jalor, the principal town of the district of the same name, Jodhpur State. It is incised on two lintels, one above the other and standing upon pillars near the north end of the principal cloister of an old mosque, now used as a topkhana. The mosque is evidently constructed of materials supplied by demolishing old temples, and these two lintels appear to have been brought from an old Jaina shrine, as will be seen from the contents. Portions of these lintels have been cut off on their proper right in order to suit their new surroundings. The inscription on the upper lintel consists of 3 lines, while the lower one is composed of 4 lines. But though the inscriptions are thus engraved on two different stones, they really form one record. The portion extant is in a perfect state of preservation. The letters are here and there filled with mortar, but that does not prevent any one deciphering the record. The characters are Nagari. The letter sh is incised at least twice instead of kha, us in later Rajputana inscriptions. The sign for b occurs, and differs from v only by a minute dot in the loop of the latter. The language is Sanskrit, and the record it partly in pros and partly in verse. The verses are numbered, and are seven in all. In respect of orthography, the only point that calls for notice is the doubling of t in conjunction with a preceding r.
The record opens with an invocation (v.1) to Nabheya i.e. Rishi Tirthankara. It then refers to reign of Maharaja ... son of Maharaja Kirtipaladeva'. The latter we are told was the son of the .. who belonged to the lineage of Maharaja Alhana - "the moon in the sky of Chahamana". It further speaks of the Rajaputra Jojila as person looking after the affairs of the kingdom. We are informed that he held in ....the multitude of unsettled tribals ....district of Pilavahika. It the refers to Samarasimha and Jojala was maternal uncle. In Pilwa in Parbatsar district of Jodhpur state on the frontier of the ....and Taskaraka are perhaps the Bavris who all abound there. ...Seth Yashovira son of Jagadhara of Shrimala family. .... . The date of inscription was Thursday the bright half of vaishakha of the vikrama year 1939.
XIX Jalor Stone Inscription of Samarasimhaadeva S.V. 1242 (1185 AD)
|Jalor Stone Inscription of Samarasimhaadeva S.V. 1242 (1185 AD)|
The inscription is incised on a lintel in tho second storey of mosque referred to in No. XVIII. It consists of 6 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose. In respect of orthography, it is sufficient to notice (1) that the sign for v is used both for v and b, and (2) that ṇ is doubled in conjunction with a preceding r. The record contains four different statements, but all pertaining to one and the same temple. The first part speaks of a certain temple as having been built and consigned in tho [Vikrama] year 1221 to tho care of Devacharya for the dissemination of the true Jaina law (sad-vidhi). The temple was known as Kuvara-vihara and contained the principal imago (mula-bimba) of Parsvanatha. The temple, we are told, had been constructed by the Maharajadhiraja, Chalukya Kumarapala, the devout worshipper of the Arhats (param-araata), the lord of tho Gurjara country, after being enlightened by prabhu, Hemasuri, upon the fort of Kanchanagiri belonging to Jabalipura, i.e. Jalor. It will thus be seen that it was called Kuvara-vihsra after the Solanki king Kumarapala who built it. The second part says that if was rebuilt in V.E. 1242 by the Bhandari Yasovira, son of the Bhandari Pusu in accordance with the orders of the Maharaja Samarasimhadeva, the ornament of the Chahamana family and lord of " this country," i.e. apparently southern Marwar. This third part informs us that on the llth of the bright half of Jyaistha in the [Vikrama] year 1256, the work of installation was done, according to the behests of this royal family, by Purnadevacharya, pupil of Devacharya. The fourth and last part states that in V.E. 1268 on the day of the lamps festival (dipotsava), the ceremony of placing a golden cupola on the newly made hall intended for dramatic performances was carried out by Ramachandracharya, pupil of Purnadevasuri.
Notes by Wiki editor-
XX Bhinmal Stone Inscription of Udayasimhadeva S.V. 1306 (1249 AD)
|Bhinmal Stone Inscription of Udayasimhadeva S.V. 1306 (1249 AD)|
This Inscription was found in the walled enclosure of of the temple of Nilakantha-Mahadeva about a mile from the city of Bhinmal in the Jaswantpura district of Jodhpur state. It contains 25 lines. Characters are Nagari.
