History and study of the Jats/Chapter 2

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History and study of the Jats

Prof. B.S. Dhillon

ISBN-10: 1895603021 or ISBN-13: 978-1895603026

Chapter 2: Ancient History of the Jats

2. Historical Accounts of Scythians in Central Asia

Jats are the one component of a group of people known as the Scythians in the Western countries and Sakas in India. Diodorus (first century B.C.) [1] wrote, "But now, in turn, we shall discuss the Scythians who inhabit the country bordering India. But some time later the descendants (Scythians) of these kings, because of their unusual valour and skill as generals, subdued much of the territory beyond the Tanais river (far eastern Europe) as far as Thrace (modern north of Greece), and advancing with their power as far as the Nile in Egypt. This people increased to great strength and had notable kings, one of whom gave his name to the Sacae (Sakas), another to the Massagetae ("great" Jats), another to the Arimaspi, and several other tribes". The recent edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica [2] states "The Scythians were a people who during the 8th-7th centuries B.C. moved from Central Asia to Southern Russia, where they founded an empire that survived until they were gradually overcome and supplanted by the Sarmatians (another Scythian people) during the 4th century B.C. 2nd century A.D.".

Generally, western authors referred to these very people as Scythians and their cousins as Sarmatians, or Alani (Alans). However, there are some western authors who termed all these people under the general name "Scythians". Furthermore, some authors have classified these people as Iranian Language speakers. For example Mallory [3] wrote "Iranian speakers the major Iron Age nomads of the Pontic-Caspian steppe such as the Kimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alans (once known as Massagetae). The incredible mobility of these horse-mounted nomads becomes all the more impressive when we recall their westward expansions through Europe. Sarmatians conscripted to defend the borders of Roman Britain (second century A.D.). The Alans (Alani) as far west as France and forced their way through Spain".

According to ancient records all these people started off as Scythians and then branched out into different groups. Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alans (Massagetae) are often mentioned in the ancient western records. Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary [4] provides descriptions of these three people: "members of nomadic Indo-European people who settled in Scythia before the 7th century B.C", "members of the nomadic Indo-European people who displaced the Scythians", and "a barbarian people of Persian origin, living between the Sea of Azov and the Caucasus. Driven by the Huns, they penetrated into the Roman Empire then invaded Gaul (406 A.D.), where one group settled in the region of the Loire. A second group entered Spain", respectively. Also, the term "Scythia" is defined by the Webster's Dictionary [4] as "an ancient region of South-East Europe and Asia, inhabited by the Scythians".


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These Central Asian nomadic people not only went westward but also in the southerly direction to India. In India their almost continuous rule lasted over five hundred years. This chapter presents historical accounts of these people in their native land of Central Asia, including S.E. Europe, as well as in their newly adopted home of India.

2. 1 Historical Accounts of the Scythians in Central Asia (including South-East Europe)

The Scythian People (Scythians, Sarmatian, Massagetae, etc) had no written language. Whatever knowledge we have obtained about them comes from other people such as Greeks and Chinese. In fact, Professor Rolle [5] has put it very well "The Scythians, however, share the fate of all peoples who had no writing--what we know from written sources originates from foreign observers, often even from enemies, and is correspondingly tendentious". Their great achievements in battles may have led Thucydides (a Greek writer of classical times) [6] to write regarding Scythian people:

"For there's no nation, not to say of Europe, but neither of Asia, that are comparable to this, or that, as long as they agree, are able, one nation to one to stand against the Scythians: and yet in matters of Counsel and Wisdom in the present occasions of life, they are not like to other men".

Surprisingly, similar thoughts were echoed by George Forster [7], hunderds of years later in the eighteenth century about their descendants the Sikhs (over 70 per cent belong to Jat or Scythian background). He wrote :"In the defence and recovery of their country the Sieks (Sikhs) displayed a courage of the most obstinate kind common danger had roused them to action, and gave but one impulse to their spirit. Should any future cause call forth the combined efforts of the Sieks to maintain the existence of empire and religion, wer may see ambitious chief, led on by his genius and success, and absorbing the power of his associates. Under such a form of Government, I have litle hesitation in saying that the Sieks would become a terror of the surrounding states".

The first detailed accounts of the Scythian people are provided by Herodotus [8], a Greek Historian who was born between 490 and 480 B.C. at Halicarnassus on the southwest coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and died in 425 B.C. (As a young man he travelled widely in the various parts of the known world and in the later part of his life he became a citizen of Thuria in Italy). Another equally important Greek historian (born at Agyrium in Sicily) who also provides detailed accounts of the Scythian people is Diodorus [1]. He travelled to most of the important regions of Europe and Asia and spent thirty six years in the composition of his history. In fact these two historians provide interesting stories about the origin of the Scythian people.

According to Herodotus, the Scythians say "The first man to live in their country, which before his birth was uninhabited, as a certain Targitaus, the son of Zeus and of a daughter of the river Borysthenes. Targitaus had three sons, during their reign in Scythia there fell from the sky a golden plough (Interestingly over two thousand years later Lt. Gen. Sir MacMunn [9] wrote "But it is from the Jat, the great muscular, hardworking, rather stupid yeoman farmer, the man who is born with a plough in his hands"), a golden


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yoke, a golden battle axe, and a golden cup. They are known indiscriminately under the general name of Scoloti, after one of their kings, and the Greeks call them Scythians". On the other hand Diodorus [1] said "as the Scythians recount the myth, there was born among them a maiden sprung from the earth; the upper parts of her body as far as her waist were those of a woman, but the lower parts were those of a snake. With her Zeus lay and begat a son whose name was Scythes called the folk Scythians after his own name.

Talbot-Rice [10] says, several ancient Greek scholars incorrectly considered the Scythians, the oldest race on the Earth by citing an example, "Trogus Pompeius [11], writing in the first century B.C., affirmed that they had always been thought so by all but the Egyptians, who had long disputed the assertion".

The starting point in the Scythian peoples' history may be assigned to roughly 1700 B.C., the reaching of Yenissei by the first Indo-European tribes. There are reasons to believe that a group of peoples (Scythians) may have separated from the main group that reached Greece and Asia Minor about three centuries earlier [10]. It appears the Scythian tribes ruled areas somewhat to the east of the Altai Mountains by the 9th century B.C. The fierce Hsiung-nu tribe started to raid China's western territory, which led the Chinese Emperor Hsuan Wang (827-781 B.C.) [2] to send his army to curb this intrusion. As a result, the neighbouring Scythian tribes became restless. In fact the Hsiung-nu retreating from the Chinese action dislodged the Massagetae ("great" Jats), who were the mastered of the grazing country north of the Oxus river (modern Amu Darya). In turn, the Massagetae assaulted their cousins the neighbouring Scythians and pushed them to the westward direction. This chain of reaction eventually resulted in the defeat of Cimmerians (Scythian people) by the retreating Scythians [6] and the occupation of the area north of the Black Sea (modern Ukraine). One of the factors over and over reported by the historical records for the success of the Scythian people (tribes) in the battlefields is their accomplished horsemenship. They were probably the first people to master the art of riding and to gain considerably from this skill in warfare.

Scythians not only took away the area north of Black sea from the Cimmerians but also chased them across Urartu (Armenia). This chase lasted for about 30 years and both the combatants ended up at the borders of Assyria (part of modern Iran) during the reign of King Sargon of Assyria (722-705 B.C.). During the period from 680-669 B.C., King Esarhaddon ruled Assyria and the Scythians formed an alliance with him, which was abandoned and they ended up wiping out the Cimmerians. The Scythian chief Bartatua or Partatua established himself the ruler of the west Persian (Iranian) area upto Halys (Kizil Irmak) River and naming Saqqez as his capital city. According to Herodotus [8] Scythians also invaded Syria and Judea (part of modern Israel and Jordan) in 625 B.C. and subsequently reached the boundaries of Egypt. Its King called Psamtik I (663-610 B.C.) checked their advance by purchasing peace on their terms. In fact, Herodotus [8] wrote "The Scythians next turned their attention to Egypt, but were met in Palestine by Psammetichus (Psamtik) the Egyptian King, who by earnest entreaties supported by bribery managed to prevent their further advance".


