History and study of the Jats/Chapter 1
ISBN-10: 1895603021 or ISBN-13: 978-1895603026
Chapter 1: Are the Jats Scythians?
Are the Jats Scythians?
The word "Jat" in Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary [l] is defined as "a member of an Indo-European people of the Punjab and Uttar Pradesh (India)" and according to Hewitt  the word "Gut" means "bull". Furthermore, the Persian-English Dictionary [3,4] defines "Gut/Guta" as "Great or Grand". According to Professor Leake , the old Gothic word Jaet means a giant ("by which no more is meant than a stout man, great warrior or hero"). In the Punjabi language, the word "Gut or Gutan" also means long hair". This could very well be derived from the fact that they or their forefathers i.e. (Scythians, nomadic Indo-European people who settled in Scythia, south-east Europe and Central Asia)  used to keep their hair long. The long hair and beards of the scythians can easily be verified by examining objects found by various archaeologists  over the years. In the case of modern Jats, Professor Pettigrew  says by citing the legend of Mirza and Sahiban (The Jat's Romeo and Juliet)  "uncut hair was a Jat custom" and Professor McLeod  also says by citing Refs [8, 10-12] "Uncut hair was a Jat custom".
In 1925, according to Professor Qanungo  the population of Jats was around nine millions in South Asia and were the followers of three great religions: Islam (one third 33%), Sikhism (one-fifth -20%), and Hinduism (the rest – 47%). Since there is no exact current figure for the Jat population available for South Asia an estimate can be made. By taking into consideration the population growth of both India and Pakistan since 1925, Professor Qanungo's figure of nine million could be translated into at least 30 million Jat people. Today's Jats are mainly found in several Indian/Pakistani provinces: Punjab, Haryana, Sind, Rajasthan, and Kashmir [14,15]. Among the followers of the Sikhism they form a two-third (66% -Jat Sikhs) majority in this faith as per 1881 Census returns . Millions of the South Asian Jats call many Western countries their home. The most visible of them are the Jat-Sikhs which can easily be distinguished from their clan or family names : Gill, Mann, Bains, Malhi or Malli, Dhaliwal, Dhillon, Sahota, Sidhu, Sandhu, Lalli, Virk and etc.
Over the past century, western and Indian researchers and authors have debated the Jats place of origin. In fact, the researchers and authors almost unanimously stated that they belong to the Scythian people who originated in Central Asia. In order for readers to pass their own judgment on this issue, the comments and findings of various authorities are given below.
Ammianus Marcellinus (a fourth century A.D. Roman writer) said, "the Halani (Alani) mount to the eastward, divided into populous and extensive nations; these reach as far as Asia, and, as I have heard, stretch all the way to the river Ganges, which flows through the territories of India".
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Furthermore, he writes "the Halani (Alani), once were known as the Massagetae". The classical and modern authorities say that the word "Massagetae" means "great" getae (Jats). The ninth-century work De Universo of Rabanus Maurus [5,18] states, "The Massagetae are in origin from the tribe of the Scythians, and are called massagetae, as if heavy, that is, strong Getae".
Also, Sir H.M. Elliot  writes the word "Massa" means "great" in the Pehlevi language of Persia or Central Asia. Sir John Marshall  (formerly Director-General of Archaeology in India writes "The eclipse of Greek rule at Taxila (presently in Pakistan) was brought about by an invasion of nomad tribes from the interior of Asia. Known to the western world under the comprehensive name of Scythians, to the Indians as Saka, and to the Chinese as Sai or Sai-wang, these invaders came principally from the three great tribes of Massagetae, Sacaraucae, and Dahae, whose home at the beginning of the second century BC was in the country between the Caspian Sea and the Jaxartes River".
Professor Thompson  supports Ammianus Marcellians's statements regarding Halani (Alani). He wrote, "Two new nations made their sinister appearance in Roman history in the years which the additional books were to cover, the Huns and the Alans (Alani). Since they were new to the Romans there was little literature on them to be read up, excerpted so, like Eunapius (another classical writer), who felt the same difficulty, he (Ammianus) simply set down what his own inquiries could discover, thus produced one of the most interesting and valuable of all his disquisitions. He wrote it with some literary care".
Ptolemy's  Geography of 90 to 168 A.D., also supports Ammianus's statement regarding Alani being stretched all the way to the river Ganges. Ptolemy wrote, " After this is a bend of the Imaus (Himalaya) mountains toward the north. Those who inhabit Scythia toward the north along the Terra Incognita are called Alani-Scythae".
Tod, J. (Lt. Col.)  wrote in 1829; "a translation of the Nehrwalla conqueror's inscription, which will prove beyond a doubt that these Jit (Jat) princes of Salpoori in the Punjab, were the leaders of that very colony of the Yuti (Jats) from Jaxartes (river in Central Asia), who in the fifth century AD, as recorded by De Guignes (a French writer), crossed the Indus (river) and possessed themselves of the Punjab; and strange to say, have again risen to power, for the Sikhs of Nanuk (Nanak) are almost all of Jit (Jat) origin the present Jit (Jat) prince of Lahore (Ranjit Singh, the famous Jat Sikh ruler), whose successor, if he be endued with similar energy, may, on the reflux of population, find himself seated in their original haunts of Central Asia, their (Jats) habits confirmed the tradition of their Scythic origin. They (Jats) considered themselves, in short, as a distinct class, and, as a Pooniah Jit (Jat) informed me, their "Wuttan" (homeland) was far beyond the Five Rivers (Punjab)".
Cunningham, J.D. (Captain and author the of a well known book entitled "History of the Sikhs")  wrote in 1849, "Brahmans and Kshattriya (two upper Hindu castes) had developed a proculiar civilization, have been overrun by Persian or Scythic tribes, from the age of Darius (a Persian emperor) and Alexander (a great Greek conqueror) to that of Babar and Nadir Shah (two invaders of India). Particular traces of the successive conquerors may yet perhaps be found, but the main features are: (i) the introduction of the Muhammadan creed; and (ii) the long antecedent emigration of hordes of Jats from
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the plains of Upper Asia. It is sufficient to observe that the vigorous Hindu civilization of the first ages of Christianity soon absorbed its barbarous invaders, and that in the lapse of centuries the Jats became essentially Brahmanical (following Hinduism) in language and belief".