Excepting verse in lines 1-3, the record is in prose. The language is Sanskrit, interspersed with solecisms and provincialisms. With regard to orthography, it is sufficient to say that a consonant is but occasionally doubled in conjunction with a preceding r and that in L.IV dimvasa in used instead of divasa. As regards lexicography, the following words may be noticed : ( 1 ) godhuma pakua, L.11, which seems, I think, to mean a crop of wheat ready for being reaped ; (2) muga in LL.11 and 19, obviously the well-known mung pulse; (3) chosha, i.e. chokha, LL, 11 and 19, a desi word meaning 'rice'; (4) vyasa, LL. 12 and 22, a Brahmana, who recites the Puranas in public; (5) nirvapa, LL. 12 and 19, a dole; and (6) amga-bhoga, unguents to be applied to the body immediately after bathing. Again, abbreviated forms of some words are used. Thus, dra stands for dramma, ka for kalasa, ma for mana, pa, for payala, or payali, and se for sei, For the table of weights still observed in Gadvad, see my remarks on No. X. Kalasia in of course a measure of capacity.
The inscription opens with obeisance to Surya, and then follows a verso in praise of the same deity. The date is afterwards given, which is the 14th of the dark half of Asvina in the [Vikrama] year 1306. The Maharajadhiraja Sri-Udayasimhadeva was tho king and the pancha consisting of the mahamta Gajasimha and others appointed by him was exorcising- local authority at Shrimala (Bhinmal). The object of the inscription is to record two benefactions. One was made by two brothers, the name of the first of whom is gone but that of the second is Mahanasiha. They were both sons of the thakura Udayasiha, and were Mathura Kayaslhas by caste. Forty dramma coins were deposited in the treasury of the god Jagatsvamin, which was the name of the Surya divinity of Bhinmal, as is proved by other inscription and the Srimalapurana. Out of it were to be defrayed the expenses of the divasa-bali and KO forth , m the Uth of the dark half daring the yatra festival of Asvina. As regards tho fixed alawances of provisions for the bali, there was to be wheat 2 sei, and boiled ghee 8 kalasas For naivedya or offering to the god, mung pulse 1 mana, rice (chokha) 2 payalis, and ghee 1/2 kalala wore to be taken. The vyasa and the aboti were to be given each a dole of 1 dramma. The second benefaction was made on the same day for his spiritual merit by one Tathaka, who deposited 15 drammas in the treasury of god Jagatswamin. Out of it the expenses of bali on the fifth of dark half of Magha were to be born. The vyasas, Abottis, Seths are and the members of goshthisare then conjured to look after this arrangement. The prasasti was written by Dhruwa Nagula son of Bahada. This Nagula is no doubt same as the Nagavala, father of Dedaka, who wrote some other published inscriptions of Bhinmal.
Notes by Wiki editor-
- Shrimala (श्रीमाल) = Modern Bhinmal in Jalor Rajasthan
- Mathur = Mentioned as Thakur though they are Kayastha by caste
XXI Sanchor Stone Inscription of Samantasimha V.S. 1345 (1288 AD)
The stone on which the insoription was incised was found at Sanchor, the principal town of the district of the same name in the Jodhpur State. It was lying loose in the prison room attached to the kachehri. It contains 16 lines. Though weathered whole of ihc inscription can be read with certainty. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the record is in prose. As regards orthography, the only points that call for notice are (1) the doubling of a consonant following an r, and (2) the use of the form simarata for samanta. As to lexicography, the following words may be noticed: (1) sthitaka in LL. 5, 7, 9 and 11, and (2) Selahatha or Selahasta together with their abbreviated forms in LL. 10, 12, 13 and 15. The first word seems to have been used in the sense of "a grant in perpetuity," and occurs in other inscriptions also, e.g. the Cintra prasasti of Sarangadeva, verses 53, 60, 61 and 66. The meaning of selahasta is not certain. And I know of only two records, viz. the