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As the strength of the Meds increased, they eventually became the masters of Persia (Iran). They forced the Scythians (after 28 years of rule) to retreat towards the area between the Caspian and Aral Seas. Here, some of the Scythians settled in and intermingled with their cousins Dahae (probably modern Dahiya Jats of the South Asia) people belonging to Massagetae and three centuries later their descendants became known as the Parthians, who extended their empire to India [2, 10-12]. For example Periplus [13], written around A.D.60, records the Parthian rule in the north-west India.

The mighty and undefeated king of the Persians, Cyrus the Great (in 529 B.C.) attacked the Massagetae (Herodotus said [8], "they are reputed to be a numerous and warlike people and some suppose them to be of Scythian nationality" and furthermore he says "In their dress and way of living the Massagetae are like the Scythians"). At this time, brave Tomyris was queen of the Massagetae (her husband having died) and told the Persian Emperor, Cyrus the Great, during the days of his forthcoming attack on Massagetae, "I advise you to abandon this enterprise, for you cannot know if in the end it will do you any good listen then-if you are so bent upon trying your strength against the Massagetae, give up the laborious task of building that bridge (across the river), and let my army withdraw three days' march from the river, and then come over yourself. Or, if you prefer it" [8]. (It is interesting to note that the modern Jats (their descendants) have kept a similar tradition alive. Today a typical Jat says "he will never strike first an unarmed opponent".) As the result of this offer from the Massagetae queen, Cyrus elected to cross the river himself.

After Cyrus crossed the river with his mighty army, he was killed by the Massagetae in a fierce battle. This victory over Cyrus the Great by the Massagetae is also claimed by the Gothic historian Jordanes (A.D. 551) [14] as by his forefathers he said, "Then, Cyrus, king of the Persians waged an unsuccessful war against Tomyris, queen of the Getae (Jats) the Getae and their queen defeated, conquered and overwhelmed them. There, for the first time the race of the Goths saw silken tents". Professor Sulimirski [15] said, "The Massagetae, the mightiest Sacian (name used to describe Scythians bordering Persians [8]) folk of the Achaemenid (Persian empire) period in Central Asia" and, "In the fourth and third century B.C., the Massagetae subdued nearly all the nomad tribes of Central Asia north of the Macedonian (Greek) frontier, eastwards Tien/Shan Mountains (China), and possibly many tribes of the Kazakhstan steppes led to a tremendous extension of their culture". Such factors may have led Professors [16] G. Ekholm, University of Uppsala (Sweden) and A. Alfoldi, University of Budapest (Hungary) to write, " This has been demonstrated by linguistic evidence: even the name of the Getae (western Jats) is the abbreviated form of a Scythian title, which appears to have originally designated an upper class among the Scythians".

The summary of the historical events [5] concerning Scythians (mostly excluding other associated groups such as Sarmatians, Alani, and Massagetae) are eighth century B.C. (Scythians coming from the east driven out Cimmerians and occupied the region north of the black Sea), 7th-6th century B.C. (Scythian campaigned in Persia and the middle East), 592 B.C. (Anacharsis, a Scythian philosopher, selected as one of the Seven Sages of Greece), 585 B.C. (the ancient Artaic empire in Transcaucasia uprooted and the


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Scythians played in its destruction a key role), 520/19 B.C. (Skuka, the king of the Sakas or the Central Asian Scythians defeated and taken prisoner by Darius, the Persian King), 513/12 B.C. (Darius campaigned against the Scythians in the region north of the Black Sea), end of 6th-5th century B.C. (Scythians recruited to police Athens, Greece), 339 B.C. (the 90 year old Scythian King, Ateas, killed while fighting against Philip II of Macedonia (the father of the Alexander the Great), 331 B.C. (Scythians annihilated the army of Zopyrion, Alexander the Great's governor in Thrace (modern north of Greece), 3rd century B.C. (Sarmatians, also Scythian people, from the east advanced into the territory of the Scythians), and 3rd century A.D. (Neapolis Scythica, near "Simferopol" in the modern Crimea, destroyed possibly by Goths).

2.2 Customs and Characteristics

Many of these are discussed below:

A mourning period of 40 days was observed by the Scythians. (Among the Jats of South Asia there is still a similar tradition of month and quarter or called "Swa Mahina").

According to Herodotus [8] Massagetae used only two metals: gold and bronze. Gold for headgear, belts, and girdles and bronze for spearheads, arrowpoints and bill. Also, they used both infantry and cavalry and had archers and spearmen and were accustomed to carry the "sagaris" or bill.

In the same book Herodotus wrote "Sacae" is the name, the Persians give to all Scythian tribes and they wore trousers (even today Punjabi Jat ladies wear baggy trousers and their men folk used to or still wear tight trousers especially during the winter months called "Churidar Pajama") armed with the bows of their country, daggers (one of the requirements of a baptized Sikh is to wear a dagger), and the sagaris, or battle-axe".

The archeological findings witness [10] that the Scythians carried swords as long as two and half feet as well as short double sided daggers called "akinae". Furthermore, Scythians and their cousins Sarmatians worshipped the iron sword called "scimitar" ("Samchhir" in modern Punjabi), in fact, as late as fourth century A.D. as per Ammianus Marcellinus [17] Alani or Alans (a branch of Massagetae)" after the manner of barbarians a naked sword is fixed in the ground and they revererntly worship it as their god of war".

Herodotus wrote [8], "After a burial the Scythians go through a process of cleaning themselves; they wash their heads with soap, and their bodies in a vapour-bath". (After the cremation ceremony, the bathing is still a tradition to a certain degree among the Jats of Punjab).

Trippett [18] writes about a Scythian custom "Even the loss of a common warrior entailed a period of preburial mourning and feasting". (It is interesting to note that there is still a custom among the Jats of the Punjab villages that whenever an elderly person passes away, the family of the deceased invite their relatives, the other village people,


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and sometimes the people from the neighbouring villages for a feast at the end of the mourning period. This feast is called "Kath" in the Doaba area of the Eastern Punjab).

Herodotus [8] tells us that the Massagetae were the milk-drinkers (that is probably why even today the Jats in Punjab villages equate milk with "son" when they say "dud-put") and the Scythians relished "kumiss" made from the fermented mare's milk [18].

Professor Role [5] wrote, "their habit of drinking wine neat (modern Jats in Punjab villages generally drink liquor made from sugarcane neat), which horrified their contemporaries, giving rise to the Greek saying "drinking the Scythian way". In fact, Role cites a sixth century B.C. poem regarding drinking habits of the Scythians: "Come, my boy, given me the goblet, In one draught it shall be emptied! Get ourselves as drunk as Scythians our best songs sing with fervour".

On the same issue, Talbot-Rice [9] cited Hippocrates, a Greek doctor of the ancient times, concerning Scythians, "drinking wine, pledging brotherhood from a single vessel or loving cup (this tradition is still alive among the Punjab Jats), and indulging in singing and dancing to the accompaniment of drums". (Bhangra dance of the modern Punjab Jats is appeared to be identical to this and they generally perform best Bhangra dance when they are moderately tipsy).

Dr. Kephart [19] wrote, "In the main, however, the Getae (Jats) were not tradesmen but land-owners". This is very much true today with the modern Jats of the South Asia. To the best of my knowledge all these Jats own land and the ones with the small holdings farm themselves. In fact, in South Asia the term "Jat" is normally mistakenly understood as "Farmer".

The Scythian army was composed of freemen (i.e. Scythian tribesmen), more specifically they were fed and clothed but paid no wage [2].

