Guti

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Guti or Gutian/Gutians (also Guteans, Quti, Qurtie, Qurti, and Kurdu[1]) were a tribe from northern and central ranges of the Zagros Mountains that overran southern Mesopotamia when the Akkadian empire collapsed in approximately 2154 BC.

Sumerian sources portray the Gutians as a barbarous, ravenous people from Gutium or Qutium (Sumerian: Gu-tu-umki[2] or Gu-ti-umki[3]) in the mountains, presumably the central Zagros east of Babylon and north of Elam. Gutium is also mentioned based in modern-day Kurdistan[4] The Sumerian king list represents them as ruling over Sumer for a short time after the fall of the Akkadian Empire, and paints a picture of chaos within the Gutian administration.[5]

Nothing is known about their origins, as no "Gutian" artifacts have surfaced from that time; little information is gleaned from the contemporary sources. Nothing is known of their language either, apart from those Sumerian king names, and that it was distinct from other known languages of the region (such as Sumerian, Akkadian, Hurrian, Hittite and Elamite).

History

The Guti appear in Old Babylonian copies of inscriptions ascribed to Lugal-Anne-Mundu of Adab as among the nations providing his empire tribute. These inscriptions locate them between Subartu in the north, and Marhashe and Elam in the south. They were a prominent nomadic tribe who lived in the Zagros mountains in the time of the Akkadian Empire. Sargon the Great also mentions them among his subject lands, listing them between Lullubi, Armanu and Akkad to the north, and Nikku and Der to the south. According to one stele, Naram-Sin of Akkad's army of 360,000 soldiers defeated the Gutian king Gula'an, despite losing 90,000 slain by the Gutians. The epic Cuthaean Legend of Naram-Sin of a later millennium mentions Gutium among the lands around Mesopotamia raided by Annubanini of Lulubum during Naram-Sin's reign.[6] Contemporary year-names for Shar-kali-sharri of Akkad indicate that in one unknown year of his reign, he captured Sharlag king of Gutium, while in another year, "the yoke was imposed on Gutium".[7]

Gutian dynasty of Sumer

As Akkadian might went into a decline, the Gutians began to practice hit-and-run tactics on Mesopotamia; they would be long gone by the time forces could arrive to deal with the situation. Their raids crippled the economy of Sumer. Travel became unsafe, as did work in the fields, resulting in famine. The Gutians eventually overran Akkad, and as the King List tells us, their army also subdued Uruk for hegemony of Sumer — although it seems that autonomous rulers soon arose again in a number of city-states, notably Gudea of Lagash. The Gutians also seem to have briefly overrun Elam at the close of Kutik-Inshushinak's reign, around the same time.[8] and in an inscribed statue of Gutian king Erridupizir at Nippur, in imitation of his Akkadian predecessors, he assumes the title "King of Gutium, King of the Four Quarters".

According to the Sumerian king list, "In the army of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years."

The Weidner Chronicle, of some 1500 years later, portrays the Gutian kings as uncultured and uncouth:

"Naram-Sin destroyed the people of Babylon, so twice Marduk summoned the forces of Gutium against him. Marduk gave his kingship to the Gutian force. The Gutians were unhappy people unaware how to revere the gods, ignorant of the right cultic practices.
Utu-hengal, the fisherman, caught a fish at the edge of the sea for an offering. That fish should not be offered to another god until it had been offered to Marduk, but the Gutians took the boiled fish from his hand before it was offered, so by his august command, Marduk removed the Gutian force from the rule of his land and gave it to Utu-hengal."

The Sumerian ruler Utu-hengal of Uruk is similarly credited on the King List with defeating the Gutian ruler Tirigan, and removing the Guti from the country (ca. 2050 BC (short)).[9] Following this, Ur-Nammu of Ur had their homeland of Gutium devastated, though according to one lengthy Sumerian poem, he died in battle with the Gutians, after having been abandoned by his own army.

Modern connection theories

Herodotus and Strabo agree that in about 2000 BC, the Jati community lived in Jutland. They built a temple there dedicated to their Goddess Ahilya. Her abode was in the garden and a cow drew her chariot. They also built the temple Apsala. The name of their God was Oven, which meant Budha the forefather of Chandravansh.

The historical Guti have been regarded by some as among the ancestors of the Kurds.[10] However, the term Guti had by late antiquity become a "catch all" term to describe all tribal peoples in the Zagros region, and according to J.P. Mallory, the original Gutians precede the arrival of Indo-Iranian peoples (of which the Kurds are one) by some 1500 years.[11]

In the late 19th-century, Assyriologist Julius Oppert sought to connect the Gutians of remote antiquity with the later Gutones (Goths), whom Ptolemy in 150 AD had known as the "Guti" , a tribe of Scandia. Oppert's theory on this connection is not shared by any scholars today, in the absence of further evidence, but it persistently shows up in so-called Pro-Aryan media.