Bhinmal inscriptions Nos. XII and XV s where the word occurs. In the first of these, line 12 has Srikaranya panchakula-selahatha-Ḍabhinarapalaṁ cha. Here it is worthy of note that selahatha occupies a position between panchakula, i.e. the modern pancha and Dabhinarapala, i.e. a king of the Dabhi race. And it seams tempting, therefore, to suppose that selahasta was an officer of high rank, higher at any rate than the village srikarana, which was held by one of ite panchaknla. Again, the expression selahath-abhavya occurs in both the Bhinmal inscriptions just referred to. It muat be taken to mean "the income collected by a selahatha". Probably he was connected with the revenue department. The inscription commences by specifying the date, wz. Monday, the 14th of the bright half of Karttika in the [Vikrama] year 1345. The Mahrajakula Samvatasimhadeva was the king, and at the holy place (mahasthana) of Satyapura (Sanchor), the pancha, consisting of the mahamta Hira and others appointed by him, was exercising local authority. The epigraph then records a grant in perpetuity of 8 Visala-priya drammas by the Meharas Prabha, Padama and Asapala. All the Meharas are requested to see to the continuance of this grant. According to this endowment, and the selahasta was requested to look after this matter. The selahasta is also desired to supervise personally the yatra festival of the god Vaesvara. Then follow, in token of approval, the sign-manuals of at least four Meharas, of whom three were the donors named above and the fourth was the selahasta Patala. 
Notes by Wiki editor -
- Dabhi - Ḍabhinarapalaṁ word seems to be a title for Dabhi race mentioned here is probably related with Jat clan Dahba. Dahba is a Muslim Jat clan found in Pakistan.
- Selahatha (सेलहाथ)/ Selahastha (सेलहस्थ) - Selahatha or Selahasta together with their abbreviated forms is used in LL. 10, 12, 13 and 15. Sel (सेल) Sail (सैल) Shail (शैल) Selaniya (सेलाणिया) Selania (सेलाणिया) is gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
XXII Juna Barmer Stone Inscription of V.S. 1352 (1295 AD)
|Juna Barmer Stone Inscription of V.S. 1352 (1295 AD)|
This inscription was found at Juna or Juna Badmer, as the full name goes, in the Malani District, Jodhpur State, aboat 12 miles south-west of Badmer, the principal town. It is engraved on a pillar in the porch of a dilapidated Jaina temple and contains 10 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari, The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose, excepting the benedictory verse at the end. In respect of orthography, the only points that call for notice are (1) the employment of the sign of v for both v and b, and (2) the use of the number 2 after Sri in L.3 to mark the repetition. As regards rare or unusual words, those that deserve to be noted are paila and vimsopaka in L.7, Paila and Bhimapriya vimsopiika have been already explained. Bhimapriya appears to have been the name of a kind of vomsopaka coin. Attention may also be drawn to the word Laga in L.8, which means a cess, as previously explained (No. XI above.)
The record opens with the date, the 4th of the bright half of Vaisskha in the [Vikrama] year 1352. On the aforesaid day, daring the victorious reign of the Maharajakula, Sri-Samantasimhadeva, the mahamta Chirasila, Velaula, the Bhamdari Migala, and others appointed by the king to draw up documents, made a religions grant at Bahadameru to the gods Vighnamardana-Kshetrapala and Chaumdaraja, in the temple of Adinatha. The grant consisted of a paila from every incoming or outgoing caravan exceeding ten camels and twenty bullocks. In default of this payment in kind, ten Bhimapriya vimsopakas were to be charged. The grant wag to be distributed equally between the two gods. In L.8 is recorded the approval of this cess (laga) by the mahajanas or local bankers. Bahadameru is, of course, Badmer, not the place now known by that name which is comparatively a modern city, but Juna Badmer, the old Badmer where the inscription was found.
