Sirhind

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Sirhind on Map of Fatehgarh Sahib district

Sirhind (सरहिन्द) is a town in Fatehgarh Sahib district of Punjab.

Variants of name

Location

It is located on National Highway No. 1 (GT Road). The special bus between Delhi and Lahore has a scheduled halt at this place.

History

Other historians identify it with Tabarhindah (तबरहिंद) , which was a frontier for of Chauhan Kingdom.

Some historians identify it with Bhatinda. Bathinda is nicknamed the city of Lakes and was once known as Tabar-e-Hind (or Tabarhindh), meaning the Gateway to India. [2]


Sirhind has been known as a small township from the beginning of the Christian era. Varahamihira (505 – 587) in his Sanskrit treatise, Brihat Samhita, mentions the city as 'Satudar Desh', later it was inhabited by a tribe of 'Sairindhas Aryans', leading to its present name.

According to Huan Tsang, the Chinese traveller who visited India during the seventh century, Sirhind was the capital of the district of Shitotulo, or Shatadru (the present day River Sutlej).


In 1012, it became the capital of the Hindushahi dynasty and remained so till the end of the 12th century, when it was taken over by the Chauhans. Later during the rule of Prithvi Raj Chauhan (1168–1192), the last Hindu ruler of Delhi, it became his military outpost.


Ram Sarup Joon[3] writes that....The Xth Guru held a 'sammelan' (assembly) at Anandpur in 1703. The Hindu Rajas of neighboring hilly regions taking it as a threat clashed with Sikhs but were defeated. They asked for help from Delhi. The ruler of Sirhind came to their help. The Sikhs had by now captured the fort of Chamkor and a fierce battle ensued. In this battle the two elder sons of Guru Govind Singh were killed and the two younger ones were captured along with their Grand Mother and they were buried alive in a wall mercilessly at Sirhind. The Grand Mother of these children committed suicide by jumping from the roof. This tragedy occurred in about 1703 or 1704. After a pause, in 1706 the Sikhs again had another battle with the Royal Army at Muktsar in which the Sikhs were crushed.


Aurangzeb died on 3 Mar 1707 and his three sons indulged in a war of succession. In Nov 1708, Guru Gobind Singh followed Bahadur Shah's forces marching towards Deccan. He met Banda Bairagi Madhodas at Nander. He found the Banda Bairagi capable of leading the Panth, and persuaded him to come to Punjab. While on his way to Punjab, Banda Bairagi broke his journey at Sehri - Khandaa a Jat village of Dahiya Gotra, 20 miles west of Delhi. From there he dispatched letters to all the Jathedars of the Panth to concentrate forthwith. He planned to attack and loot the Royal treasury by and by the Sikhs started arriving and the strength of the force rose to 14000. He attached Samana, overran Sadhora, Kunjpura etc and finally overpowered and killed the Ruler of Sirhind named Wazirkhan. The people who had taken active part in the conspiracy against Guru Govind Singh and his sons were searched for and sentenced one by one.

Visit by Xuanzang in 635 AD

Alexander Cunningham[4] writes that The district of She-to-tu-lo or Satadru, is described by the Chinese pilgrim1 Xuanzang as 2000 li, or 333 miles in circuit, with a large river forming its western boundary. The capital is placed at 700 li, or 117 miles, to the south of Kullu, and 800 li, or 133 miles, to the north-east of Bairat. But there is a mistake in one of these numbers, as the distance between the capital of Kullu and Bairat is 336 miles, measured direct on the map, or not less than 360 miles, by road. There is a deficiency, therefore, in one of the distances of about 110 miles, or nearly 700 li, in a direct line between the two places, or of about 150 miles, or nearly 1000 li, in the detour, as shown by his bearings. Now it is remarkable that there is a deficiency


1 Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' ii. 205.


[p.145]: of about the same amount in the return journey along a parallel line of road, from Mathura to Thanesar, which the pilgrim makes only 500 li, or 83 miles,1 instead of 1200 li, or 200 miles, the actual distance being 199 miles. As it would seem that both routes, for some unknown reason, had been subjected to the same amount of curtailment, it is probable that the deficiency in the western line will lie in the southern portion between Satadru and Bairat, which is contiguous to the parallel line between Mathura and Thanesar. I would, therefore, increase the distance between the two former places by 150 miles, or in round numbers 1000 li, which would make the total distance 283 miles, or nearly 1800 li, instead of 800 li. Taking this corrected distance from Bairat, and the recorded distance of 117 miles south from Kullu, the position of Satadru will correspond almost exactly with the large city of Sarhind, which both history and tradition affirm to be the oldest place in this part of the country.