Professor Rolle [5] says "Anthropological information available to us so far indicates that the Scythians were relatively tall. This tallness is particularly noticeable in warrior burials. Many of the Scythians were over 6 ft tall and sometimes according to burial finds their height exceeded 6ft 6in". This very much matches the reports of Ammianus Marcellinus [17] where he said, "Moreover, almost all the Halani (Alani-a branch of Massagetae) are tall and handsome".

Interestingly, over fifteen hundred years later Major Barstow [20] wrote, almost the same thing about their cousins Jat-Sikhs "The Sikh Jat is generally tall and muscular, with well shaped limbs, erect carriage, and strongly marked and handsome feature". At another page of his book Barstow almost repeats his earlier statement, "The Jat Sikhs have always been famous for their fine physique and are surpassed by no race in India for high-bred looks, smartness, and soldiery bearing".

Sir Risley's [21] basic argument for saying Jats and Rajputs do not belong to the Scythian race was that he mistakenly thought that the Scythian invaders of India were "with broad faces and high cheek-bones, short". On the otherhand, according to his generally excellent scientific data collected over a long period of time, indicate Jats and


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Rajputs were, "essentially of the long-headed type, tall, heavy men". With respect to the women of the Punjab, General MacMunn [9] wrote, "I doubt if there are handsomer, comelier women to be seen the world over, where good looks and health are more to be prized than finer beauty, than there are in the land of the Five Rivers (Punjab)".

Ammianus Marcellinus [17] wrote, "They (Alani or Massagetae) do not know the meaning of slavery, since all are born of noble blood, and moreover they choose as chiefs those men who are conspicuous for long experience as warriors". With respect to the modern Jats, Captain Bingley [22] said, "From the earliest times Jats have been remarkable for their rejection of the monarchical principle, and their strong partiality for self-governing commonwealths. One of the names by which they were known to the ancients as kingless".

According to Arrian (95-175 A.D.) [23], Alexander the Great battled with kingless people after the defeat of the King Porus in Punjab. In fact, Arrian wrote, "Meanwhile it was reported to Alexander that some of the self-governing Indians Cathaeans themselves were considered very brave and very powerful in war; in the same mood with them were Mallians (even today one Jat clan from this very area called Malhi (Malli) exists in Punjab, infact, Canadian member of Parliament Mr. G.S. Malhi (Malli) representing one of the ridings of the Toronto area belongs to this very Jat clan)". It is interesting to note that according to Rose [24], Sir Denzil Ibbetson writes "The most extraordinary thing about the group of Jat tribes found in Sialkot (a city in Punjab) is the large number of customs still retained by them which are, so far as I know, not shared by any other people. Another point worthy of remark is the frequent recurrence of an ancestor Mal, which may perhaps connect this group of tribes with the ancient Malli of Multan".

A prominent Sikh historian Khushwant Singh [25] (not a Jat himself) wrote, "They (Jats) brought with them certain institutions, the most important being the "panchayat", an elected body of five elders, to which they pledged allegiance. Every Jat village was a republic".

Ammianus Marcellinus [17] wrote, "Just as quiet and peaceful men find pleasure in rest, so the Halani or Alani (Massagetae) delight in danger and warfare. There the man is judged happy who has sacrificed his life in battle". Lt. Gen. Sir MacMunn [9] said, "The opinions of experienced officers and the experience of the World War (I) have placed them (Jats) among the best of the Indian martial classes". He went on to write "enthusiatic support of the British Government, and devoted and distinguished service in the World War (I) has been the reply of the modern Jat, whether Sikh, Hindu or Moslem in religion, to such suggestions".

Furthermore, the general said, "How the Jats have kept up their war-like proclivities through the ages, how the Jat who is Sikh has been so prominent and faithful a soldier of the Crown, or how the Hindu Jat came to such great fame in the World War (I), for one their battalions (i.e. 6th Jat Regiment) to receive the title of "Royal", will be told in the course of this book". Specifically, with respect to the Sikhs, Captain Bingley [22] wrote in 1899, "Whenever fighting is going on, be it in China, the straits, Burma, or East


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Africa, there the Sikh to be found. Offer him good pay, and there is no service, however difficult or dangerous, for which he will not gladly come forward".

According to Major Barstow [20], "They (Jat Sikhs) are manly without false pride. No one could be associated with them for any time without conceiving both respect and liking for them". He went on to say, "the Jat Sikhs sent a very high percentage of their eligible men to the army". In fact the Jat Sikhs attach extremely high regard to the military and police services. The people who give their lives in battles or otherwise for a good cause in their eyes are regarded as the most honourable heroes. The modern Jats have up held the tradition of their forefathers.

One important point brought forward by Professor Rolle [5] is that the Scythians at the end of the sixth century B.C. were recruited to serve as police troops in Athens, Greece and according to Professor Sulimirski [15] after the defeat of the Sarmartians (cousins of the Massagetae), the Roman Army recruited 8,000 Sarmatian cavalrymen and 5,500 of them were sent to Britain to safeguard Roman interests.

History repeated itself thousands of years later when the British, after the final defeat of the Sikhs in 1849, recruited thousands of them (almost all from the Jat background according to the British records) to serve British interests in India and abroad. For example, they served the British as policemen in South-East Asia and as soldiers in western Europe during the two great wars.

Talbot-Rice [10] wrote on page 181 in his book that the Slavs inherited various practices from the Scythians, "the most important consisted in the worship of their ancestors". With respect to the modern Jats Major Barstow [20] said, "Once a year the Zamindar (Jat) will worship the "Jathera", or common ancestor of the clan, to whom a large shrine is erected in the neighbourhood of the village". Generally, it is still a tradition in many Punjab villages, after the marriage of a Jat boy, he and his newly wed wife, the following day after the wedding with fanfare go and pay respect to their "Jathera" at the village shrine. This ceremony in Punjabi is called "Jathera Manaune", or get the ancestors on your side.

Several words used by the Scythians are similar to modern Punjabi [8]: spu (eye), arima (one), oeor (man), pata (kill), in Scythian are almost identical words to "Oeor" and "pata". For example in Punjabi, a person may say "oe Tun Kithon Aia" (Where did you come from man) In this context "Oeor" and "Oe" convey almost same meanings. Similarly, a Punjabi speaking person may say "Tusin Mera Pata Cut Dita Ha". Basically it means "You have got rid of me". It is interesting to note that these Scythian and Punjabi words have identical spellings and almost identical meanings too.

According to Latif [26], Dr. J. Hunter said, "A branch of these Scythian hordes, having overrun Asia about 625 B.C., occupied Patala on the Indus (river), the modern Hyderabad in Sindh (presently in Pakistan)". Another writer, Professor Pettigrew [27] says, "Another view holds that the Jats came from Asia Minor and Armenia in the successive invasions during the period 600 B.C. to A.D. 600". Col. Tod [27a] writes, "The Naga or Takshac (Snake) race, so well known to India, the Takshacs or Takiuks of


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Scythia, invaded India about six centuries before Christ". Furthermore, in Woodcock's [28] view, there were already Greek settlements prior to the arrival of the Alexander the Great in Punjab. Furthermore, Dahiya [29] says the Jats fought against each other during the battle between Alexander and Porus (a king of a region in the north-west Punjab). There appears to be some degree of truth to this issue even if it is examined from a logical standpoint. Firstly, if the Greeks, from thousands of miles way could have had settlements in Punjab prior to the arrival of Alexander the Great, as per Woodcock [28], it would be illogical to think that the Scythians (Sakas or Massagetae), living just to the north-west borders of India, according to the Classical Greek historians such as Herodotus [8] and Diodorus (first century B.C.) [30], did not penetrate into India. In fact, Scythians were basically a nomadic people and accomplished horse riders, making them more likely than the Greeks to have penetrated into Punjab. Furthermore, Herodotus tells us that the Scythians from the north of the Black Sea region invaded territories as far as Egypt in the seventh century B.C. and it looks quite improbable that their cousins, "mighty" [15] Jats or Massagetae, would have left India untouched in those times. Also, we should not forget here that it was the Massagetae who pushed their own people the "Scythians" towards the west [8].