Bingley, A.H. (Captain)  said, "It is from these Scythian Immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly descended". He proceeded to say, "shortly after their arrival in India, the majority of these Scythian immigrants became converts to Buddhism, in course of time, however, their religion was assimilated to that of their Aryan neighbors, and by the 10th century they had not only accepted the spiritual supremacy of the Brahmans (Hindu priests), but also, in a modified degree, the restrictions and distinctions of caste". Interestingly, he also wrote, " The ancestors of the four agnicular or fire tribes of Rajputs (sons of kings) are generally considered to have been Scythian warriors who assisted Brahmans in their final struggles with the Buddhists, and were admitted into the ranks of the "twice born" as a reward for their services to Hinduism. Some sort of story being necessary to account for their origin and rank, the ready-witted Brahmans bestowed upon them the title of "fireborn" to distinguish them from the original Rajputs races which claimed descent from the Sun and Moon".
This belief is further strengthened since several Rajput and Jat clan names are the same; Chohan, Bhatti, Bagri, and Dahiya are the examples of this. According to Ref.  "Dahiyas in Jodhpur area (Rajasthan, India) call themselves Rajputs, and Dahiya is also the clan name of Gujars (another Scythian Tribe)". More information on this issue may be found in Refs. [26, 27].
Barstow, A.E. (Major of the 2/11th Sikh Regiment-Late 15th Ludhiana Sikhs)  wrote, "Greeks of Bactria (partly modern Afghanistan), expelled by the hordes of Scythians, entered India in the second and first centuries BC and are said to have penetrated as far as Orissa (an Indian province in south-east). Meanwhile the Medii, Xanthii, Jatii, Getae and other Scythian races, were gradually working their way from the banks of the Oxus (in Central Asia) into Southern Afghanistan and the pastoral highland about Quetta (a Pakistani city), whence they forced their way by the Bolan Pass, through the Sulaiman Mountains into India, settling in the Punjab about the beginning of the first century AD. It is from these Scythian immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly descended".
Sir A. Cunningham (Major General and former Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India)  said, "But there are other foreign races in the north-west of India, the date of whose occupation is quite unknown. The best known and the most numerous of these foreign races are the Gakars, the Jats, the Gujars, and the Ahirs". In fact the later authorities agree that all these four belong to the Scythian people.
Smith, V.A. (Professor and author of the Oxford History of India)  wrote, "Other Huns who invaded Europe are known to have been fierce tribesmen of the Mongolian kind; but the assailants of India are distinguished as Ephthalites or White Huns, a name which may imply that they were fair people like the Turks. Many of the Rajput (sons of
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kings) castes or clans, as well as the Jats, Gujars, and certain other existing communities, are descended either from the Hunas or from allied hordes which arrived about the same time". Other historians have established that the White Huns belong to the Scythian race .
De Guignes : He says as quoted by Elphinstone  on page 227 "That De Guignes, mentions, on Chinese authorities, the conquest of the country of the Indus (river) by body of Yuchi or Getae (Jats), and that there are still Jits (Jats) on both sides of that river". Elphinstone support the above statement by saying "The account of De Guignes has every appearance of truth".
Hewitt, J.F.  wrote, "The Getae of the Balkans are said by Herodotus (a fifth century BC writer) to be the bravest and most just of the Thracians. These Thracian Getae must, as a Northern race of individual proprietors, have held their lands on the tenure existing in the Jat villages, and these Indian Jats, or Getae, have not degenerated from the military prowess of their forefathers, for those Jats, who have become Sikhs in the Punjab, are known as some of the best and most reliable Indian soldiers".
He goes on to state "Further evidence both of the early history and origin of the race of Jats, or Getae, is given by the customs and geographical position of another tribe of the same stock, called the Massagetae, or great (massa) Getae".
MacMunn, G. (Sir and Lt. General)  said, "Alexander came to India in his capacity as the holder of the Persian throne. From his camp near Kabul (Afghanistan), the Macedonian (Alexander) summoned those chiefs whom Skylax (Persian general) had conquered in the old time afore, to come and renew their homage to their ancient Persian overlord in the person of himself. Several obeyed his summons, others did not, and it has been surmised that those who did were later arrivals, of Jat or Scythian origin, outside the normal Aryan fold as later comers to India".
Elliot, H.M. (Sir)  wrote, "these ignorant tribes (Jats) pointing to the remote Ghazni (Afghanistan) as their original seat, the very spot we know to have been occupied by the Yuechi, or, as Klaproth says, more correctly, Yuti, in the first centuries of our era, after the Sakas (a Scythian tribe) were repelled back from the frontiers of India, and left the country between India and Persia open for their occupation. The Jat tribes not doubt emigrated, no at all once, but at different times, and it is probable that those in the North-West are among the latest importations".
Haddon, A.C. (Fellow of Royal Society (U.K.) and Professor)  said, "With the Rajput problem is closely connected that of the Jat and Gujar, the latter tribe being believed to be of Huna descent; the Gurjara probably entered India about the same time
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as the White Huns and settled in Rajputana (presently Indian Province called Rajasthan), and the Jat is included in the same ethnic group".
Rose, H.A.  wrote, "Many of the Jat tribes of the Punjab have customs which apparently point to non-Aryan (Hindu) origin". Rose goes on to state "Suffice it to say that both Sir Alexander Cunningham  and Colonel Tod  agreed in considering the Jats to be of Indo-Scythian Stock. The former identified them with the Zanthi of Strabo (Greek Geographer of the ancient times) and the Jatii of Pliny (Roman writer) and Ptolemy (Another Greek Geographer of the ancient times); and held that they probably entered the Punjab from their home on the Oxus (in Central Asia) very shortly after the Meds or Mands (still exist as one of the Jat clans of the Punjab), who also were Indo-Scythians, and who moved into the Punjab about a century before Christ".
Caroe, O  wrote, "With the Ephthalites (White Huns) moreover, as all agree, came in the Gujars, and when the Ephthalite power fell the Gujar people remained. And it has been asserted that the Jats of the Punjab, the main stream from whom the rural Sikhs are drawn, and even many of the proud Rajput clans, are descended from these invading White Huns".
McGovern, W.M. (Professor)  said, "many scholars believe that the proud Rajput clans of Rajputana (presently Indian Province called Rajasthan) and the stalwart Jats of the Punjab are likewise descended, in part at least, from these ancient invaders (White Huns), even though the Gujaras (Gujars), the Rajputs and the Jats have long since adopted an Indian language and been absorbed in the vast bulk of Hinduism". Furthermore, he adds, "Today, all traces of the Scythians and their language have disappeared from Europe; but, in Asia, the descendants of the Scythians still occupy a prominent position".