The present ruins of Sarhind consist almost entirely of Muhammadan buildings of a late period ; but it must have been a place of some consequence in the time of the Hindus, as it was besieged and captured by Muhammad Ghori, the first Mussulman king of Delhi. 2 The name of Sarhind, or " frontier of Hind" is popularly said to have been given to the city at an earlier period, when it was the boundary town between the Hindus and the later Muhammadan kingdom of Ghazni and Lahor. But the name is probably


1 Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' i. 104, and ii. 211. 2 Dowson's edition of Sir H. Elliot's ' Muhammadan Historians of India,' ii. 295.


[p.146]: much older, as the astronomer Varaha Mihira mentions the Sairindhas1 immediately after the Kulutas, or people of Kullu, and just before Brahmapura, which, as we learn from the Chinese pilgrim, was the capital of the hill country to the north of Haridwar. The Sairindhas, or people of Sirindha, must, therefore, have occupied the very tract of country in which the present Sarhind is situated, and there can be little doubt that the two names are the same. But the geographical list of Varaha Mihira is copied almost verbatim from that of the still earlier astronomer Parasara, who is believed to have flourished not later than the first century after Christ.2

If we apply the correction of 110 miles, or about 700 li, to the northern half of the line between Kullu and Satadru, the position of the latter will be brought down to Hansi, which is an ancient fortified city of even greater strength and reputation than Sarhind. But as Hwen Thsang specially notes that the territory of Satadru was only 2000 li, or 333 miles, in circuit, and that it was bounded on the west by a great river, which can only be the Satlej or Satadru, it is quite impossible that Hansi could be the place intended, as it is upwards of 130 miles distant from the nearest point of that river.

The position of the celebrated fortress of Bhatner would suit the description of a small district bounded on the west by the Satlej, and would also agree with the corrected distance from Kullu : but the direction is south-west instead of south, and the distance from Bairat is upwards of 200 miles, instead of 800 li, or


1 Dr. Kern's edition of the ' Brihat Sanhita,' b. xiv. 29, 30.

2 Kern's Preface to the ' Brihat Sanhita,' p. 32.


[p.147]: 133 miles, as stated by the pilgrim. The bearing of Bairat is, however, in favour of Bhatner, as the pilgrim's south-west is certainly a mistake for south-east, otherwise the distance of Bairat from Mathura would be nearly 1600 li, or 250 miles, instead of 500 li, or 83 miles, as recorded. If we might read 1500 li instead of 500 li, the relative positions of Bhatner and Bairat would correspond very well with the pilgrim's account, as the road distance between the two places, via Hansi, is about 250 miles. It is quite possible also that there may be a mistake in the initial Chinese character. She or ṣa, which is very much like Po or Bha ; and if so, the Chinese syllables Po.to-tu-lo would represent Bhatasthala, or Bhatner. The latter name means the " fortress of the Bhatis," but the town itself was called Band, or Bando, which was probably the contracted form of Bhatasthala, just as Maru is now the common contracted form of Marusthala. But in spite of these plausible agreements both in name and in position, I am inclined to think that Sarhind must be the place indicated by the pilgrim as the capital of the ancient district of Satadru, This conclusion is strengthened by the pilgrim's statement that the country produced gold, which, so far as I know, can only apply to the lower hills lying to the north of Sarhind, where gold is still found in some of the smaller affluents of the Satlej.

Accepting Sarhind as the capital of Satadru, the boundaries of the district may be determined approximately from its size. On the west and north it was bounded by the Satlej for upwards of 100 miles from the neighbourhood of Simla to Tihara, below Ludhiana. On the south the boundary extended for about 100


[p.148]: miles from Tihara to Ambala, and on the east for about the same distance, from Ambala to Simla. The circuit thus described embraces a considerable portion of the hill states to the west and south of Simla, together with the districts of Sarhind proper and Ludhiana in the plains. As it is the only district lying to east of the Satlej that is included within the limits of Northern India, I infer that it must have been a dependency of the neighbouring state of Jalandhar.

In Mahabharata

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 9 verse-19 mentions Shatadru River along with Vipasa, the Satadru, the Chandrabhaga, the Saraswati; the Iravati, the Vitasta, the Sindhu, etc.