In any case historical records provided by the ancient Greeks (Arrian [22] 95-175 A.D., Diodorus [30]-published around B.C. 49, Plutarch [31] A.D. 45-120) concerning Alexander the Great's invasion of the Punjab indicates that the Scythians or Jats were already there. For example, Diodorus [30] wrote, "he (Alexander) disembarked his soldiers and led them against the people called Sibians. They say that they are the descendants of the soldiers who came with Heracles. They were brought before the king (Alexander), renewed their ties of kinship, and undertook to help him".

Professor Eggermont [32] observed "J.P. Vogel showed that the mound of Shorkot (Jhang district, Pakistan, between Chanab, Indus, and Ravi rivers) represents the site of Sibipura, the town (pura) of the Sibis, which is mentioned in a Shorkot inscription". Furthermore, Dahiya [29] has provided ample evidence of Sibis being Jats. In addition, Sibia is a Jat clan name and there are still many Jats in Punjab who belong to this division. According to Diodorus [30], "Alexander undertook a campaign against the people known as Mallians, populous and warlike tribes. At length he (Alexander) was struck by an arrow below the breast and fell upon one knee, overborne by the blow. For many days the king lay helpless under his treatment". Similarly, Arrian [23] wrote, "Alexander himself also was struck (with arrow), right through the corslet into his breast over the lung blood shot forth from the wound for his wound, the first report reached the camp whence he had set out against the Mallians, that he had died from the wound".

And Strabo (first century A.D.) [33] said, "It was in the country of the Malli that Alexander was in peril of death, being wounded in the capture of some small city". Presently, Malli or Malhi is a Jat clan of Punjab and many Mallians still live close to the area identified by the Greek classical writers. Furthermore, McCrindle [34] wrote, "The Malloi (Malli) occupied the district situated between the lower Akesines (modern Chenab river) and the Hydraotes (modern Ravi river) which in Alexander's time joined


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the former river below Multan-a city (persently in Pakistan) which owes its name to the Malloi (Malli)". This assertion is appeared to be correct, for example, the word "Hindustan" for India is composed of two words "Hindu" and "Stan" (means place in Sanskrit) which literally means place where the Hindus live. In a similar manner it appears that the word "Multan" is the shorter version of "Malli-Stan" (a place where Malli live). The classical writers Arrian [22] and Diodorus [30] observed that there were two Porus: "For this Porus, as long as Alexander's relations had remained unfriendly towards the first Porus, had sent envoys to Alexander", "word came to Alexander that King Porus (a cousin of the Porus who had been defeated) had left his kingdom". Also, in Professor Sinha's [35] words "Poros is a dynastic name". Dahiya [29] observed "As is common knowledge, the suffix 's', 'es', 'os', or 'us' are added to personal names by the Greeks, in the same manner in which the suffix 'ka' is added to clan names by the Indian writers. By ignoring this 'os' ('us'), the name of the hero remains Porus. It is a clan name and this clan is still existing among Indian Jats and is called Por or Phor. They are found in the Karnal district of Haryana, India".

Indirect support to Dahiya's assertion is provided by Professor Sinha [35] who said, "According to Dr. Buddha Prakash (a well known Indian researcher of ancient history) it is likely that the Pururavas Aila, the son of a ruler who migrated from Bactria in Central Asia to mid-India, has something to do with the Pauravas settled in the North-West. In this way the Aila conqueror is associated with that very region in which Poros gave a hard fight to Alexander". Another factor suggesting Porus is a Jat could be his height. For example, Arrian [23] and Diodorus [30] say: "great size of Porus, who was over five cubuits in height" and "He (Porus) was himself outstanding in bodily strength beyond any of his followers, being five cubits in height". Five cubits are translated into seven and half feet by some historians and 6 and half by others.

The fact of the matter is that Porus was over 6 and half feet tall and Arrian [23] writes that most Indians (most likely he means in the North-West, the Greek invader encountered) are of this height. The Roman historian Curtius [36] writes that the Dahae (Dahyia Jats) were a head taller than the Greeks (Macedonians) and Alexander built beds five cubits long in the camp on the Hyphasis (modern Sutlej river) [30]. According to Professor Rolle [5], "Anthropological information available to us so far indicates that the Scythians were relatively tall. This tallness is particularly noticeable in warrior burials. They are often over 6 ft, sometimes over 6 ft 3in and occasionally 6ft 6 in".

In addition, Ammianus Marcellinus [17] wrote, "Moreover, almost all the Halani or Alani (a branch of Jats or Scythians) are tall and handsome". This fits very well the description of Porus by Arrian [23] "the great size of Porus, who was over five cubits in height, and his handsomeness, and the appearance". With respect to the Scythian descendants, the Jat Sikhs, Major Barstow [29] said, "The Jat Sikh is generally tall and muscular, with well shaped limbs, erect carriage, and strongly marked and handsome features. The Jat Sikhs have always been famous for their fine physique and surpassed by no race in India". These evidences certainly further strengthened the belief that Porus belonged to the Jat background. It appears certain that there were splinter groups of


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Scythians already in Punjab prior to the arrival of the Alexander, even though the bulk of them settled in Punjab long after Alexander's time. During the battle with Porus, Alexander had a substantial number of Scythians or Jats with him. For example, Arrian [23] indicates, "Alexander himself selected the special squadron the companions, and the cavalry from Bactria and Sogdiana, the Scythian horsemen (Jats), with the Dahae (Dahiya Jats), mounted archers". This proves very well Dahiya's earlier contention that during the battle between Alexander and Porus Jats fought against each other. Generally, historians regard the beginning of settlements of the Scythians in Punjab after the defeat of the Bactrian Greek rulers by the Scythians (Sakas). Table 1 presents principal events beginning from the invasion of the Alexander the Great to the 7th century A.D.

Principal historical events connected with Northwest India

Table 1. Principal historical events connected with Northwest India.

Date Description

  • 326 B.C. (Early Spring) Crossing of Indus river by Alexander
  • 326(Nov-Dec) B.C. Serious wounding of Alexander by the Malli Jats.
  • 325 (late) B.C. Departure of Alexander from Sind (near modern Karachi, Pakistan)
  • 317 B.C. Total Punjab under Chandragupta Maurya
  • 274 B.C. Accession of Asoka (Maurya)
  • 189 B.C. Beginning of the Bactrian Greek rule in Punjab under Demetrius
  • 90 B.C. Last Bactrian Greek king of Taxila, Punjab, overthrown by the Saka or Scythian Chief Maues or Moga [37] (the modern city of Moga, Punjab probably derives its name from him).
  • 38 B.C. Scythian rule over eastern Punjab after defeating the Greeks of Sakala (modern Sialkot, Punjab)
  • 78 A.D. Establishment of the Kushan (another Scythian group or clan) empire in India and accession of Kanishka I.
  • 320 A.D. Beginning of the Gupta era (Chandragupta I)
  • 400 A.D. Chinese pilgrim, Fa-Hien visits Taxila, Punjab
  • 460 A.D. White Huns or Ephthalites (another Scythian people) invade north-west India
  • 525 A.D. White Huns chief Mihira-gula defeated by a Hindu King
  • 629-45 A.D. Chinese pilgrim, Hsuan Tsang in India
  • 712 A.D. Arabs invade Sind (presently in Pakistan)
  • 736 A.D. Founding of Dhillika (the first city of Delhi probably by the Dhillon Jats)

