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Varanasi District Map
वाराणसी के स्नान-घाट

Varanasi (वाराणसी) is a famous Hindu holy city in Uttar Pradesh. It is one of the twelve revered Jyotirlingas of the Lord Shiva. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, dating back thousands of years and contemporaneous with the Sumer civilization. It is often also referred to as "city of temples and learning."

Variants of name


Varanasi is situated on the banks of the Ganga River in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

Origin of Varanasi

According to Alexander Cunningham[2] the Varanasi gets name from River Varana and the Nala names Asi as Banaras is situated on the left bank of the Ganges, between the Barna Nadi on the north-east, and the Asi Nala on the south-west.

Mention by Panini

V. S. Agrawala[3] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Kāśi (काशि) (IV.2.116) - Panini does not mention Kashi as independent monarchy like Magadha or Kosala. Panini mentions Vārāṇasī and its citizens as Vārāṇaseya.

V. S. Agrawala[4] writes that Panini mentions Vārāṇasi (वाराणसी) (IV.2.97).

Varanasi (वाराणसी) is name of a River mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi under Nadyadi (नद्यादि) (4.2.97) group.[5] V. S. Agrawala[6] writes that Panini mentions ganas headed by Kashi (IV.2.116).

Kashi (काशि) is a place name mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi under Kashyadi (काश्यादि) (4.2.116) group. [7]

Kashi (काशि), is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [8]

Varanasi (वाराणसी) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [9]

Varanaseya (वाराणसेय) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [10]

Mention in Pujaripali Stone Inscription of Gopaladeva

Pujaripali Stone Inscription of Gopaladeva[11] is one of a king named Gopāladeva (गोपालदेव). The object of it apparently is to record the charitable deeds of Gôpâladêva, especially the construction of the temple where it was put up. Pujaripali (पुजारीपली) is village in Sarangarh tahsil in Raigarh district in Chhattisgarh.

(Verse: 38-40) - On the earth the Kirti of the brave Gôpâla shines like the autumnal moon at the famous Kedara (केदार) (L.20), Prayaga (प्रयाग) (L.20), Pushkara (पुष्कर) (L.20), Purushottama (पुरुषोत्तम) (L.20), Bhimeshvara (भीमेश्वर) (L.20), on the Narmada (नर्मदा), at the famous Gopalapura (गोपालपुर) (L.20), Varanasi (वाराणसी) (L.20), Prabhasa (प्रभास) (L.21), at the junction of the Gangâ and the sea, Varalī (वरली), the famous Vairagyamatha (वैराज्ञमठ) (L.21), the Ashtadvara (अष्टद्वार) (L.21), Shauripura (शौरिपुर) (L.21), [and) the village Peḍara (पेडरा) (L.21).

As for the geographical names mentioned in the present inscription,

  • Prabhâsa is identified by R B Hiralal with Pabhosi near Allahabad, but in the period to which the present inscription belongs, the latter does not seem to have been so famous. Prabhasa is more likely to be the tirtha of that name in Saurashtra.
  • Gôpâlapura, as per R B Hiralal's conjecture, was founded by Gopaladeva himself is plausible, but his identification of it with the village Gopalpur near Tewar cannot be upheld, for Gôpâladëva's sway could not have extended so far in the north. It must have been situated not very far from Pujaripali. I would identify it with the Gôpâlpur which has on the right bank of the Mānd river (मांड नदी), about 10 miles north-west of Pujaripali.
  • Pedarāgrāma (पेडरा ग्राम) is likely to be Pendri, 8 miles north by east of Sarangarh.
  • The other places cannot be identified.


Indian Origin Places in Burma

Dineschandra Sircar[12] writes.... Some important old Indian names found in Burma are Aparanta, Avanti, Varanasi, Champanagara, Dvaravati, Gandhara, Kamboja, Kailasha, Kusumapura, Mithila, Pushkara, Pushkaravati, Rajagriha, etc. and the names Sankashya (Tagaung on the Upper Irawadi), Utkala (from Rangoon to Pegu) and Vaishali (modern Vethali in the Akyub district also fall in the same category.[13] The name of the well-known river Irawadi reminds us of Iravati (modern Ravi River), one of the famous tributaries of the Indus.