Williams, H.S. (Professor)  wrote, "The extent of the Scythian invasion has been variously estimated. Some scholars believe that they virtually supplanted the previous population of India (means Punjab), and there seems little doubt that by far the most numerous section of the Punjab population is of Scythian origin".
Beny, R. : He said, "A few Rajasthan states such as Bharatpur and Dholpur were ruled by Jats whom some authorities believe to be, like the Rajputs, offspring of Central Asian invaders (Scythians)".
Leeds, R.J. : He wrote, "I have not heard any mention of the story to which Elliot  alludes of their (Jats) having come originally from Ghazni (presently in Afghanistan), but their customs certainly point to an origin different from that of other Hindus".
Bingley, A.H. (Captain) : He said "It is moreover almost certain that the joint Jat-Rajput race is in the main Aryo-Scythian".
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Legge, J. (Professor, Oxford University) : He translated Fa-Hien's memoirs of his travels through India in 519 A.D. Fa-Hien was from China. In his memoirs he wrote, "Formerly, a King of Yueh-she (Chinese name for a Scythian tribe) raised a large force and invaded this country, wishing to carry the bowl (Buddha's alms-bowl) away". Professor Legge added a footnote to this statement that said, "Dr. Eitel suggests that a relic of the old name of the country may still exist in that of the Jats or Juts of the present day". This means Juts belong to the Scythian race.
Masson-Oursel, P. (Professor), De Willman-Grabow-Ska, H. (Professor), and Stern, P. : They said, "Moreover, the expulsion (out of India) of the White Huns was not equally complete everywhere. A great many remained in the basin of the Indus River. What is more, the damage done by the invasion outlasted the invasion itself". This strengthened the observations of other authorities that the Jats are the descendants of White Huns.
Seymour, J. (British Author and BBC commentator): According to Mahil  Seymour wrote, "The Jats are not only Hindu caste of course, they are a race. They are descended from a wave of invaders that came from Central Asia perhaps a thousand years ago". It appears Seymour was referring to Scythians.
Twigg, C. : He said, "we know from the "Zafarnama" (memoirs) of Sharfuddin (a writer) that Timur, when he invaded India, believed that Jats of the Punjab to be of the same race as the Tartars whom he met in Central Asia".
Sir Cunningham, A. (Major-General and Former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India)  wrote, "the Xanthii (a Scythian tribe) are very probably the Zaths (Jats) of the early Arab writers. As the Zaths were in Sindh (presently a Pakistani province) to the west of the Indus (river), this location agrees very well with what we know of the settlement of the Sakas (Scythians) on the Indian frontier".
Latham, R.G. (Cambridge University Professor and Fellow of the Royal Society (U.K.)) : He said, "The Bhattis (a Rajput and Jat clan) of Jessulmir (a district in the Indian province of Rajasthan) amongst whom is a belief that their ancestors came from Zabulistan (presently in Afghanistan)".
Latif, S.M. : He wrote, "A considerable portion of the routed army of the Scythians settled in the Punjab, and a race of them, called Nomardy, inhabited the country on the west bank of the Indus (river). They are described as a nomadic tribe, living in wooden houses, after the old Scythian fashion, and settling where they found sufficient pasturage. A portion of these settlers, the descendants of Massagetae, were called Getes, from whom sprung the modern Jats".
Hunter, J. : As per Latif's  quotation "According to Dr. Hunter, a branch of these Scythian hordes, having overrun Asia about B.C.625, Occupied Patala on the Indus (river), the modern Hyderabad in Sindh (presently in Pakistan). They were all, in
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subsequent times, called Jats, and now form a most numerous, as well as the most important section of the agricultural population of the Punjab".
Woodcock, G. (a well-known author of over 15 books) : He wrote, "physical characteristics among Pathans (presently in the north-west frontier province of Pakistan) and Punjabi, that one can detect a Greek strain among the complexly hybrid races that inhabit West Pakistan and north-west India. He goes on to state "What happened to the remnants of the Yavanas (Hindu name for Greeks), Saka and Parthians (both belong to the Scythian race) defeated by Gautamiputra (a Hindu king) has not been recorded, but their obvious line of retreat would have been into the mountains and deserts of Rajasthan, the region out of which, four centuries afterwards, the mysterious Rajputs (other authorities have already stated they belong to the Scythian race same as that of the Jats) appeared with their claims to replace the ancient Kshatriya caste (a Hindu warrior caste) which had become almost extinct. It is generally recognized that the Rajputs are not of the same stock as the original Aryan invaders of India a hybrid people who became converted to Hinduism".
Kephart, C. (a Ph.D. scientist and author): He wrote, "In India the descendants of the Scytho-Indian dynasties and their branches probably became the ancestors of many of the historic Rajput clans (cousins of Jats as accepted by many authorities) of northern India, who form the land-owning, fighting, and ruling caste".
Daniell, C.J. : He said, "Jats, etc., who describe their ancestors as being immigrants from the west".
Singh, K.L. : He said, "This caste (Jats) is nowhere mentioned in the ancient Hindu books. According to their tradition, the original Jat tribe, called Ponea, sprung from the locks (jata) of Mahadeo (a Hindu god), or one of his chief attendants at Mount Kylas. It must be observed that Mount Kylas is not very far from the Hindu Kush (Indian Caucuses), which, according to the Greek historians of Antiquity, was the abode of the Getes, of whom; the Jats are conjectured to be a colony. From Kylas the Jats are said to have descended into the plains of the Punjab".
Prakash, Buddha (an eminent Indian Historian of ancient history) : He wrote, "In the wake of their invasion many outlandish tribes such as the Jartas, the Joati of Ptolemy (a Greek Geography writer of antiquity) and the Jats of modern times, the Abhiras (modern Ahirs) perhaps the Apiru or Ibhri who played a part in the history the Middle East and are repeatedly mentioned in the Cuneiform Nuziaan, Hittite, and Amarna documents, the Balhikas or Bactrians, who gave the name Balhika or Vahikas (means foreigners) to the people of the whole Punjab and whose modern descendants are probably the Bhallas, Bahls, and Behls".