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2.3 Mauryas Period

The important Maurya rulers of this period (approximately 321-185 B.C.) were Chandragupta, Bindusara and Ashoka. Soon after the departure of Alexander, Chandragupta Maurya became the ruler of at least Northern India. Arrian [23] wrote, "Alexander, however, did not even on this show anger against Porus, but sent others, in relays, finally an Indian, Meroes, having learnt that this Meroes had long been a friend of Porus". In Professor Sinha's [35] words, "Dr. Buddha Prakash has identified Meroes with Chandragupta Maurya" and a well-known Indian historian, Hari Ram Gupta [38], argues with good evidences that Chandragupta Maurya was a native of Punjab. Historians generally agree that "Maurya" is the clan name. For example, Rapson [37] and Thaper [39] say: "Chandragupta, whose surname "Maurya" is supposed to be derived from " and "Chandragupta belonged to the Maurya tribe, but his caste was low". Dahiya [29] has devoted almost an entire chapter of his book to the clan name "Maurya". It would be rather difficult to dismiss his evidence, without having acceptable counter argument that the Mauryas do not belong to the Jat background. According to Dahiya's [29] research the actual clan name of the Chandragupta was "Maur" or "Mor" not "Maurya" and Mor or Maur Jats still exist today [23]. During the British rule story of the legendary "Jat Jeuna Maur" is well known in Punjab. Recently, in the Punjabi language a movie was released on this hero story. In a common telephone directory in North America these names can be found. Ottawa's, for example, lists a person with surname "Maur" and the other with "Mor". In any case, the subject of Jats in the western countries is discussed in detail in Chapter 6.

Chandragupta Maurya was succeeded by his son Bindusara in 297 B.C. and in turn his son Ashoka succeeded Bindusara after his death around 272-274 B.C. according to historical records after the treaty between Seleucus (the Greek King of several Western Asian countries of those times) and Chandragupta a daughter of Seleucus entered the house of Chandragupta. Woodcock [28] observed, "Since she could hardly have become the wife of any lesser person than the Indian emperor himself or his son and heir Bindusara, the fascinating possibility arises that Ashoka, the greatest of the Mauryan emperors, may, in fact, have been half or at least a quarter Greek". On this issue Hari Ram Gupta [38] wrote, "In the days of great caste rigidity, none other than a Punjabi could accept a foreign girl, a mlechchha (it roughly means non-Hindu and foreigner). In the Mahabharata (ancient book of Hindus), Punjab is spoken of as a land of irreligious people: one should not go to the Vahika in which the five rivers and the Indus". Again this observation of an eminent Indian historian enhances the belief that the Mauryas were non-Hindus and of the Jat origin. An interesting point put forward by Professor Smith is that Ashoka, the greatest of the Mauryan emperors, never used Sanskrit officially, the sacred language of the Brahmans (Hindus) [40].


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2.4 Greek Period

After the Mauryas period in North-West India, it was the Bactrian Greeks who ruled. Their reign started around 189 B.C. and their last king of Sakala (modern Sialkot, Punjab) was defeated by the Scythians in 38 B.C. During the height of the Greek empire in North-West India, the Greek suzerainty extended to at least as far as Mathura (presently in the modern Indian Province of Uttar Pradesh). The most remarkable Greek king called Menander ruled Punjab from about 160 B.C. to 140 B.C. An excellent documentation of the coins of the Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria and India is provided by Prof. Gardner [41] of the Cambridge University. Two important texts on the Greek rule in India are by Tarn [42] and Woodcock [28].

2.5 Scythian Period

Greek rule in North-West India was replaced by the Scythians. Generally, the Scythian period historians regard from the beginning of the Scythian suzerainty around 90 B.C. to the defeat of the White Huns or Ephthalite chief Mihir-gula in 525 A.D. However, the period between 320-460 A.D. is known as the "Gupta period". Historians of Indian history have accepted that the "Guptas" belonged to the Hindu background. Recently, some researchers [29] have disputed this assertion and have documented claims that they too were of the Scythian background (Dharan Jats). Nevertheless, the Guptas were uprooted by yet another Scythian people known as "White Huns" around 460 A.D. It is immaterial whether the "Guptas" were Scythians or not. However, the Scythian rule over India lasted for at least five centuries almost continuously. In any case, the "Gupta" issue will be discussed in more detail later on.

The decline of Greek rule in India coincided with the movements of the Scythians from Central Asia and their ultimate destruction of the Greek power in Bactria (part of the modern Afghanistan). The reason for the movement of these Scythian tribes westward was the result of the construction of the Great Wall by the Chinese emperor, Shi Huang Ti, during the third century B.C. [38]. Consequently, the nomadic tribes of Hiung-nu, Wu-Sun, and Yueh-chi (reads as Yuti-Juts) no longer were successful in attacking China. (A recent discovery of over one hundred, thousands of century old Caucasian corpses [43] in that part of China provides yet more proof regarding the existence of the Caucasian Yueh-chi in the area). In fact, Yueh-chi were driven from their best lands westward and the fleeing Yueh-chi uprooted their cousins around the Aral Sea.

In turn, a group of Sakas (Scythians) fleeing from their cousins Yueh-chi occupied Bactria by defeating the Greek rulers and ultimately reached Punjab. Sir Cunnigham [44] said, "the different races of Scythians which successively appeared as conquerors in the border provinces of Persia and India are the following in the order of their arrival: Sakas or Sacae (the Su or Sai of the Chinese-B.C.), Kushans (the Great Yue-Chi (Yuti) of the Chinese-B.C. 163), Kiddarite or later Kushans (the Little Yue-chi of the Chinese -A.D. 450) and Epthalites or White Huns (the Yetha of the Chinese -A.D. 470)". (It is interesting to note that the very pronounciation of the words "Yuti" and "Yetha" is quite close to the modern word "Jat").


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In another document Cunningham [45] writes "But the successive Scythian invasions of the Sakas, the Kushans and the White Huns, were followed by permanent settlements of large bodies of their countrymen, which lasted for many centuries". Another of General Cunningham's statements to note is "Herodotus [8] calls these Scythian Massagetae ("great" Jats), but he admits that some regard them as Sacae or Sakas. Ktesias calls them Sacae". Cunningham also [45] wrote, "By the Chinese the Kushans were called Ta-Yueti, or the "Great Lunar Race" and that is, if Yue be taken for the "Moon". But I incline to take Yue-ti or Gueti, the general name given by the Chinese. And further, I think that as Ta means "Great", the "Ta-Gweti" must be the Massa-Getae". Furthermore, the Chinese called the White Huns "Yetha" ("Jats").

It appears that the [[Scythians] who came to India were basically of the Massagetae stock and White Huns were their extreme north-eastern brethren. For example, according to Dr. Kephart [19] sometimes after 500 B.C. two groups of Massagetae became known as the Tokhari (Yue-chi or Getae or Jats of the Chinese) and White Huns.

Sir Marshall [46], formerly Director-General of Archaeology in India, reinforces this belief by saying "Known to the western world under the comprehensive name of Scythians to the Indians Saka, and to the Chinese as Sai or Sai-Wang, these invaders came principally from the three great tribes of Massagetae, Sacaraucae (Sacae) and Dahae". The classical Greek and other historians tell us that both Sacae and Dahae were the part of Massagetae. For example, Sir Cunningham [44] explained it very well in the case of Sakas or Sacae, by referring to Pliny the Elder (A.D. 23-79): "The Scythians who opposed Cyrus and Alexander on the Jaxartes (river) are described by the Greeks as Massagetae, while their Persian neighbours knew them only as Sakas or Sacae". On page 31 of his works Cunningham [49] wrote, "The origin of the name of Saka is still uncertain. The general opinion is in favour of the Persian Sag, a "dog", which is still used as a derogatory term by the Persians for their enemies". Furthermore, Sir Cunningham [44] also presents an interesting explanation of the word "Dahae". He says the "Sanskrit word "dasyu" means enemy or robber", which in Persian became dahyu, from which the Greeks formed Dahae. The spoken form in India is Daku". According to Dr. Kephart [19] the Caspian Sea derives its name from the one group of Dahae (Dahiya Jats) known as Caspi.