विपाशा च शतद्रुश च चन्थ्र भागा सरस्वती
इरावती वितस्ता च सिन्धुर थेव नथस तदा (II.9.19)

Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. It mentions Shatadru in verse-14

शतद्रुं चनद्रभागां च यमुनां च महानदीम
दृषद्वतीं विपाशां च विपापां सदूलवालुकाम (VI.10.14)

Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 30 verse 35 mentions

There where forests of Pilus stand, and those five rivers flow, viz., the Satadru, the Vipasa, the Iravati, the Chandrabhaga, and the Vitasa and which have the Sindhu for their sixth, there in those regions removed from the Himavat, are the countries called by the name of the Arattas.
पञ्च नथ्यॊ वहन्त्य एता यत्र पीलु वनान्य अपि
शतथ्रुश च विपाशा च तृतीयेरावती तदा
चन्थ्र भागा वितस्ता च सिन्धुषष्ठा बहिर गताः (VIII.30.35)

बादशाह हुमायूं और सर्वखाप पंचायत

सन 1540 में बादशाह हुमायूं का सर्वखाप पंचायत ने साथ नहीं दिया. इस टकराव का शेरशाह ने भरपूर फायदा उठाया. शेरशाह ने दिल्ली पर कब्जा कर लिया और हुमायूं को अफगानिस्तान तक दौड़ाकर मुल्क से खदेड़ दिया. शेरशाह ने गद्दी पर बैठते ही किसानों को तंग करना शुरू कर दिया तथा सर्वखाप की एक न मानी. उधर इरान पहुँच कर हुमायूँ को सर्वखाप पंचायत की याद आई. उसने अपना दूत भेजकर सर्वखाप पंचायत से सहायता मांगी. सर्वखाप पंचायत ने इस शर्त पर सहायत दी कि गद्दी पर बैठने पर वह सर्वखाप की सभी मांगे स्वीकार कर लेंगे. हुमायूँ ने शेरशाह सूरी के उत्तराधिकारी सिकंदरशाह सूरी को खाप पंचायत की मदद से सरहिंद के युद्ध में हराकर दिल्ली पर फिर अधिकार कर लिया (जून, 1555 ) और कुछ समय बाद उसकी मृत्यु हो गई . [5]

जयसिंह बमरौलिया की दिल्ली के तोमर सम्राट से मित्रता

जयसिंह बमरौलिया तथा दिल्ली के तोमर सम्राट - इस समय दिल्ली में तोमर सम्राट अनंगपाल II (1051-1081) का साम्राज्य था. अनंगपाल II तथा गजनी सुलतान इब्राहिम(1059-1099) के मध्य तंवर हिन्दा तथा रूपाल (नूरपुर) पर युद्ध हुआ था, दोनों राज्य तोमर साम्राराज्य के अंतर्गत थे. सम्राट ने इब्राहिम को आगे बढ़ने से रोका था.[6] इस युद्ध में जय सिंह बमरौलिया 3000 सैनिक लेकर तोमर सम्राट के पक्ष में इब्राहिम के विरुद्ध युद्ध में भाग लेने पहुंचा था. जय सिंह के नेतृत्व में उसकी सेना ने रणक्षेत्र में अदम्य साहस का परिचय दिया, जिसे तुर्क सेना तोमर साम्राज्य में प्रवेश नहीं कर सकी. [7] (Ojha, p.33)

तोमर सम्राट द्वारा जयसिंह बमरौलिया को राणा की उपाधि - दिल्ली तोमर सम्राट अनंगपाल ने युद्धक्षेत्र में जयसिंह को अदम्य साहस एवं वीरता प्रदर्शित करने के के उपलक्ष में आगरा के पास बमरौली कटारा की जागीर तथा राणा की उपाधि से विभूषित कर छत्र चंवर प्रदान किये.[8] और इनके पुत्र विरमदेव बमरौलिया को साम्राज्य के सबसे महत्वपूर्ण स्थान तुहनगढ़ की सुरक्षा का दायित्व सौंपा. (Ojha, p.33)

गढ़ बैराठ से बमरौली आगमन - तोमर सम्राट द्वारा प्रदत्त बमरौली कटारा की जागीर[9] में राणा परिवार आकर रहने लगे. रामदेव उर्फ़ विरहमपाल ने अपने समय में वहां रह रहे मुसलमानों को मार भगाया तथा उनकी जागीर को अपनी जागीर में मिला लिया.[10] (Ojha, p.34)

बमरौलिया जाट: इन जाटों ने बमरौली में अपनी स्थिति बहुत सुदृढ़ करली थी तथा यहाँ 172 वर्षों तक रहने के कारण ये लोग बमरौलिया जाट क्षेत्रीय के नाम से सम्बोधित किये जाने लगे.[11] (Ojha, p.34)