Visit of Varanasi by Xuanzang in 637 AD

Alexander Cunningham[14] writes that In the seventh century the kingdom of, or Varanasi, was 4000 li, or 667 miles, in circuit, and the capital, which was on the western bank of the Ganges, was from 18 to 19 li, or 3 miles, in length, and from 5 to 6 li, or 1 mile, in breadth. Its probable boundaries, with reference to the surrounding kingdoms, were the Gomati river on the north, a line drawn from the Gomati to Allahabad and up the Tons to Bilhari on the west, a line drawn from Bilhari to Sonhat on the south, and the Rehand Karmmnasa and Ganges rivers on the east. "With these limits the circuit is 595 miles taken direct on the map, or about 650 miles in actual road measurement.

The city of Banaras is situated on the left bank of the Ganges, between the Barna Nadi on the north-east, and the Asi Nala on the south-west. The Barna,

[p.436]: or Varana, is a considerable rivulet, which rises to the north of Allahabad, and has a course of about 100 miles. The Asi is a mere brook, of no length, and, owing to its insignificant size, it does not appear in any of our most detailed maps. It is not entered in the Indian Atlas Sheet, No. 88, which is on the scale of 4 miles to the inch, nor even in the larger lithographed map of the district of Banaras, on the double scale of 2 miles to the inch. This omission has led the learned French academician M. Vivien de Saint- Martin to doubt the existence of the Asi as a tributary of the Ganges, and he conjectures that it may be only a branch of the Barna, and that the joint stream called the Varanasi[15] may have communicated its name to the city. The Asi Nala will, however, be found as I have described it, in James Prinsep's map of the city of Benares, published by Hullmandel, as well as in the small map which I have prepared to illustrate this account of the remains at Banaras. The position of the Asi is also accurately described by H. H. Wilson in his Sanskrit Dictionary, under the word Varanasi. I may add that the road from Banaras to Udmnagar crosses the Asi just outside the city, and only a short distance from its confluence with the river. The points of junction of both streams with the Ganges are considered particularly holy, and accordingly temples have been erected both at Barna sanggam below the city, and at Asi sangam above the


city. From the joint names of these two streams, which bound the city to the north and south, the Brahmans derive Varanasi, or Varanasi, which is said to be the Sanskrit form of the name of Banaras. But the more usual derivation amongst the common people is from Raja Banar, who is said to have rebuilt the city about 800 years ago.

Both of these streams are mentioned by Abul Fazl,[16] who says " Baranasi, commonly called Banaras, is a large city situated between two rivers, the Barna and the Asi. Bishop Heber[17] also mentions that he was informed by the Raja of Banaras that the name " had anciently been Baranas, from two rivers, Bara and Nasa, which here fall into the Ganges." The worthy Bishop supposes that they must join the Ganges underground, as no such rivers are set down on the map ; but two pages afterwards he records that his boats arrived " off the mouth of the small river which leads to Secrole," that is to the cantonment of Banaras. It may perhaps be objected that this was only a report from his servants, and that he had not actually seen the river ; but as the Bishop lived with Mr. Brooke to the north of the Barna, he must have crossed that river by the large stone bridge at least twice every day during his stay at the holy city of the Hindus.