Singh, Fauja (Professor and a famous Punjabi Historian) : He wrote, "In the Hindu society, another progressive group, if we may use the word in this connection, was that of the Jatts (Jats). Most of them had come from outside, and, as such, the old of Hindu rituals on those people has not yet become too strong (also see Bingly, ). They were
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so anxious for social reform that when the Sikh movement (fifteenth century religion believing in one god and equality among the mankind) started gaining ground, they welcomed it with open arms". There is no doubt at least 70% of the Sikhs belong to the Jat background.
Gill, P.S. (former Principal of a University College) : He wrote, "There is a general concensus of opinion that Jats, and with them Rajputs and Gujjars were foreigners who came from their original home, near the Oxus, Central Asia".
Dhillon, D.S. (Professor) : He said, "Descendants of certain tribes that had originally came from foreign lands and settled in the country, Jat Sikhs known for their tribal freedom and fighting traits were naturally an assertive and virile people who only needed a component and gifted leader to rouse them to action ".
Mahil, U.S. : He said, "Jat were called Scythians; because they were the inhabitants of the ancient country of Scythia. The Jats who invaded the Punjab and conquered India up to Benares (Hindu holy city in the heart of India) were called Indo-Scythians".
Dahiya, B.S. (A Senior Civil Servant of the Indian Union) : He wrote, "The Chinese were right in stating that the Hiung-nu were a part of the Yue-Che (reads a Guti) people, and these Guti people had two divisions, the Ta-Yue-Che and the Siao-Yue-Che, exactly corresponding to the Massagetae and Thyssagetae of Herodotus (a classical Greek writer of fifth century B.C.), meaning the "Great-Jats" and the "Little-Jats", respectively. Almost every tribe of ancient Middle East (West Asia) and Central Asia is represented among the present day Jats in India". He also quoted from A.K. Narain's Presidential address of Indian History Congress, Bhagalpur (India) session, "In my opinion, the history of the Indian Union, if it has to be written in the right perspective, should include, not only what happened in Pakistan, but also what happened in Afghanistan and Central Asia".
Pradhan, M.C. (a Canadian Professor) : He wrote, "The Jats and the Rajputs were originally groups who came under the influence of Hinduism and became castes. Nevertheless they retained their tribal structures in varying degrees, as also traditions of the time when they had possessed independent organizations of their own. Jats and Rajputs do have many traits in common, for example, some of the Jat clans have Rajput names".
Thapar, R. (a well known historian of Indian history) : She wrote, "Together with the (White) Huns came a number of Central Asian tribes and peoples, some of whom remained in northern India. Some of the tribes who lived in Rajasthan fled from their homeland when they displaced by the new tribes who became the ancestors of some of the Rajput families, and again were to dominate the history".
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According to classical Greek and other historians, there was no Central Asian Scythian tribe as such (i.e., Rajput) but tribes named Massagetae (great Jats), Sakas, etc. Obviously, the Rajputs must have belonged to the Great Jat tribe and that is why some of the Jat and the Rajput clan names are identical [3, 14].
New encyclopedia Britannica : It states "The presence of foreigners, most of whom settled in Indian cities and took on Indian habits and behaviour in addition to religion, became a problem for social theorists because the newcomers had to fitted into caste society. The Greeks and the Sakas (Scythians or [[Jats]), clearly of non-Indian origin, who were initially the ruling group were referred to as "fallen Ksatriyas (Hindu warrior caste)".
Marshall, J. (Sir, Hon. Fellow of King's College (Cambridge University), and formerly Director-General of Archaeology of India) : He wrote, "these invaders (Scythians) came principally from the three great tribes of Massagetae (great Jats), Sacaraucae, and Dahae (It is interesting to note, presently, in India Dahiya is a well known Jat and Rajput clan name ), whose home at the beginning of the second century B.C. was in the country between the Caspian (sea) and the Jaxartes river (Central Asia)".
Tarn, W.W. (A well known author, Cambridge University) : Dr. Tarn wrote, "a separate horde by being absorbed into another horde, just as the Massagetae (that is, those of them who had remained in their original country) were absorbed soon afterwards; most of them had gone on into India".
Banerjea, J.N. (a well known Indian Historian of ancient history) : Dr. Banerjea said "The Scythian and Parthian (also belongs to the Scythian race) invaders of India find occasional mention in many of the old Indian texts. The Sakas (Scythians) of Sogdiana (in southern Central Asia), however, were compelled to move south and southeastwards under pressure from other nomadic hordes of Central Asia and Western China. Yue-chi (reads as Yuti (Jats), when defeated by the Hiung-nu (Huns), moved westwards from their original homeland in the region between the Great Wall built by the Chinese Emperors as a protective measure against the Huns. These Saka (Scythian) military chiefs had adopted high-sounding Indian names; they have become Hindunised inscriptions of the period discovered in various parts of Northern India prove that these new recruits to the Hindu fold became ardent followers of different Indian religious creeds".
Briggs, J. (Lt. Col.) : He wrote in 1829 A.D., "We have no satisfactory account of these Juts (Jats); but there seems reason to believe them to be a horde of Tartars (probably means Scythians) of the same stock as the Getae, so often mentioned in ancient history".
Waddell, L.A. (Professor, London University, author of over twelve books on historical subjects, Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute, and Honorary Correspondent of Indian Archaeological Survey) : Dr. Waddell wrote, "Most of the leading kings of the early Sumerian (Middle East) dynasties, including "Sargon-the-Great" and Menes the
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first Pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt repeatedly call themselves in their official documents and seals Gut (pronounced Goot) or Got. And one of the more progressive Early Summerian Dynasties in Mesopotamia called themselves Guti or Goti; "Goti" was the regular title of the Goths in Europe-the aspirated form "Goth having been coined merely by the Romans and never used by these people themselves".
Owen, F. (a Canadian Professor) : He wrote, "In the shape of face, stature and general physical build the Sikhs approximate the Nordic type". Over seventy percent of the Sikhs belong to the Jat background.
Coon, C.S., Hunt, E.E. : They wrote, "Most of them (the Indo-European speaking-Peoples of South Asia) are descended in part or wholly from invaders from Western Asia, the plains west of the Caspian sea, or, more remotely, even from Europe and a minority are indistinguishable from Western Asians or even Europeans. The second invasion (of India) was that of the Sanskrit-speaking (probably means Indo-European language speaking) peoples, who were related to the Scythians and Sarmatians (also related to Scythian people). The tallest people are found in Rajasthan and the Punjab and beards are fullest among the warrior castes and the Sikhs. Most of these people have glossy black hair, although brown hair is not uncommon. Reddish and blond hair is extremely rare. Almost all of them have brown eyes of various shades, but one see light and mixed eyes in rare individuals, particularly among the Sikhs".