Maues or Moga became the first Saka or Scythian King around B.C. 90 in North-West India. A modern city called "Moga" in Punjab is probably named after this very first Jat king. Names of various other Scythian or Jat kings or emperors [39, 40, 46, 47] of India are Azes I (around B.C. 58), Azilises (succeeded Azes I in B.C. 10), Azes II (succeeded Azilises in B.C. 5) Vima Kadphises (around B.C. 60), Soter Megas (viceroy appointed by Vima Kadphises of the North-West during his absence around A.D. 100), Kanishka I Kushan (becomes emperor in A.D. 128), Rudradaman (ruled western India around A.D. 150), Kanishka II Kushan (becomes emperor around A.D. 156), Huvishka (succeeded Kanishka II as Kushan emperor in A.D. 162), Vasudeva (became king around A.D. 182), Toramana of White Huns (became emperor in A.D. 495), Mihiragula (succeeded his father Toramana in A.D. 510), and so on. The dates given in parentheses the for these


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Scythian emperors of India are approximate. Comprehensive studies of their coins found are provided by Sir Cunningham [44, 45, 48] and Professor Gardner [41].

It should be noted that the above kings or emperors were not the only Scythian rulers in India, but their descendants continued sporadic rule to the middle of the twentieth century. For example, Maharaja ("great" king) of Patiala in Punjab (a Sidhu Jat) was one who ruled upto late 1940's. According to Ptolemy (90-168 A.D.) [49], a Greek geographer, the region next to western India is called Indo-Scythia (land of the Jats and their cousins in India). Indo-Scythia roughly included Punjab, Sind, Rajasthan and parts of Kashmir and Gujrat (in fact the name Gujrat derives from the rule of Jat cousins, the Gujars, from the 6th to the 7th century A.D.). Ptolemy lists over forty major towns or cities in Indo-Scythia: Sabana, Banagara, Azica, Pisca, Bonis, Pantala, Barbaria, Minagara, Sarbana, Panassa, Budaea, Binagara, Parabali, Camigara, Naagramma, and so on. A study of some of these towns is provided by Professor Eggermont [32].

Yue-chi or Kushan rulers (e.g. Kanishka I & II, Huvishka), according to Professor Smith [40], had no resemblance to the "narrow-eyed" Mongolians. They were big pink-faced men built on a large scale. Furthermore, their coins witness that they dressed in long-skirted coats (similar to the long coat worn by the late Indian Prime Minister Nehru), sat on chairs in European fashion, wore leather boots, and practiced a modified Zoroastrian religion (sun worshippers). Kushans not only ruled India but a substantial portion of the Central Asia (the land of their ancestors) [50]. More specifically, in the words of an eminent Russian Archaeologist, A.L. Mongait (Mangat Jats of Punjab) [50], "This (Kushan) huge empire stretched from the Aral Sea (Central Asia) to the Ganges (river)". The Kushan Empire in Central Asia area included the land of the Massagetae ("Great" Jats), Sakas, and White Huns. Furthermore, according to Dr. Mongait [50] "White Huns" coming from the south-east of the Aral Sea seized control of almost the entire Kushan Empire. A rough map of the Kushan empire in A.D. 100 is provided by Professor Mongait [50] on page 234 of his book. According to Dahiya [29] the correct word for "Kushan" is "Ksavan" pronounced as "Kasvan". There still are Kasvan Jats to be found in the Sirsa and Fatehabad areas, of Haryana Province, India. Today, Haryana appears to be dominated by the Jats. This is probably due to them a district of Haryana called "Hissar", the name of a mountain range in Central Asia close to the modern Amu river [19].

Dahiya's [29] assertion with respect to "Kushan" being a clan name of the Scythians, is supported by Mr. Thomas and General Sir Cunningham [45] examination of Indo-Scythians coins. Sir Cunningham [45] wrote, "Mr Thomas gives the names of five different tribes: Mahi, Kushan, Shaka, Gadaha, and Shandhi; and goes on to say the readings of Shaka and Kushan are incontestable. In addition, according to Kephart [19] two groups of the Massagetae sometime after 500 B.C. took their names as Yue-Chi (Tokhari) and White Huns and their later dynastic divisions were called "Kushans". More specifically, "Kushans" were the primary dynastic group of the Tokhari.


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White Huns, a division of the Massagetae, invaded Punjab during A.D. 460-470. Thomas Watters (British Acting Consul General in Korea from (1887-1888) [51] writes "country (North-West of India) was conquered by the Yeta (White Huns), i.e. the Yets or Gats apparently near the end of our fifth century. The Yeta, who were a powerful people in Central Asia, in the fifth century, are also said to have been of the Yue-Chi (Kushan) stock". The leader of the White Huns called "Toramana" was throned in A.D. 495 and established his capital at Sakala (modern Sialkot, Punjab). According to Inscriptions, the full name of the king was Maharaja ("Great King) Toramana Shaha JAUVLA.

In A.D. 510 Mihiragula succeeded his father as the "Great" king. Sir Cunningham says Jauvla was the name of their tribe or clan. According to him, the name of the Jabuli tribe of the White Huns is still preserved in Zabulistan (land of Jauvla) and their language called "Zauli" also still existed in the tenth century A.D. [45]. It is interesting to note here that many Jat clans claim their land of ancestors in Zabulistan (some areas in modern Afghanistan). Furthermore, as per Dahyia [29] Jauvala is the Indian Jat clan name called "Jauhla". In fact, Johal is an important clan of the Jats who belong to the Sikh faith. Jat Sikhs called Johal could be found in several western countries, today.

In A.D. 520 Mihiragula succeeded his father Toramana Jauvla. In turn Mihiragula was succeeded by his son called Ajitanjaya and after the disintegration of their Indian empire the Jauvala or Johals secured for themselves Zabulistan or Jabulistan. It is interesting to note the remarks of Sir Cunningham [45] concerning the reading of a coin of White Huns "But in the two Pahlavi legends of the reverse I read on the left and to the right Zaulistan (Jaulistan)". This says it very well that the actual name is "Jaulistan" (land of Jauls or Johals) instead of "Zabulistan".

A Greek merchant called Kosmas Indikopleustes (sixth century A.D.) [45, 51] born in Alexandria, Egypt and travelled through India (A.D. 522-530) reported that the king of the White Huns Gollas (Mihir-gula), when he goes to war, is said to take with him no less then a 1000 elephants and much cavalary. Kosmas goes on to say that once Mihiragula laid seige to a certain inland city of India, protected all around by water. He encamped all around it for a considerable time until all the surrounding water was drunk up by his soldiers and animals: elephants, and horses.

After that he crossed over the dry land and captured the city. Sir Cunningham [45] lists agreeable points concerning Mihiragula: foreigner, Mleccha (Hindu term roughly equivalent to foreigner) or Huna, subdued India beyond Gwalior, persecuted Buddhists and patronized Brahmans (priestly caste of the Hindus), and ruled from A.D. 515 to 545 or 550.

A Chinese pilgrim to India called Sung-Yun (A.D. 520) [45] reported that the reigning king in Gandhara (north-west India) was a Yetha (White Hun). Sung-Yun goes on to say, "Since the conquest by the Yethas, who set up Laelih to be king, two generations had passed away". Dahyia [29] argues as Sung-Yun says Laelih was made ruler of Gandhara by the Yethas, the Laelih was most likely the governor of Gandhara because the clan name of Toramana and Mihiragula was Johal or Jauvala. It is important to note here that "Lalli" too is a well known clan name of the modern Sikh Jats. The


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pronunciation of words "Laelih" and Lalli is almost identical. Furthermore, according to Sir Cunningham [45] a "Lalliya" Shahi king ruled west of the Indus river as late as A.D. 900 with Ohind as his capital. Cunningham quotes Troyer who calls this king "the illustrious Sahi, of the country of Lalli".

Interestingly, Hiuen Tsiang (A.D. 629) [53], a Chinese pilgrim, to India reported, "Except in this particular, the wives of great ministers (of White Huns) are like the royal ladies; they in like manner cover their heads, using horns, from which hang down veils all round, like precious canopies".