Notes by Wiki editor
XXIII Jalor Stone Inscription of Samantasimhadeva S.V. 1353 (1296 AD)
|Jalor Stone Inscription of Samantasimhadeva S.V. 1353 (1296 AD)|
The inscription is engraved on a pillar in the topkhana at Jalor in the main or western cloister near the south end. It consists of 27 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari. The sign for sh is used to denote kh. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose. As regards orthography, the only points that call for notice are (1) the occasional use of v for b and (2) the doubling of ṇ in conjunction with a preceding r in Suvarnna-girau, L.3. In respect of lexicography, attention maybe drawn to the expression nisra-nikshepa-hatta, in LL. 22-23, the meaning of which is uncertain, and to the word bhataka, in L.24, which seems to have been used in the sense of bhada or rent. The following sense of the phrase nisra-nikshepa-hatta may, however, be suggested as probable. Hatta is, of course, a bazar. Nisra is probably the same as nisar, which, in Marwar at any rate, seems to mean an export in contradistinction with pasar which signifies an import. The expression might, therefore, mean a place in, or a portion of, the bazar for storing goods to be exported.
The record opens with the date, viz. Monday, the 5th of the dark half of Vaisakha of the [Vikrama] year 1353. It then speaks of the Mahardjakula Sama(n)tasimha as reigning at Suvarnagiri and Kanhadadeva as " subsisting on his lotus-like feet and bearing the burden of administration (rajya-dhura)," Suvarnagiri is the same as Kanchanagiri of No. XIX., and is the name of the hill on which the fort of Jalor stands. Kanhadadeva, as we shall see further on, was a son of Samantasimha. The object of the inscription is to state that a certain Narapati made, for the spiritual welfare of his wife Nayakadevi, the grant of a bazar building or ware-house for storing goods to be exported. Out of the rent accruing therefrom was to be offered the pamchami-bali every year in the temple of the god Parsvanatha by the members of the gosthi. Narapati, in making this donation, had been joined by the members of his family and by a certain Gunadhara, who is called a samghapati and was a resident of Suvarnagiri itself. A list of the members of his family is also given, as well an a genealogy of them. Tho father of Narapati was the Soni Mahanasiha, who was a son of the thakura Jasa, who again was a son of thakura Ambada. Mahanasiha had two wives, named Malhani and Tihuna. From the first he had the sons Ratanasiha, Nakhi, Malhana and Gajasiha, who are called Sonis and from the second, Narapati, Jayata and Vijayapala, who are also called Sonis. Narapati had two wives named Nayakadevi and Jalhanadevi His sons from the former only are mentioned, viz. Lakhamidhara, Bhuvanapala, and Suhadapala. This and the mention of the spiritual benefit (Shreyas) of Nayakadevi as object of the record perhaps show that, at the time of the donation, the latter was dead and the second wife had but recently been married and that he had no children from her. Of tho members of his family, Narapati thus thus appears to have been joined, in making the gift, by his second wife and hin sons from tho first wife.
It is worthy of note that Narapti himself, his brothers and his father are called Sonis. Soni cannot possibly mean a goldsnith here, as both the grandfather and the great-grandfather of Narapati are styled thukura. Now, Soni is a well-known clan amongst the three Bania classes of Marwar, viz. Oswal, Saravgi, and Mahesari. The last may be left out of account, because they are not Jainas. Saravgis, though they are Jainas, are, however, not found in the southern parts of Marwar. Narapati and others were consequently, in all likelihood, Osval Sonis. Of the Mahesari Sonis it is stated that their Nakh or original tribe was Sonigara. What is true of the Mahesari Sonis is in all probability, true of other Sonis also. It is a well-known fact that many Rajput tribes, for avoiding Muhammadan oppressions and so forth, became Jainas, and merged themselves into the Bania classes. Sonigara appears to be the name such tribe. It is the name of celebated class of Chohans, and itt is commonly but correctly derived from Songar, i.e. Suvarngiri, tho hill of tho Jalor fort itself. Narapati's inscription was doubtless engaved in some temple on thin fort, though the pillar, on which it is incised seems to have been taken away to serve as material for the construction of the moaque now called topkhana, in the city of Jalor. When Narapati, his father and brothers are called Sonis , what is meant in that they were Oswal Sonis, but that they were perhaps originally Sonigaras and that amongst them Mahanasiha first became a Jaina, as he is called a Soni and his father and grandfather called Thakurs.