Rose, H.A. : He wrote, "we find to this day in the Punjab a physical type predominating which in many respect resembles that of certain European races, and is radically different from the typical characteristics of the other Indian stocks".
Singh, N. : In a recent book on Canadian Sikhs he said, "The Scythians appear to originate from Central Asia. They reached Punjab between 50 B.C. and A.D. 50. It seems probable that the Scythian ancestors of the Sikh-Jat entered the Sindh Valley (presently in Pakistan) between 100 B.C. and A.D. 100".
Sulimirski, T. (Professor, Central and East European Archaeology at the University of London) : He wrote, "The evidence of both the ancient authors and the archaeological remains point to a massive migration of Sacian (Sakas)/Massagetan ("great" Jat) tribes from the Syr Daria Delta (Central Asia) by the middle of the second century B.C. Some of the Syr Darian tribes; they also invaded North India".
There is very little published and reliable literature which presents worthwhile arguments to contradict the assertions of the above historians and authorities. The three most important contradictory arguments are presented below for balance.
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.16
Qanungo, K.R. (Assistant Professor of History, Lucknow University, India) : In 1925 he wrote, "The European pioneers of Indian antiquities and ethnology apparently started with the presumption that fine and energetic martial peoples like the Rajput and the Jat must have been comparatively newcomer from the north-west into India who overcame the effete descendants of the Vedic Aryans (Hindus).
Sir Herbert Risley  declared the Rajput and the Jat to be the true representatives of the Vedic Aryans. Since then Risely's theory and classification have been attacked by many scholars on different grounds. The Scythians who were very probably men with broad faces and high check-bones, sturdy and short in stature, are little likely to have been the ancestors of a tall-statured and long-headed people like the Jats". Qanungo appeared to rely on Sir Risley's theory, which in later editions of his book, a note on page 59 stated, "The account in the text of the Scythians and Huns needs to be corrected". Classical Greek and Roman writers as well as recent discoveries give totally opposite information to Qanungo's beliefs on Scythians. Other statements made in Qanungo's work are rather weak and without any historical evidence. For example, he said, "If popular tradition counts for anything, it points to the view that they (Jats) are an essentially Indo-Aryan (Hindus) people who have migrated from the east to the west and not Indo-Scythian and No Hindu has been ever known to claim a Chinese origin, but the people of China".
Singh, Khushwant (A well respected Indian Journalist) : He wrote, "It is now generally accepted that the Jats who made the northern plains of India their home were of Aryan stock (He probably means Hindus otherwise Scythian were also Indo-European people). The origin of the Jats has been exhaustively dealt with by K.R. Quanungo , who states emphatically that the Jats are of Aryan stock (Hindus) who came from Rajasthan into Punjab (The flimsiness of the Quanungo's theory was already discussed)". In Vol. 2 of his book  Singh said, "This upward mobility of Sikh-Jats considered as sudras, the lowest of the four castes of Hindus".
Here, it is not my attention to dwell into the sensitive issue of race but to explain Singh's comment, I have no other choice-I firmly believe in the equality of the mankind. The word "caste" is derived from Spanish and Portuguese [31, 59, 74] word "casta" meaning lineage, race, breed, etc. Thaper , a well respected Indian Historian, wrote, "The Sanskrit (ancient language of the Indo-Aryans or Hindus) word for caste, "Varna", actually means colour. The colour element of caste was emphasized eventually to become deep-rooted in north-Indian Aryan culture".
More information on this subject is provided by Professor Owen . Thus, four colours of people represent four castes (i.e. darker the colour lower the caste, see Ref. Captain Bingly  for more information on this issue). If Mr. Singh's theory is correct then Jats should be of the darkest colour. However, Professors Coon and Hunt  do not agree, "Most of the these people (warrior castes and Sikhs) have glossy black hair, although brown hair is not uncommon, have brown eyes of various shades, but one can see light and mixed eyes in rare individuals, particularly among the Sikhs". Over 70% of the Sikhs belong to the Jat background. Furthermore, Mahil  said, "A Jat can be easily distinguished from the Aryan race of the Punjab by his Physiognomy and other characteristics or even by the accent or tone of his speech". Major Barstow
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.17
 wrote, "The Jat Sikhs have always been famous for their fine physique and surpassed by no race in India for high-bred looks, smartness, and soldiery bearing". He then quoted District Gazetteer of Amritsar (Sikh holy city), "In physique they (Jat Sikhs) are inferior to no race of peasantry in the province, and among them are men, who, in any country in the world, would be deemed fine specimens of the human race".
Dahiya  on page 23 of his book explained it very well why the Jats being called Sudra by saying "The foreign origin of these people is further clear from their description by the Indian writers. Almost all of these people are called Asura, Sudra, Mlecchas, etc".
Majmalu-T Tawarikh (written in the twelfth century A.D.)  said, "The Jats and Meds or Mands (Mands also a present day Jat clan) are reputed to be descendants of Ham, the son of Noah, and they occupied the banks of the Indus in the province of Sind (presently in Pakistan)". Unfortunately, I have come across no convincing evidence to this claim to date.
1.1 Other Logical Supporting Factors
There are many other supporting factors that point to the origin of the Jats in Central Asia. Some of those are as follows:
- As per Sir Marshall  Scythians ruled India (B.C. 90-525 A.D.) for over 500 years. Now the common sense question arise that these rulers must have had an army substantially made up of Scythian people and other supporting Scythian groups. When their ruling period came to an end, there was no mass migration. Therefore, it can be assumed that those people must have settled in Punjab and in surrounding areas.
- The homeland of the Jats is Punjab and the surrounding areas. On the other hand, Aryan Hindus can be traced all over India. Now, the question that arises, is if the Jats had belonged to the Hindu origin, would they have had also settled all over India and not just in the north-west section of the South Asia.
- The clan names of the Jats are unique in India. However, some of their clan names do overlap with the Rajputs and Gujars who are also said to be of the Scythian origin or at least partially. It is interesting to note that if all of the Rajputs would have belonged to the original Kashatriya group of the Indo-Aryans, as is generally claimed by the Punjabi Khatris, then at least some of their (Rajputs) clan names should have been identical to that of the Khatris. This is not the case. In fact intermarriage took place between these two groups.