Banaras is celebrated amongst the Buddhists as the scene where the great teacher first expounded his doctrine, or as they metaphorically express it, where he first began " to turn the wheel of the law." This is one of the four great events in the life of Buddha, and the stupa which was built upon the spot was esteemed as one of the four great monuments of

[p.438]: Buddhism. This stupa, now called Dhamek, is situated about 3½ miles to the north of the city, amidst an extensive mass of ruins, which are surrounded on three sides by large artificial lakes. The name of Dhamek is most probably only an abbreviation of the Sanskrit Dharmmopadesaka, the "Teacher of Dharmma." This is the common term still in use to designate any religious teacher ; but bearing in mind that on this spot Buddha first began to " turn the wheel of the law " (dharmma-chakra), the name is peculiarly appropriate for the stupa. The term is also used in the simpler form of Dharmmadesaka, which in familiar conversation would naturally be shortened to Dhammadek and Dhamek.

The earliest name of this city was Kashi, which is still in common use, either alone or joined with the later name, as Kasi-Banaras. It is, perhaps, the Kassida or Kassidia, of Ptolemy. The name is referred to Kasi-raja, who was one of the early progenitors of the Lunar race. He was succeeded by twenty descendants, all Rajas of Kasi, amongst whom was the celebrated Divodasa.

Original Kashi

Ancient Indian Kingdoms in 600 BC

Hukum Singh Panwar [18] writes: that the original Kashi, according to Dr. Silak Ram Phogat 142, was situated in Haryana, the south-eastern part of the Sapta Saindhava country. Dr. Silak Ram Phogat has identified it, in his recent research, with Kameshawar, a Tirathsthan or centre of pilgrims (Mbt.Aranyaka Parva, 81. 46; Vamana Purana Saramahatmya, 14.42) traditionally known as Kashisvara, on the ruins of which now is the village named Theh Polar, 15 Km. NW of Kaithal (Kapisthal, birth-place of Hanuman), in the Guhla Tehsil of Kurukshetra district. We mention this en passant, since it indirectly corroborates our stand on the location of Ayodhya and Vaisali.

Kashi in Xinjiang China

Kashgar/ Kasgar (कासगर) or Kashi is a city in the western part of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.

Ptolemy (AD 90-168), in his Geography, Chapter 15.3A, refers to Kashgar as “Kasia”.[19]


The culture of Varanasi is deeply associated with the river Ganges and the river's religious importance. The city has been a cultural and religious center in northern India for thousands of years. Varanasi has its own style of classical Hindustani music, and has produced prominent philosophers, poets, writers and musicians in Indian history, including Kabir, Ravi Das, Munshi Premchand, Jaishankar Prasad, Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla, Pandit Ravi Shankar, Hariprasad Chaurasia and Ustad Bismillah Khan. Varanasi is the home of Banaras Hindu University. Tulsidas wrote his Ramcharitmanas here, and Gautam Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath near Kashi. The language spoken in Varanasi is Kashika Bhojpuri related to Hindi.

Holy city -Varanasi is a holy city in Hinduism, one of the most sacred pilgrimage places for Hindus of all Hindu denominations. The Hindu God Shiva supposedly once lived there making many Hindus want to go there on a pilgrimage. More than 1,000,000 pilgrims visit the city each year. Here is the holy shrine of Lord Kashi Vishwanath, (an aspect of Lord Shiva) and one of the twelve revered Jyotirlingas of the Lord Shiva. Hindus believe that bathing in the river Ganga will remit sins and that dying in the holy city of Kashi (Varanasi) circumvents rebirth. This holy city is worshipped as one of the Shakti Peethas where Divine Mother Dakshayani or Sati's earring fell and so devotees believe that on that spot stands the present Vishalakshi Temple and Hindus of the shakti sect come to the city because the river it self is said to be shakti (goddess) its self It is here that Adi Shankara wrote his commentaries on Hinduism, leading to the great Hindu revival.

It is not just the Hindus venerate Varanasi today, for the city has links with Buddhism and Jainism as well. In the residential neighbourhood of the city lies Sarnath, the site of the deer park where Gautama Buddha is said to have given his first sermon about the basic principles of Buddhism. It is one of the four pilgrimage sites designated by Gautama Buddha, the other three being Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya, and Lumbini. The Dhamek Stupa is one of the few pre-Ashokan stupas remaining, although only the foundations remain. Also remaining is the Chaukhandi Stupa commemorating the spot where the Buddha met his first deciples, dating back to the fifth century or earlier and later enhanced by the addition of an octagonal tower.