बमरौलिया जाटों का ऐसाह की और पलायन :दिल्ली सुलतान फरोजशाह तुगलक के शासनकाल में सन 1367 में आगरा सूबेदार मुनीर मुहम्मद था. उस समय बमरौली कटारा का जागीरदार रतनपाल बमरौली कटारा छोड़कर अपने मित्र तोमर राजा के पास ऐसाह (वर्तमान मुरैना जिले की अम्बाह तहसील में राजस्थान सीमा के पास चम्बल किनारे गाँव, दिल्ली से पूर्व यहाँ तोमरों की राजधानी थी) पहुंचा. जहाँ वह तोमरों के प्रमुख सामंत के रूप में स्थापित हुए.[12] तोमर सम्राट देव वर्मा द्वारा रतनपाल बमरौलिया को पचेहरा (जटवारा) निवास हेतु प्रदान किया गया. (Ojha, p.35)

पचेहरा से बगथरा आगमन - केहरी सिंह बमरौलिया (1390-1395) को ऐसाह के तोमर राजा वीरसिंह देव (1375-1400) के शासनकाल में अपनी वीरता प्रदर्शित करने का अवसर मिल गया. उस समय 1394 में वीरसिंह देव ने ग्वालियर दुर्ग पर दिल्ली सुलतान की ओर से नियुक्त अमीर को पराजित कर ग्वालियर में तोमर राजवंश की नींव डाली. 4 जून 1394 को दिल्ली सुलतान नसीरुद्दीन मुहम्मद को पराजित कर ग्वालियर में स्वतंत्र तोमर राज्य स्थापित किया.[13](Ojha, p.35)

वीरसिंह देव तोमर ग्वालियर के प्रथम स्वतंत्र तोमर शासक बने. तोमर राजा वीर सिंह देव तथा दिल्ली सुलतान के मध्य हुए युद्ध में केहरी सिंह बमरौलिया ने वीरसिंह देव का साथ दिया. केहरी सिंह की जाट सेना की छापामार युद्ध प्रणाली की भयंकर मार से सुलतान की सेना भाग खड़ी हुई थी. जब वीरसिंह देव ग्वालियर के स्वतंत्र राजा बन गए तब केहरी सिंह को बगथरा गाँव निवास हेतु प्रदान किया. [14] (Ojha, p.35)

स्थानीय जाटों से वैवाहिक सम्बन्ध - बगथरा गाँव में बसने के बाद इन बमरौलिया जाटों ने स्थानीय बिसोतिया गोत्र के जाटों से वैवाहिक सम्बन्ध बनाये तथा अपने बल में वृद्धि की.[15] (Ojha, p.35)

जाट संघ - केहरी सिंह बमरौलिया ने बगथरा में निवास करने के दौरान स्थानीय जाटों का एक संगठन बनाया और तोमर राजा का युद्धों में साथ देकर उनका विश्वासपात्र बन गया. इस प्रकार ये बमरौलिया जाट तोमर राजाओं के प्रमुख सामंत बन गए. [16] (Ojha, p.36)

Notable persons

External links

References

  1. Harihar Niwas Dwivedi, Dilli Ke Tomar, p.281
  2. http://bathinda.nic.in/html/district_at_a_glance.html#N10024
  3. History of the Jats/Chapter XI,p.180
  4. The Ancient Geography of India,pp.144-148
  5. डॉ ओमपाल सिंह तुगानिया : जाट समाज की प्रमुख व्यवस्थाएं , आगरा , 2004, पृ . 24
  6. Harihar Niwas Dwivedi, Dilli Ke Tomar, p.240-241
  7. Kannu Mal, Dholpur Rajya Aur Dhaulpur Naresh,p.8
  8. Mohan Lal Gupta, Jaipur: Jilewar Sanskritik Evam Aitihasik Adhyayan, p.248-249
  9. Kannu Mal, Dholpur Rajya Aur Dhaulpur Naresh,p.8
  10. Kannu Mal, Dholpur Rajya Aur Dhaulpur Naresh,p.8
  11. Kannu Mal, Dholpur Rajya Aur Dhaulpur Naresh,p.8
  12. Mohan Lal Gupta, Jaipur: Jilewar Sanskritik Evam Aitihasik Adhyayan, p.175
  13. Harihar Niwas Dwivedi, Dilli Ke Tomar, p.30
  14. Kannu Mal, Dholpur Rajya Aur Dhaulpur Naresh,p.9
  15. Kannu Mal, Dholpur Rajya Aur Dhaulpur Naresh,p.9
  16. Mohan Lal Gupta, Jaipur: Jilewar Sanskritik Evam Aitihasik Adhyayan, p.175

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