The custom of wearing a gold item on the top of the head of the newly wedlady (which gives appearance as described by Hiuen Tsiang) is still practiced in the Jat traditional weddings. This may be confirmed in the documentary movie called, "Vehra Shaguna Da (Auspicious Backyard)", released in Canada by Dhillon [54] Video Ltd. of Toronto. This video portrays basically the Punjabi Jat weddings. Another interesting point from the works of Hiuen Tsiang [53] to note is where he said, "They (White Huns) kill living creatures and eat their flesh". Among the modern Punjabi Jats the meat consumption is quite common.

2.6 Gupta and Harsha Period

The Gupta period began in the general sense in A.D. 320 and ended in A.D. 647. However, after the invasion of the White Huns in A.D. 460 most of their empire became under the control of these new Central Asian Jat invaders. Harsha, was probably the last Emperor of the North India prior to the arrival of Arabs in Sind. He was crowned in

A.D. 606 and died in A.D. 647. Some of the emperors of the Gupta period are Chandragupta I (accession A.D. 320), Samudragupta (accession A.D. 330), Chandragupta II (accession A.D. 380), Kumaragupta I (accession A.D. 415), and Skandagupta (accession A.D. 455).

In the modern times in India, the general conception is that a person with the "Gupta" last name belongs to the Vaisya caste of the Hindus. Dahiya [29] argues that this conception is incorrect as there are many well known Brahmans (Hindu priestly caste) and Kshatriyas (Hindu warrior caste) have names ending with "Gupta". For example, the famous Chanakaya's (a Brahman) actual name was "Visnu Gupta" [29]. Furthermore, MCrindle [55] quoted Arrian as saying, "He (Alexander) sacrificed upon it and built a fort, giving the command of its to Sisikottos (Sasi Gupta as per Mcrindle)". Sasi Gupta must have been of Kshatria caste, if Hindu.

However, I am also of the opinion, that Persians also used the similar word, "Gupta". Dahiya [29] has devoted a couple of pages of his book to this very issue by examining, it from different directions and concluded that the name "Gupta" signifies only a military governor and it was never used as a surname or a clan name.


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Dahiya [29] has devoted one entire chapter of his book to prove that the Gupta empire of India was indeed the empire of the Dharan Jats. More specifically the "Guptas" belonged to a Jat clan called "Dharan" from Mathura (a city in India) area. Also, Dharan Jats still exist in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India and the adjoining districts of the Punjab [29]. Some of the supporting factors for the Dahiya's assertion of Gupta ruler being Dharan Jats are as follows:

Dr.P.L. Gupta [56], an eminent Indian author of works on numismatics, archaeology, and history said, "The most common gold coins of the Guptas appear apparently to be the direct descendants of the gold coins of the later Kushans (Scythians/Jats) ". He adds the standing pose and posture of the Gupta kings on their early coins at the altar is almost identical to that of the Kushan Kings as well as the Gupta Kings wear the Kushan long coat and trousers. Now a question arises. How come Hindu Kings wear Kushan coats and trousers which were foreign to Hindu tradition [29] Did these kings themselves belong to the foreign ancestry?

Alberuni (an Arab who travelled through India in A.D. 1030) learned that the Gupta rulers were powerful but bad and the Indians celebrated the end of their rule [29]. Now, the question arises if the Guptas were Hindus then why did the Indians celebrate the end of the rule of their own, especially after centuries of rule by foreigners?

Kushans at the height of their power, in A.D. 358, sent presents to Samudra Gupta according to an inscription on the Allahabad (a city in Northern India) pillar [45]. It means that they were very friendly toward each other. An ethnic affinity?

According to a quotation in Dahiya's [29] book Gupta horse riders as per Gupta coins wore tunics fastened by belts, helmets, buttoned-up boots and trousers. This was a complete Scythian outfit!

Dahiya [29] summarized it by saying every piece of evidence, --documentary, dress, habits, customs, and inscriptional points to one conclusion, "the so called 'Guptas' were Jats".

King Harsha ruled north India from A.D. 606-647. He was the son of the king of Thanesar, the famous holy town to the north of New Delhi, India. Harsha's capital was Kanauj, city on the Ganges. According to Dahiya [29], who has devoted one chapter of his book to Harsha, the king belonged to Virk or Bains Jats and is associated with a village called Mahilpur, District Hoshiarpur, Punjab. Infact, even to-day this village is occupied by the Bains Jats. Dahiya says that Sir Cunningham and Carlleyle are of the opinion that king Harsha belonged to the Bains clan. Both Cunningham [45] and Dahiya [29] agree that Vasantalekha was the favourite queen of Harsha, who belonged to the Sahi (a Jat clan name) dynasty of Kabul, Afghanistan. According to Sir Cunnigham [45] Vasantalekha became a Sati (burned herself in fire with the body of Harsha) after her husband's death.


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2.7 Indus Valley Civilization

This is also referred to as the Mohenjo Daro and Harappa civilization (3000 B.C. to 1500 B.C.) discovered in 1921-2 [39]. Professor L.A. Waddell [57] of the University of London, Professor L.A. Waddell [57], wrote in his book, "The immense number of official signets of Sumerian (modern Iraq) emperors have been unearthed during recent years at the capital of the rich Indus Valley colony of the Summerians at Mohenjo Daro". Interestingly, the seals of the kings and others found in Indus Valley, indicate that these rulers, as deciphered by Professor Waddell, called themselves "Guts". For example, the seal of the 3rd Guti king Tishua deciphered reads "The Earl King-Companion TISHUA the Great Minister of the Guts at Agdu Land".

Professor Waddell's [57] statement in the Preface of his excellent book provides a very important piece of information regarding the Jats in the very ancient times "Most of the leading kings of the Early Sumerian dynasties, including "Sargon the Great" and Menes the first Pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt repeatedly call themselves in their official documents and Seals "Gut" (pronounced Goot) or Got. And Early Sumerian Dynasties in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) called themselves Guti or Goti; and "Goti" was the regular title of the Goths in Europe the aspirated form "Goth" having been coined by the Romans and never used by Goths themselves". Dr. Kephart [19] wrote, "Goths" were Getae or Jats and originally came from Central Asia.


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2.8 References: Chapter 2 -Ancient History of the Jats

[1]. Diodorus of Sicily (published around 49 B.C.), translated by C.H. Oldfather, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936, pp. 27-28 (Vol. II), pp. 377, 382-383 (Vol. VIII).
[2]. Scythians, The Encyclopaedia Britannica, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1984, pp. 438-442.
[3]. Mallory, J.P., Indo-Europeans, Thames and Hudson Ltd., London, 1989, pp.48-49.
[4]. Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary, Lexicon Publications, Inc., New York, 1988, pp. 900, 887, 19.
[5]. Rolle, R., The World of the Scythians, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1989, pp. 8, 93, 55-56.
[6]. Scythians and Cimmerians, in the Historians' History of the World by H.S. Williams, The Outlook Company, New York, 1905, pp. 403-404 (Vol. II).
[7]. Forster, G., A Character of the Sieks (Sikhs), in Early European Accounts of the Sikhs edited by Dr. G. Singh, Today & Tomorrow's Printers & Publishers, New Delhi, India, 1974, pp. 204-205.