Wiki editor note -
- Soni - Here Soni is mentioned as Thakur. It may be due to many clans and castes joined to form the Chauhan Federation. It is a well-known fact that many Rajput tribes, for avoiding Muhammadan oppressions and so forth, became Jainas, and merged themselves into the Bania classes. Similarly Jats who had joined Chauhan Federation also came back and became again Jats.
- Samghapati - Inscription states that Narapati, in making this donation, had been joined by the members of his family and by a certain Gunadhara, who is called a samghapati. It again indicates about Chauhan Federation.
|Kot Solankiyan Inscription of Vanavira S.V. 1394 (1237 AD) |
This inscription was found at Kot Solankiyan, about 15 miles north-east of Desuri. It is engraved on a pillar of a Jaina temple now in ruins. I edit the inscription from two excellent estampages kindly supplied to me by Munsi Devi Prasad, Munsiff of Jodhpur. The record contains 8 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the record is in prose except one verse in LL. 7-8 at the end. In respect of orthography, the only point that deserves to be noted is the doubling of a consonant in conjunction with a preceding r, in a-chamdrarkkam, L.6. The inscription is dated Friday, the 13th of the bright half of Chaitra in the [Vikrama] year 1394 elapsed, and refers itself to the reign of the Maharajadhiraja Sri-Vanaviratdeva. It then states that at Asalapura, the rauta Mularaja, of the family of the rauta Malhana, grandson of the Rauta Soma and son of the rauta Bambi and his wife Jakhaladevi, granted, for the spiritual merit of his parents, Dhikuyau together with a vadi or orchard, on the occasion of hoisting the flag of the temple of Parsvanathadeva, in the presence of the rauta Bala, Lumbha and Nimva.
Notes by Wiki editor -
- Asalapura (आसलपुर) - Asalapura occurs also in another Inscription of Kot Solankiyan of 1418 AD and appears to have been the old name of that place.
- Rawat (राउत) - It is the title of Samantas of Chauhans.
- Jakhal (जाखल) - Jakhaladevi mentioned in the Inscription seems to be belonging to Jakhal Gotra of Jats.
|Nadlai Stone Inscription of Ranaviradeva S.V. 1443 (1386 AD)|
This inscription was found at Nadlai, and is, like No. VIII., engraved on a pillar in the temple of Neminatha called Jadvaji, situated on a hillock to the south-east of the village. It contains 16 lines of writing. Tho characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose. It is worthy of note that each line begins with two vertical strokes. In respect of orthography, it is sufficient to note that consonants following r are, as a rule, doubled, and that the final d is twice represented as if it were da, Srimada, L.7, for Srimad and jagada, L. 5. for jagad. The record commences by specifying the date, which is Friday, the 14th of the dark half of Karttika in the [Vikrama] year 1443 elapsed. It speaks of the Raja Ranaviradeva, son of the Maharajadhiraja Vanavira of the Chahamana lineage as then reigning. It then records the rebuilding of the structure (prasada,) of Sri-Nemisvara, the ornament of the Yadu race, by Vinayachamdrasuri, the occupant of the paṭṭa or pontifical seat (i.e. the successor) of Dharmachamdrasuri. The latter, we are told, belonged to the line of Manatungasuri, the sun in the sky of the Brihadgachchha.
Notes: Patta (पट्ट) = A royal seat or A royal grant engraved on a copper plate
XXVI and XXVII Sanchor Stone Inscription of Pratapasimhadeva S.V. 1444 (1387 AD)
|Sanchor Stone Inscription of Pratapasimhadeva S.V. 1444 (1387 AD)|
These inscriptions are engraved on two pillars, which now form part of the stables attached with kacheri at Sanchor. The first record contains 30 lines and second 17 lines. The two together really form one record. Characters are Nagari and Language Sanskrit. As regards orthography a consonant is but twice doubled in conjunction with a preceding r and that y is substituted for j once in Y yeshta(tha), L.33. In respect of lexicography, the following words may be noted : (1) grasa (L.10) and (2) paila (L.11). Grasa here seems to be in the sense of gift not in usual sense.