- There is wide physical and other characteristic variations between Jats and other, non-Scythian origin people as observed by Mahil .
- Other ancient people such as the Egyptians, Greeks, Persians, Chinese, and Romans, still exist today. Therefore, it is difficult to believe that the powerful
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.18
- Scythian people who once extended from Europe to the northern tip of India  totally vanished from the face of the earth. For example, despite Massagetae's dominion being over fifteen hundered miles away from Greece it still caught the Greek writers' attention. Therefore, the dominion must have been a very powerful group of those times.
- The Roman historians tell us that the Alani (a branch of Massagetae) went as far as France and Spain and it looks quite improbable that they would have spared their nearest next door southern neighbor, India. (the closeness of India to the Massagetae is clearly confirmed by the Strabo  a first century A.D. Greek Geographer: "They (Persians) did not invade India, but only approached its frontiers when Cyrus (Persian Emperor) marched against the Massagetae".
- Historical evidence shows that a major proportion  of Massagetae went to India and managed to have kept their distinct identity (modern Jats) probably because of the influence of the rigid Hindu caste system. The caste system prohibits intermarriages among the people of different castes, and that is probably why the Jats still intermarry among themselves and keep their identity in South Asia to date. This subject is discussed in detail by Falcon , Mason , and Barstow .
All of the above material should be sufficient for the reader to pass his or her own judgement whether the Jats belong to the Central Asian origin (Scythian) or not. I being of a scientific discipline find it hard not to believe that the Jats are descended from the Scythian people after reviewing the above overwhelming evidence.
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.19
1.2 Published Literature on Jats
Over past 150 years, several books and other related materials partially or wholly concerning Jats have appeared. This section presents some of it for the benefit of readers and future researchers. Most of the books totally devoted to Jats are as follows:
- Bingley, A.H., History, Caste, and Culture of Jats and Gujars, Reprinted by Ess Ess Publications, New Delhi, India, 1978, first published in 1899.
- Qanungo, K.R., History of the Jats, Reprinted by Sunita Publications, Delhi, India, 1987, first published in 1925.
- Pradhan, M.C., The Political System of the Jats of Northern India, Oxford University Press, London, 1966.
- Pettigrew, J., Robber Noblemen: A Study of the Political System of the Sikh Jats, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1975.
- Shastri, Y.P., Jat Kshatriya Itihas (History of the Jats and the Kshatriyas), Hardwar, India, 1943.
- Selective articles totally devoted to the Jats are as follows:
- Rose, H.A., Jats, in a Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Reprinted by the Languages Dept., Patiala, Punjab, 1970, first published in 1883, pp. 1-59 (Vol. I), pp. 357-378 (Vol. II).
- Elliot, H.M., Encylopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 131-137.
- Sara, I., The Scythian Origin of the Sikh-Jat (Part I), The Sikh Review, March 1978, pp. 26-35.
- Sara, I., The Scythian Origin of the Sikh-Jat (Part II), The Sikh Review, April 1978, pp. 15-27.
- Habib, I., Jatts (Jats) of Punjab and Sind, in Essays in Honour of Dr. Ganda Singh, Punjabi University Press, Patiala, Punjab, 1976, pp. 92-103.
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.20
- Singh, J., Sikh Militancy and Jats, in Advanced Studies in Sikhism, edited by J.S. Mann and H.S. Saraon, Published by Sikh community of North America, P.O. Box 16635, Irvine, California, 1989, pp. 214-233.
- Helweg, A.W., Punjabi Farmers: Twenty Years in England, India International Center Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1978.
- Pettigrew, J.J.M., The Emigration of Sikh-Jats from the Punjab to England, in Social Science Research Council Report, Project HR 331-1, edited by A.C. Mayer, London, 1971.
- In Fear of Jats, The Economist, Feb. 1991, pp. 37. Some of the books which cover a substantial amount of material on the Jats are as follows:
- Barstow, A.E., The Sikhs: An Enthonology, Reprinted by B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India, 1985, first published at the Request of the Government of India in 1928.
- Bingley, A.H., Handbooks for the Indian Army: Sikhs, Compiled Under the Orders of the Government of India, Printed at the Government Central Printing Office, Simla, India, 1899.
- Falcon, R.W., Handbook on Sikhs for the Use of Regimental Officers, Printed at the Pioneer Press, Allahabad, India, 1896.
- Cunningham, J.D., History of the Sikhs, Reprinted by S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1849.
- Hewitt, J.F., The Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times in India, South-Western Asia, and Southern Europe, Archibald Constable & Co., London, 1894, pp. 481487.
- Risley, H., The People of India, Reprinted by Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, Delhi, India, 1969, first published in 1915, pp. 132-133 (Jat proverbs).
- Tod, J., Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, 2 Vols., Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1972 (reprint), first published in 1829.
- MacMunn, G., The Martial Races of India, Reprinted by Mittal Publications, Delhi, India, 1979, first published in 1932.
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.21
- Jats, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 6, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1990, pp. 510.
- Sleeman, W.H., Rambles and Recollections, Reprinted by Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 1973, first published in 1844, pp. 300-310, 355-383, 475-479.
- Burton, R.F., Sindh and the Races that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus, Reprinted by Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1975, first published in 1851, pp. 246-365, 411.
- Lane-Poole, S., Medieval India: Under Mohammedan Rule (A.D. 712-1764), Reprinted by Haskell House Publishers Ltd., New York, 1970, first published in 1903, pp. 9-10, 27-28, 41-43, 406. As the overwhelming historical and other factors support that the Jats are ethicnically related to the Scythian people (Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alans or Alani), thus the selected literature on these people is given below.
- Talbot-Rice, T., The Scythians, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1961.
- Sulimirski, T., The Sarmatians, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1970.
- Bachrach,B.S., A History of the Alans in the West, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1973.
- Konow, S., Notes on Indo-Scythians Chronology, Journal of Indian History, Vol. XII, 1916, pp. 8.
- Scythians, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1984, pp. 438-442.
- Smirnow, A.P., Die Skythen, Dresden, 1979.
- Grakow, B.N., Die Skythen, Berlin, 1978.
- Minns, E.H., Scythians and Greeks, 2 Vols., Biblo and Tannen, New York,1965.