[8]. Herodotus, The Histories, Penguin Books, Inc., London, 1988, pp. 272-273, 122128, 467.
[9]. MacMunn, G., The Martial Races of India, Reprinted by Mittal Publications,Delhi, India, 1979, pp. 252-253, 263, 49, 15.
[10]. Talbot-Rice, T., The Scythians, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1961, pp. 19, 3738, 45, 63, 75, 181.
[11]. Justin, Cornellius Nepos, and Eutropius, translated by J.S. Watson, Published by Henry G.Bohn, York Street, Covent Garden, London, 1853, pp. 16-17.
[12]. The Sarmatae (Sarmatians) and Parthians, in the Cambridge Ancient History, edited by S.A. Cook, F.E. Adcock, M.P. Charlesworth, Vol. XI, Cambridge University Press, London, 1954, pp. 91-130.
[13]. Periplus (written around A.D. 60), The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, translated by W.H. Schoff, Longman, Green and Co., London, 1912.
[14]. Jordanes (A.D. 551), The Gothic History of Jordanes, translated into English by Dr. C.C. Mierow of Princeton University, Barnes and Noble, Inc., New York, 1915, reprinted in 1966, pp. 68-69.

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[15]. Sulimirski, T., The Sarmatians, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1970, pp. 54-55, 175-176.
[16]. Ekholm, G., Alfoldi, A., The Peoples of Northern Europe: The Getae and Dacians, in the Cambridge Ancient History edited by S.A. Cook, F.E. Adcock, M.P. Charlesworth, Vol. XI, Cambridge University Press, London, 1954, pp. 86-87.
[17]. Ammianus, Marcellinus, 4th century A.D., translated by Dr. J.C. Rolfe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1935, pp. 393-395 (Vol. I).
[18]. Trippett, F., The First Horsemen, Time Life Books, New York, 1974, pp. 18.
[19]. Kephart, C., Races of Mankind: Their Origin and Migration, Peter Owen Limited, London, 1960, pp. 488-489, 522-525.
[20]. Barstow, A.E. (Major), The Sikhs: An Ethnology, reprinted by B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1928, pp. 152, 155, 181.
[21]. Risley, H. (Sir), The People of India, Reprinted by Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, Delhi, India, 1969, first published in 1915, pp. 59-60.
[22]. Bingley, A.H. (Captain), Handbooks for the Indian Army: Sikhs, Printed at the Government Central Printing Office, Simla, India, 1899, pp. 11-12, 93.
[23]. Arrian (95-175 A.D.), Anabasis of Alexander, Translated by E.I. Robson, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1966, pp. 37, 59, 69-72, 131, 139 (Vol. II).
[24]. Rose, H.A., A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, 2 Vols., reprinted by the Languages Department, Printing and Stationery Department, Patiala, Punjab, Printed at the Punjab National Press, Delhi, India, 1970, pp. 8-9 (Vol. I), first published in 1883.
[25]. Singh, Khushwant, A History of the Sikhs, Vol. I: 1469-1839, Oxford University Press, Delhi, India, 1977, pp. 14-15.
[26]. Latif, S.M., History of the Punjab, reprinted by the Progressive Books, Lahore, Pakistan, 1984, first published in 1891, pp. 56.
[27]. Pettigrew, J. (Professor), Robber Noblemen: A Study of the Political System of the Sikh Jats, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1975, pp. 25, 238. [27a]. Tod, J. (Lt. Col.), Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. 1, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1972, pp. 49-50, first published in 1829.


[28]. Woodcock, G., The Greeks in India, Faber and Faber Ltd., London, 1966, pp. 1213, 48.

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[29]. Dahiya, B.S., Jats: The Ancients Rulers, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 170-171, 77, 174-230, 22, 35-37.
[30]. Diodorus (first century B.C.), Diodorus of Sicily, translated by C.B. Welles, Vol. 8, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1946, pp. 397, 401, 405.
[31]. Plutarch (A.D. 45-120), Plutarch's Lives, Alexander, translated by B. Perrin, Vol. 11, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1918, pp. 225-439.
[32]. Eggermont, P.H.L., Alexander's Campaign in Gandhara and Ptolemy's List of Indo-Scythian Towns, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica I, 1970, pp. 63-123.
[33]. Strabo (first century A.D.), The Geography of Strabo, Translated by H.L. Jones, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1954, pp. 57-58 (Vol. VII).
[34]. McCrindle, J.W., Ancient India as described in Classical Literature, reprinted by the Eastern Book House, Patna, India, 1987, pp. 40-41, first published in 1901.
[35]. Sinha, B.C., Studies in Alexander's Campaigns, Bhartiya Publishing House, Varanasi, India, 1973, pp. 35-36, 40.
[36]. Curtius, Quintus, History of Alexander, translated by J.C. Rolffe, 2 Vols., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1956.
[37]. Rapson, E.J., Ancient India, reprinted by Susil Gupta (India) Private Ltd., Calcutta, 1960, pp. 53, 74-75, first published in 1914.
[38]. Gupta, H.R., Chandragupta Maurya: A Native of Punjab, in Punjab Past and Present: Essays in Honour of Dr. Ganda Singh, edited by H. Singh and N. Gerald Barrier, Published by the Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 1976, pp. 27-32.


[39]. Thapar, R., A History of India, Penguin Books Ltd., London, 1969, pp. 70-71, 9596, 337-339, 29.
[40]. Smith, V.A., The Oxford History of India, Oxford University Press, London, 1967, pp. 173, 162-163.
[41]. Gardner, P., The Coins of the Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria and India, in the British Museum, Argonaut, Inc., Publishers, Chicago, 1966 (edited by Dr. R.S. Poole).
[42]. Tarn, W.W., The Greeks in Bactria and India, Cambridge University Press, London, 1951.

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[43]. Caucasian Corpses Pose 4,000 year-Old Mystery, The Ottawa Citizen, Wednesday March 16, 1994, pp. A7.
[44]. Cunningham, A. (Sir and General), Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans, reprinted by the Idological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, pp. 25, 27-28, 32, first published in 1888.
[45]. Cunningham, A. (Sir), Later Indo-Scythians, from the Numismatic Chronicle 189394, edited by Prof. A.K. Narain, reprinted by Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1979, pp. 94-95, 99, 112, 121, 271, 255, 247, 188, 176-177, 189.
[46]. Marshall, J. (Sir), A Guide to Taxila, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1960, pp. 24-25.
[47]. Banerjea, J.N., The Scythians and Parthians in India, in a Comprehensive History of India, edited by K.A.N. Sastri, People's Publishing House, New Delhi, India, 1957, pp. 872-874 (Vol. 2).
[48]. Cunningham, A., (Sir), Coins of Ancient India: from the earliest times down to the seventh century A.D., reprinted by Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1963.
[49]. Ptolemy (90-168 A.D.), Geography of Claudius Ptolemy, translated by Dr. E.L. Stevenson, Published by the New York Public Library, New York, 1932, pp. 152-153.
[50]. Mongait, A.L., Archaeology in the U.S.S.R., Penguin Books Ltd., London, 1961, pp. 238-239, 234.
[51]. Watters, T., On Yuan Chwang's (Hiuen Tsiang) Travels in India, reprinted by Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1973, pp. 200-201, first published in 1904.
[52]. McCrindle, J.W., Ancient India as described in Classical Literature, reprinted by Eastern Book House, Patna, India, 1987, pp. 164-165, first published in 1901.
[53]. Hiuen Tsiang (A.D. 629-645), Buddhist Records of the Western World, translated by Professor Beal, Kegan Pual, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., London, 1895, pp. xcii-xciii.
[54]. Dhillon Video Ltd., Vehra Shaguna Da (auspicious backyard), 1692 Albion Road, Rexdale, Ontario, Canada.
[55]. Mcrindle, J.W., The Invasion of the India by Alexander the Great as described by Arrian, Quintus Curtius, Diodoros, Plutarch and Justin, reprinted by Barnes and Noble, Inc., New York, 1969, pp. 76-77, first published in 1896.
[56]. Gupta, P.L., Coins, National Book Trust, New Delhi, India, 1988, pp. 51-52.

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[57]. Waddell, L.A., The Makers of Civilization in Race and History, reprinted by S. Chand & Co., New Delhi, India, 1968, pp. 545, 584, first published in 1929.
[58]. Tod, J. (Lt. Col. ), Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol. 1, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1972, pp. 49-50, first published in 1829.

History and study of the Jats. End of Page 54


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