The inscription opens with obeisance to the god Shiva and then cited a verse which forms the well known benedictory stanza of Kalidas's Shakuntala. Then verse 2 invokes protection of the Nilakantha for the then reigning Chahamana prince Pratapasimha, and of Parvati for his queen Kamalladevi, daughter of Subhata. In the next verse we are told that in the family of Lakshmanasiha, the best of Chahamanas and king of Nadula, which had many branches, there was one Salha, son of Sobhita. Verse 4 informs us that he liberated the people of Shrimala (Bhinmal) from the Turushkas (Muhammadans). The verse following states that his son was Vikramasimha. The eldest son of the later was Samgramasimha, who had at least one elder brother, viz. Bhima (v. 6), The son of Samgramasimha was Pratapasimha, reigning at Satyapura (Sanchor). We are then introduced to a different family, the family to which Pratapasimha's queen belonged. And the verses descriptive of her family are separately numbered. Of these, verse-1 says that there wan one Virasiha of Karpuradhara, that his son was a king named Makada (माकड़), and that the son of the latter was Vairisalya. The son of Vairisalya was Suhadasalya and his daughter was Kamaladevi, who was tho wife of Pratapasimha; and it was she who renovated the temple of Vaesvara together with the linga a inside (vv. 2-3). The second part begins with a verse, which says that the fruit accruing from restoring is eight-fold that of merely building a temple, well or tank. This in followed by the date, viz. Friday, the 8th of the dark fortnight of Jyaishtha of tho [Vikrarna] year 1444. On this date we are again told in prose that, Bai Kamaladevi, the crowned qween of Pata (i.e., Pratapasiha), the ornament of the Chahamana dynasty, and daughter of Suhadasala (Subhatu or Suhadasalya), the ornament of tho Umata family, rebuilt the dilapidated temple of the god Vayesvara. We are further informed that, for the daily offering to the god, a gift was made of (1 ) a field, and (ii) two pailas on every maund of each commodity from the custom house. The grant was approved of by Sal (?) (i.e. Salahasta) Vadaraita (?), a Paramara Mam Charada and Se Samala Pratihara. The acharya in this connection was Rama a vyasa of Satyapura jnati. The composer of the prasasti was Narayanadeva. The person who Wrote it out was vya Kanhaka, and the person who engraved it was the sutradhara Mudhava.
It is worthy of note that Suhadasalya, father of Kumaradevi, is called an ornament of the Umata family. Umat is still the name of Shakha or the subdivision of the Paramaras. We have still two tracts of land named after them, one is Umatawara in Malwa and the other Umatati round about Bhinmal. As Bhinmal is not far from Sanchor where Pratapasiha was reigning, it is more reasonable that his father-in-law was a chief of Umtati than of Umatawada. Karpuradhara, which had been held by the great-grandfather of Suhadasalya, must be located somewhere this Umtati. Next Samala, one of the persons who approved of the grant to the god Vayeshvara, is in the inscription called a Pratihara, Pratihara must here be taken, I think, to be not a Padihar but a Padihariya, as only Padihariyas are found in the southern most parts of Marwar i.e. round about Bhinmal and Sanchor. Satyapura jnati, to which the acharya Rama belonged, is obviously what is now known as Sanchora, a caste of Brahmanas, who abound in the districts of Malani and Sanchor.
Notes by Wiki editor
- Makada (माकड़) - Lines:22-24 say that there was one Virasiha of Karpuradhara, that his son was a king named Makada, and that the son of the latter was Vairisalya. Makad is a Jat clan.
- Karpuradhara (कर्पूरधारा) - Location ? In Nepal Kathmandu we find name of a Road as Karpuradhara Marg.
- Chahamanas Dynasty
- Towns and Villages of Chauhan Dominions
- Harshagiri Inscription of 961 AD
- Harsha Mandir
- Burdak Gotra Ka Itihas,
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D.
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D.,pp.26-28
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D.,pp.28-30
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D.,pp.30-32
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D.,pp.32-33
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D.,pp.33-34
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D.,pp.33-34
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D.p.37
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.39-40
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.41-42
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. p.42
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.43-46
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.46-47
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.47-48
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.49-50
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.50-51
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.51-52
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.52-54
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.54-55
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.55-57
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.57-59
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.59-60
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D.,pp.60-62
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.62-63
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.63-64
- Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.64-66