- The Getae and the Dacians, and Sarmatae (Sarmatians) and Parthians (related to Scythians), in The Cambridge Ancient History, edited by S.A.
- Cook, F.E. Adcock, M.P. Charlesworth, Vol. II, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1954.
- Williams, H.S., The Historians' History of the World, 25 Vols., Scythians and Cimmerians, (Vol. 2), The Outlook Company, New York, 1905, pp. 400-410.
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.22
- Banerji, R.D., The Scythian Period of Indian History, Indian Antiquary, Vol. XXXVIII, 1909-1910, pp. 25-74.
- Cunningham, A., Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, Reprinted by Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, first published in 1888.
- Trippett, F., The First Horsemen (Scythians), Time Life Books, New York, 1974.
- Eggermont, P.H.L., Alexander's Campaign in Gandhara and Ptolemy's List of Indo-Scythian Towns, Orientalis Lavaniensia Periodica I, 1970, pp. 63-123.
- Cunningham, A., Later Indo-Scythians (Coins), No. 11, Reprinted by Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1979, first published in 1893-94.
- Bachrach, B.S., The Alans in Gaul, Tradito, XXIII, 1967, pp. 476-489.
- Thompson, E.A., The Settlement of the Barbarians in Southern Gaul, Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. XLVI, 1956, pp. 65-75.
- Vernadsky, G., Eurasian Nomads and Their Impact on Medieval Europe, Studi Medievali, 3rd Ser., Vol. 4, 1963, pp. 401-434.
- Rolle, R., The World of the Scythians, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1989.
- Rostovtzeff, M., Iranians (Scythians) and Greeks in South Russia, Russell and Russell, A Division of Atheneum Publishers, Inc., New York, 1922, Reprinted in 1969.
- Leake, J.A., The Geats of Beowulf, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 1967.
- Williams, H.S., The Historians' History of the World, 25 Vols., Scythians and Cimmerians (Vol. 2), The Outlook Company, New York, 1905, pp. 400-410.
- Banerjea, J.N., The Scythians and Parthians (also related to Scythians) in India, in a Comprehensive History of India, edited by K.A.N. Sastri, Vol. 2, People's Publishing House, New Delhi, India, 1987, pp. 186-309, 830-838.
- Bachhofer, L., On Greeks and Sakas (Scythians) in India, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. LXI, 1941, pp. 223-250.
- Jenkins, G.K., Indo-Scythic Mints, Journal of the Numismatic Society of India, Vol. XVII, No. 2, 1955, pp. 1-26.
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.23
- Marshall, J., Greeks and Sakas (Scythians) in India, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1947, pp. 3f.
- Smith, V.A., The Kushana or Indo-Scythian Period of Indian History (165 B.C.A.D. 320, Journal of the Royal Asiatic society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1903, pp. 1-64.
- Some of the classical writers or documents covering material on Scythians/ India are as follows:
- Herodotus (B.C. 490-425): The Histories, translated by de Selincourt, Penguin Books, New York, 1988.
- Periplus (Written around A.D. 60), The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea translated by W.H. Schoff, Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1912.
- Pliny, (A.D. 23-79): Natural History, translated by H. Rackham, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1947.
- Arrian (A.D. 95-175): Anabasis of Alexander, translated by Professor P.A. Brunt of Oxford University, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1976.
- Diodorus of Sicily (Published around B.C. 49), translated by C.H. Oldfather, 12 Vols., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936.
- Ptolemy (90-168 A.D.), Geography of Caludius Ptolemy, translated and edited by E.L. Stevenson, The New York Public Library, New York, 1932.
- Strabo (born in B.C. 64), The Geography of Strabo, translated by H.L. Jones, Harvard University Press,Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1954.
- Jordanes (A.D. 551), The Gothic History of Jordanes, translated by Dr.C.C. Mierow of Princeton University, Barnes and Noble, Inc.,New York, 1915, reprinted in 1966.
- Isidore of Seville (born in A.D. 560), History of the Goths,Vandals, and Suevi, translated by G. Donini, G.B. Ford, E.J.Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
- Bede (8th century A.D.), Ecclesiastical History, translated by J.A.Giles, Bohn's Library, London, 1871.
- Ammianus, Marcellinus (born around A.D. 330), translated by J.C. Rolfe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1956.
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.24
- Some of the journals specifically devoted to the subject of the Scythians are listed below :
- Skify i sarmaty (Scythians and Sarmatians), Kiev, Ukraine, 1977.
- Skify i Kavkaz (Scythians and the Caucasus), Kiev, Ukraine, 1980.
- Skifskie drevnosti (Scythian antiquities), Kiev, Ukraine, 1973.
- Skifskij mir (Scythian world), Kiev, Ukraine, 1975.
1.3 References: Chapter 1 -Are the Jats Scythians
. Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary, Canadian Edition, Lexicon Publications, Inc., New York, 1988.
. Hewitt, J.F., The Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times in India, South-Western Asia and Southern Europe, Archibald Constable & Co., London, 1894, pp. 481-487.
. Dahiya, B.S. (Indian Revenue Service -IRS), Jats: The Ancient Rulers, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 23.
. Grass, S., Persian-English Dictionary, London, 1930.
. Leake, J.A. (Professor), The Geats of Beowulf, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Milwaukee, 1967, pp. 172, 68.
. Trippett, F., The First Horsemen (Scythians), Time Life Books, New York, 1974.
. Pettigrew, J. (Professor), Robber Noblemen: A Study of the Political System of the Sikh Jats, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1975, pp. 25, 238.
. Temple, R.C., Legends of the Punjab, Vol. 3, Reprinted by the Language Department, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 1982, first published in 1886, pp. 23, line 273.
. McLeod, W.H., The Evolution of the Sikh Community, Oxford University Press, London, 1976, pp. 52, 93.
. Monserrate, S.J., The Commentary of Father Monserrate, translated by J.S. Hoyland, edited by S.N. Banerjee, London, 1922, pp. 110.
. Waris Shah, The Adventures of Hir and Ranjha (Jat Romeo and Juliet), translated by C.F. Usborne, edited by Mumtaz Hasan, Karachi, Pakistan, 1966, pp. 30.
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.25
. Masson, C., Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Vol. 1, London, 1842, pp. 434.
. Qanungo, K.R., History of the Jats, Reprinted by Sunita Publications, Delhi, India, 1987, first published in 1925, pp. 1, 3-4, 174-174.