Jat connections

Bhim Singh Dahiya brought out to the knowledge of layman reader that by applying Grimm's Law, how the G letter was a substitution for the J sound, as the J letter did not exist in the ancient Greek alphabet. The significance was in determining who the Guti were, whom the Chinese and Western and most Indian Historians know as the ‘Yuezhi’, but are Jats, of whom Kushans were just one clan, not a people unto themselves.

Bhim Singh Dahiya[12] writes that almost every tribe of ancient Middle East (West Asia) and Central Asia, is represented among the present-day Jats in India, Whole tribes have individual histories, and significantly, they are called Guti/Guts/ Djati/ Jatoi /Gets/Jits or Juts. In the third millennium B.C. we find not only a people called Guti, as overlords of Sumer, Akkad and Lagash and Babylon, but we also find their country called Gutium. We find their first king, named Murut or Mamta, and the last king named Trigan who was overthrown by Uttu Khegal Warak from the present Virk clan of the Jats, the Varka of ancient Sumer/Iran, the Urukan or Hyrcan of Greek writers. Again, we find a people tailed Amuru by the Egyptians, and Amorites by historians The Cambridge Ancient History explains that the first letter ‘A’ is added in order to make pronunciation easier for the Semitic people; and so the name that remains is Muru/Mor, the Moore/More of Europe, the Mor/Maur of Indian Jats, and the Mauryas of Asoka fame. Significantly, the Egyptians have put [it on record that the people, Ainuru/Amorites, came from “The land of Djati”, the land of Guts, or Gutium, of the ancient Sumerians/Babylonians/Assyrians.

Bhim Singh Dahiya writes:

"It is important to note that the Chinese word 'Yue-che" is pronounced as "Gut-tia" according to Karl-Gren, meaning the "Moon People".[13] Later on, the Chinese chronicles show, that under pressure of another tribe of the same stock, called by the Chinese as Hiung-nu or Hoa, the Yue-che moved southward and westward. The branch that was numerically weaker went to the South towards Tibet and were called 'Siao-Yue-Che", meaning the "little Yue-che". The main body moved westward and occupied Dahia (or Tahia, Bactria, Balkh). They were called "Ta-Yue-che" meaning the "Great Guttia" or great Jats. As shown above the word 'Yue-che' is pronounced as Guttia and therefore Ta-Yue-che is exactly the same as the word "Massa Getae" of the Greeks and the Persians. All the Chinese sources agree that the Kusanas were from the Yue-che race. The Chinese author of Thung-Kiang-Nu, writes in the year 555 A.D. that the Aptal or Hephthalites were of the race of Ta-Yue-che. Further the encyclopaedia of Ma-Tuan-g-Lin says that the Yeta are of the race of Ta-Yue-che, and further that the I-Tan belonged to the same race as Yue-che."[14]

Bhim Singh Dahiya goes on to state that:

"The Chinese were right in stating that the Hiung-nu were a part of the Yue-Che (reads as Guti) people, and these Guti people had two divisions, the Ta-Yue-Che and the Siao-Yue-Che, exactly corresponding to the Massagetae and Thyssagetae of Herodotus (a classical Greek writer of fifth century BC), meaning the "Great-Jats" and the "Little-Jats" respectively. Almost every tribe of Ancient Middle East (West Asia) and Central Asia, is represented among the present day Jats in India."[15]

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[16] quotes Dr Colin Renfrew[17] who talks of agricultural activity in Anatolia before the end of Ice Age, and Calvin Kephart[18] interestingly finds the Pre-Sumerian Gutis (and Utis, identified with the Jats), disseminating knowledge of agriculture in those lands, especially relating to cultivation of wheat, the original cereal crop, according to Vanilov, (supra) of the Punjab (Sapta-Sindhu) , were-from it was introduced through upper reaches of the Indus to Afghanistan and North Iran, and to Baluchistan, South Iran,and and Mesopotamia through its lower reaches.