Varanasi is also a pilgrimage place for Jains. It is believed to be the birthplace of Parshvanatha, the twenty-third Tirthankar. Vaishnavism and Shaivism have co-existed in Varanasi harmoniously. The city has also been influenced by Islamic culture.

This explains the continuous tension between communities in the city and the fact that really ancient monuments are few. However, Varanasi has kept its sacred position as the Holy City of Hinduism.

बनारस = वाराणसी

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[20] ने लेख किया है .....बनारस = वाराणसी (AS, p.607): महाभारत अनुशासन पर्व के अनुसार काशी के राजा दिवोदास ने वाराणसी नगरी को बसाया था. जान पड़ता है यह नगरी काशी की प्राचीन नगरी के स्थान पर ही या उसके सन्निकट ही बसाई गई होगी. (दिल्ली की विभिन्न बस्तियों के समान). इससे यह भी सूचित होता है कि काशी का वाराणसी नाम जो इसके वरुणा और असी नदियों के बीच में होने के कारण पड़ा था, बाद का है. (देखें वाराणसी, काशी)


वाराणसी (AS, p.844): विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[21] ने लेख किया है .....1. वाराणसी (AS, p.844) = काशी : महाभारत में काशी का नाम 'वाराणसी' भी मिलता है- 'समेतं पार्थिवंक्षत्रं वाराणस्यां नदीसुतः, कन्यार्थमाह्वयद् वीरो रथनैकेन संयुगे।' महाभारत, शांतिपर्व 37, 9 'ततो वाराणसीं गत्वा अर्चयित्वा वृषभध्वजम्, कपिलाह्नदे नरः स्नात्वा राजसूयमवाप्नुयात्।' महाभारत, वनपर्व 84, 78. जैन ग्रंथ 'प्रज्ञापणा सूत्र' में भी वाराणसी का उल्लेख है। 'विविधितीर्थकल्प' के अनुसार असी गंगा और वरुणा के तट पर स्थित होने के कारण यह नगरी वाराणसी कहलाती थी। वाराणसी के संबंध में महाराजा हरिश्चन्द्र की कथा, रूपांतरण के साथ इस जैन ग्रंथ में वर्णित है। वाराणसी के इस ग्रंथ में पांच मुख्य विभाग बतलाए गए हैं - 1. 'देव वाराणसी', जहां विश्वनाथ का मन्दिर था तथा चैबीस जिनपट्ट स्थित हैं, 2. राजधानी वाराणसी, 3. यवनों का निवास स्थान, 4. मदन वाराणसी और 5. विजय वाराणसी. 'दंतखात सरोवर' के निकट तीर्थंकर पार्श्वनाथ का चैत्य स्थित था और उससे 6 मील की दूरी पर बोधिसत्व का मंदिर था। (दे. काशी; बनारस)

2. वाराणसी (AS, p.844) = वाराणसी बर्मा: ब्रह्मदेश का भारतीय औपनिवेशिक नगर जिसे संभवत: वाराणसी से ब्रह्मदेश (बर्मा) जाने वाले भारतीय व्यापारियों ने बसाया था. ब्रह्मदेश में मध्यकाल से पूर्व अनेक भारतीय उपनिवेश बताए गए थे.