. Pradhan, M.C. (Professor), The Political System of the Jats of Northern India, Oxford University Press, London, 1966, pp.1, 238-239.
. Jats, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 6, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1990, pp. 510.
. Barstow, A.E., (Major 2/11th Sikh Regiment-late 15th Ludhiana Sikhs), The Sikhs: An Ethnology, Reprinted by B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1928, pp. 105-135, 63, 155, 152, 145.
. Ammianus, Marcellinus (born around A.D. 330), translated by J.C. Rolfe, Vols 2 & 3, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1956, pp. 231-237, 343-345.
. Rabanus Maurus, De Universo, edited by Migne, P.L., Vol. CXI, Paris, 1864, XVI, ii, Col. 439.
. Elliot, H.M. (Sir), Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 134.
. Marshall, J., (Sir, Hon. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge University, and formerly Director-General of Archaeology in India), A Guide to Taxila, Cambridge University Press, London, 1960, pp. 24.
. Thompson, E.A. (Professor), The Historical Work of Ammianus Marcellinus, Bouma's Boekhuis N.V. Publishers, Groningen, 1969, pp. 119.
. Ptolemy (90-168 A.D.), Geography of Claudius Ptolemy, translated by Dr. E.L. Stevenson, Published by The New York Public Library, New York, 1932, pp. 144-145.
. Tod, J., (Lt. Col.), Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1972 (reprint), first published in 1829, pp. 623.
. Cunningham, J.D. (Captain), A History of the Sikhs, Reprinted by S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1849, pp. 4.
. Bingley, A.H. (Captain, 7th duke of Connaught's Own Bengal Infantry), Handbooks for the Indian Army: Sikhs, Compiled Under the Orders of the Government of India, Printed at the Government Central Printing Office, Simla, India, 1899, pp. 8-9,
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.26
. Dahiya, B.S., Jats: The Ancient Rulers, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 71.
. Rose, H.A., A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Reprinted by the Languages Dept., Patiala, Punjab, 1970, first published in 1883, pp. 362-363, (Vol. II), 58 (Vol. I).
. Cunningham, A. (Sir and Major General), Later Indo-Scythians, Numismatic Chronicle 1893-94, Reprinted by Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1979, first published in 1893-94, pp. 94.
. Smith, V.A. (Professor), The Oxford History of India, Oxford University Press, London, 1967, pp. 38.
. Cunningham, A., (Sir and Major General), Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, Reprinted by Indo-logical Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, first published in 1888, pp. 27, 16.
. Elphinstone, M. (Hon.), The History of India, Reprinted by Kitab Mahal Private Ltd., Allahabad, India, 1966, first published in 1874, pp. 226-229, 16-17, 12.
. De Guignes, Academi des Inscriptions, Vol. XXV, pp. 32. For more information on this reference see Elphinstone Ref. .
. MacMunn, G. (Sir and Lt. General), The Martial Races of India, Reprinted by Mittal Publications, Delhi, India, 1979, first published in 1932, pp. 21-22.
. Elliot, H.M. (Sir), Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 133-134.
. Haddon, A.C. (Fellow of Royal Society (U.K.) and Professor), The Races of Man and Their Distribution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1924, pp. 113.
. Caroe, O., The Pathans (500 B.C.-A.D. 1957), Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, 1958, pp. 85.
. McGovern, W.M., (Professor), The Early Empires of Central Asia, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1939, pp. 419, 21.
. Williams, H.S. (Professor), The Historians' History of the World, 21 Vols., The Outlook Company, New York, 1905, Vol. 2, pp. 481.
. Benny, R., Rajasthan: Land of Kings, McClelland and Stewart Limited, Toronto, 1984, pp. 54.
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.27
. Leeds, R.J., Muzaffarnagar ( A district in North India), in Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites, and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, by H.M. Elliot, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 296 300.
. Bingley, A.H. (Captain), History, Caste & Culture of Jats and Gujars, Ess Ess Publications, New Delhi, India, 1978, first published in 1899, pp. 2.
. Legge, J., translator, A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline, Reprinted by Paragon Book Reprint Corp., New York, 1965, first Published in 1886, pp. 34.
. Masson-Oursel, P. (Professor), De Willman-Grabowska, H., (Professor), Stern, P., Ancient India and Indian Civilization, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd., London, 1934, pp. 55.
. Seymour, J. (a well known British Author and BBC Commentator), Round About India, Eyre & Spottiswoode, London, 1953.
14. . Twigg, C., Muttra (a district in North India), in Encylopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, By H.M. Elliot, Vol. 1, Sumit Publications, Delhi, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 318-319.
. Cunningham, A. (Sir, Major-General, and former Director-General of the Archeological Survey of India), Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, first published in 1888, pp. 33.
. Latham, R.G. (Professor and Fellow of the Royal Society (U.K.)), Tribes and Races: A Descriptive Ethnology of Asia, Africa, and Europe, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Cultural Publishing House, Delhi, 1983, first published in 1859, pp. 385.
. Latif, S.M., History of the Panjab, Reprinted by Progressive Books, Lahore, Pakistan, 1984, first published in 1891, pp. 56.
. Hunter, J., in History of the Panjab by S.M. Latif, Reprinted by Progressive Books, Lahore, Pakistan, 1984, first published in 1891, pp. 56.
. Woodcock, G., The Greeks in India, Faber and Faber Ltd., London, 1966, pp. 131135-136.
. Kephart, C., Races of Mankind, Peter Owen Limited, London, 1960, pp. 535.
- History and study of the Jats:Prof. B.S Dhillon, End of p.28
. Daniell, C.J., Shahjahanpur ( a district in north India), in Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India by H.M. Elliot, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 309-315.
. Singh, K.L., Bijnore (a district in North India), in Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, by H.M. Elliot, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 303-306.
. Prakash, Buddha, Ancient Punjab: A Panoramic View, in Essays in Honour of Dr. Ganda Singh, edited by H. Singh and N. Gerald Barrier, Published by the Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 1976, pp. 1-26.
. Singh, Fauja, editor, History of the Punjab (A.D. 1000-1526), Vol. 3, Published by the Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi Univesity, Patiala, Punjab, 1972, pp. 17.
. Gill, P.S., Heritage of Sikh Culture, New Academic Publishing Co., Jullundur, Punjab, 1975, pp. 12-13.
. Sara, I., The Scythian Origins of the Sikh-Jat, The Sikh Review, March 1978, pp. 26-35.
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