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) [19] writes that the Oxford English Dictionary (1977 ed.) gives a very faithful account of the variants available in they old languages of the north-western European countries. In old English the were known as Juti, in early medieval Latin as Jutae, Juti (in plural) and Geta, in Icelandic as Jota and in Jutland, Denmark etc. as Jut as well as Jotar.[20]


Prof. B.S. Dhillon[21] quotes Professor L.A. Waddell [22] of the University of London, who wrote in his book,

"The immense number of official signets of Sumerian (modern Iraq) emperors have been unearthed during recent years at the capital of the rich Indus Valley colony of the Summerians at Mohenjo Daro". Interestingly, the seals of the kings and others found in Indus Valley, indicate that these rulers, as deciphered by Professor Waddell, called themselves "Guts". For example, the seal of the 3rd Guti king Tishua deciphered reads "The Earl King-Companion TISHUA the Great Minister of the Guts at Agdu Land".

Professor Waddell's [23] statement in the Preface of his excellent book provides a very important piece of information regarding the Jats in the very ancient times "Most of the leading kings of the Early Sumerian dynasties, including "Sargon the Great" and Menes the first Pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt repeatedly call themselves in their official documents and Seals "Gut" (pronounced Goot) or Got. And Early Sumerian Dynasties in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) called themselves Guti or Goti; and "Goti" was the regular title of the Goths in Europe the aspirated form "Goth" having been coined by the Romans and never used by Goths themselves". Dr. Kephart[24] wrote, "Goths" were Getae or Jats and originally came from Central Asia.

On the Issue of the word "Goth" Professor Waddell [25] of the University of London remarked, " the First Dynasty of Egypt repeatedly call themselves in their official documents and seals "Gut" And early Sumerian Dynasties in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) called themselves Guti or Goti; and "Goti" was the regular title of the Goths in Europe the aspirated form Goth having coined by the Romans and never used by Goths themselves”.

Jatti Jat clan

Jatti (जट्टी)[26] Zutti (जट्टी) Jati (जटी) Jatti (जत्ति)[27] is clan of Jats. It originated from word Jat. [28]

According to Bhim Singh Dahiya[29] Jats are called by different variant names in different countries: Jatti by Pliny and Ptolemy. In the Central Punjab Jatt's fem. is Jatti.[30]

According to Ram Swarup Joon[31]Parihar, Pratihar and Panwar belong to the Gujar dynasty and their ancestors are said to have been associated with the Mauryan Jatti clan .

In his etymological discussion the learned author has pointed out that the word Zutt or Zutti used in the Arabic Sources is an arabicised form of Jat as explained in several Arabic and Persian dictionaries including Lisan –al-Arab of lbn Manzur, the most famous and voluminous Arabic lexicon [32] Quoting the same work, he states that Zut are people of race from Sind who are of black colour. [33]This is arabicised from the Indian (Hindi) word Jat and its singular is Zutti. He has also given opinion of some other lexicographers who thinks that this is the Arabic form of the Indian word Chat. [34]

Jati in Mahabharata

Jati have been mentioned in Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44 shloka 56. It mentions various clans who joined the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo. Jati (Guti) and Hari along with many Jat clans appear in this. [35]

Jati is one of the thousand names Shiva.

जाट साम्राज्य (Kingdom of Guti:Jats)

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[36] ने ईख है कि 2600 वर्ष ई० पू० में लेस्सर जब (Lesser Zab) की पूर्व में जाटों का साम्राज्य था जिन्होंने बेबीलोनिया के उत्तरी एवं दक्षिणी भाग और एलम (Elam) के शासकों को जीतकर अपने साम्राज्य में मिला लिया था। उनके सम्राट् का नाम तीरीकन था और 2500 वर्ष ई० पू० में इनका राज्य पश्चिमी एशिया पर था। विर्क जाटों का राज्य भी उसी समय स्थापित हो गया था। (P. Sykes, The History of Persia, Vol. I P. 69)।

प्रजापति दक्ष की 13 कन्याएं जो महर्षि कश्यप की पत्नियां थीं उनमें से एक का नाम दिति था जिसका वंश दैत्य (असुर) नाम से प्रसिद्ध हुआ। अदिति के 12 पुत्र आदित्य (देव) और दनु के 34 पुत्र दानव कहलाए। इस प्रकार देव, दानव तथा असुर सब ब्रह्मा की सन्तान हैं। ये सब कश्यपगोत्री हैं। (महाभारत आदिपर्व अध्याय 66वां)।

कश्यपगोत्री जाटों की बड़ी संख्या है। ये असुर भी कश्यपगोत्री जाट हैं। इनका शासन बेबीलोनिया (लघु एशिया) पर रहा है। लगभग 4000 वर्ष पुरानी देवी नेना/ नीना /नैना/ नेननई, आरम्भ में बेबीलोनिया की देवी थी। 2287 ई० पू० में उसकी बनी हुई मूर्ति उरुक (उरुगदेश) के मन्दिर में


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-413


स्थापित की गई थी। बेबीलोनिया को हराकर इस देवी की मूर्ति को सूसा (ईरान के दक्षिण-पश्चिम में) ले जाया गया। 1635 वर्ष बाद यानी 652 ई० पू० में असुर बेनीपाल (जाट सम्राट्) ने लूसा को लूट लिया तथा इस देवी की मूर्ति को वापिस उरुक ले आया और उसी के मन्दिर में स्थापित कर दिया।

जब जाट लोग वहां से अपने देश भारत में आये तब उस देवी की मूर्ति को अपने साथ यहां ले आए और वह अब हिमाचल प्रदेश के जिला विलासपुर के एक मन्दिर में नैना देवी के ही नाम से स्थापित है। (Majumdar & Pusalkar, The age of Imperial Unity, P. 168.)।

सम्राट् कनिष्क कुषाण जाट के छोटे पुत्र हुविष्क का शासन सन् 162 ई० से 182 ई० तक रहा। उसके एक सिक्के पर शेर पर सवार इस नैना देवी की मूर्ति है। (op cit. plates 1-6, p. 31)। (जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट रूलर्ज)।

See also

References

  1. Kurds/History. p. 382.
  2. The Sumerian king list: composite text
  3. ETCSL. The Cursing of Agade
  4. Eller, Jack David. Kurdish History and Kurdish Identity. p. 153.
  5. ETCSL - Sumerian king list
  6. Reallexikon der Assyriologie und vorderasiatischen Archäologie By Erich Ebling, Bruno
  7. Year-names for Sharkalisharri
  8. Martin Sicker, 2000, The Pre-Islamic Middle East, p. 19,
  9. ETCSL - The victory of Utu-ḫeĝal
  10. "Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East".
  11. Mallory, J.P. (1989), In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology, and Myth, London: Thames & Hudson.
  12. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Introduction,p.ix
  13. Jari-Churpentier, Die-Ethno Graphische Stellung der Toohaser, 1917, Pp. 347-388.
  14. Dahiya, Bhim Singh (1980): Jats, the ancient rulers: a clan study (First Edition: 1980). Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 25
  15. http://www.iranian.com/History/2005/March/Gutians/
  16. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The migrations of the Jats to the North-Western countries,p.245
  17. Dr.D.G. Sidharth, B.M. Birla Science Centre, Research Report, Aug., 1991, pp. 1-5. Cf. Ali Sami, Shiraz, Musavi Printing Office, Shiraz, 1958, p.12.
  18. Kephart, op.cit., p. 244.
  19. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: P. 340
  20. Oxf. Dic. (1977), p. 588, Green and Gardner, q. by Ujagar Singh Mahil, Antiquity of Jat Race, pp. 12-13.
  21. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 2,p.49
  22. Waddell, L.A., The Makers of Civilization in Race and History, reprinted by S. Chand & Co., New Delhi, India, 1968, pp. 545, 584, first published in 1929.
  23. Waddell, L.A., The Makers of Civilization in Race and History, reprinted by S. Chand & Co., New Delhi, India, 1968, pp. 545, 584, first published in 1929.
  24. Kephart, C., Races of Mankind: Their Origin and Migration, Peter Owen Limited, London, 1960, pp. 488-489, 522-525.
  25. Waddell. L.A.. The Makers of Civilization in Race and History. reprinted by S. Chand & Co.. New Deihl. India, 1968, first published in 1929, (See Preface).
  26. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.301
  27. डॉ पेमाराम:राजस्थान के जाटों का इतिहास, 2010, पृ.301
  28. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998 p.246
  29. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/The Jats,p.1
  30. A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/J, p.357
  31. History of the Jats/Chapter V, p.96, s.no.72
  32. Ibn Mauzur, Lisan al-Arab-Dar-i-Sidar , Beirut 1956 , III/308 , See also Ali Akbar , Lughat Namah-i-Dahkhuda, No. 53, P.379
  33. Muhammad Tahir, Majma Bihar al–Anwar , Nawal Kishore (n.d.) II/62 (as cited by Qazi Atbar , op. cit.,P.8)
  34. Majma al-Bahrain under entry-Zutt, (as quoted by Quzi Athar ,P. 61 )
  35. अजॊदरॊ गजशिराः सकन्धाक्षः शतलॊचनः, जवाला जिह्वः करालश च सितकेशॊ जटी हरिः (Mahabharata:IX.44.56)
  36. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.413-414

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