असी नदी

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[22] ने लेख किया है ... असी नदी (AS, p.53) वाराणसी के निकट गंगा नदी में मिलने वाली एक प्रसिद्ध छोटी शाखानदी है। असि को असीगंगा भी कहते हैं। कहते हैं इस नगरी का नाम असी और वरुणा नदियों के बीच में स्थित होने के कारण ही वाराणसी हुआ था। इस नदी से संबंधित दोहे से यह भी ज्ञात होता है कि महाकवि तुलसी ने इसी नदी के तट पर संभवत: वर्तमान अस्सी घाट के पास अपनी इहलीला समाप्त की थी। 'संवत् सोलह सौ असी असी गंग के तीर, सावन शुक्ला सप्तमी तुलसी तज्यौ शरीर'

मल्ल: ठाकुर देशराज

ठाकुर देशराज[23] ने लिखा है.... मल्ल - [पृ.100]: सिकंदर के साथियों ने इन्हें मल्लोई ही लिखा है। हिंदुस्तान के कई इतिहासकारों को उनके संबंध में बड़ा भ्रम हुआ है। वह इन्हें कहीं उज्जैन के आसपास मानते हैं। वास्तव में यह लोग पंजाब में रावी नदी के किनारे पर मुल्तान तक फैले हुए थे। फिरोजपुर और बठिंडा के बीच के लोग अपने प्रदेश को मालवा कहते हैं। बौद्ध काल में हम लोगों को चार स्थानों

[पृ.101]: पर राज्य करते पाते हैं-- पावा, कुशीनारा, काशी और मुल्तान। इनमें सिकंदर को मुल्तान के पास के मल्लों से पाला पड़ा था। इनके पास 90000 पैदल 10000 सवार और 900 हाथी थे। पाणिनी ने इन्हें आयुध जीवी क्षत्रिय माना है। हमें तो अयोधन और आयुध इन्हीं के साथी जान पड़ते हैं। जाटों में यह आज भी मल, माली और मालवन के नाम से मशहूर हैं। एक समय इनका इतना बड़ा प्रभाव हो गया था इन्हीं के नाम पर संवत चल निकला था। इनके कहीं सिक्के मिले जिन पर 'मालवानाम् जय' लिखा रहता है। ये गणवादी (जाति राष्ट्रवादी) थे। इस बात का सबूत इन के दूसरे प्रकार के उन सिक्कों से भी हो जाता है जिन पर 'मालव गणस्य जय' लिखा हुआ है। जयपुर के नागर नामक कस्बे के पास से एक पुराने स्थान से इनके बहुत से सिक्के मिले थे। जिनमें से कुछ पर मलय, मजुप और मगजस नाम भी लिखे मिले हैं। हमारे मन से यह उन महापुरुषों के नाम हैं जो इनके गण के सरदार रह चुके थे। इन लोगों की एक लड़ाई क्षत्रप नहपान के दामाद से हुई थी। दूसरी लड़ाई समुद्रगुप्त से हुई। इसी लड़ाई में इनका ज्ञाति राष्ट्र छिन्न-भिन्न हो गया और यह समुद्रगुप्त के साम्राज्य में मिला लिया गया इनके सिक्के ईसवी सन के 250 150 वर्ष पूर्व माने जाते हैं।

Varanasi Pillar Inscription of the time of Budhagupta Gupta Year 159 (= A.D. 478)

See - Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. XV,1949, p. 5;Select Inscriptions by D. C. Sircar. p. 332

In Mahabharata

Varanasi (वाराणसी) (T) (II.82.61),

External Links


  1. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.48
  2. The Ancient Geography of India: I. The Buddhist Period, Including the ...By Sir Alexander Cunningham, p.435
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.60
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.72
  5. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.510
  6. India as Known to Panini, p.74
  7. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.508
  8. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.37, 60, 74
  9. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.60, 72
  10. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.60
  11. Corpus Inscriptionium Indicarium Vol IV Part 2 Inscriptions of the Kalachuri-Chedi Era, Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi, 1905. pp. 588-594
  12. Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, By Dineschandra Sircar, p.319
  13. R.C. Majumdar, Hindu Colonies in the Far East,1944,p.216
  14. The Ancient Geography of India/Varanasi, p.435-438
  15. In M. Julien's ' Life and Pilgrimage of Hioueu Thsang,' i. 132, and ii. 351, it is stated that " this river is also called Po-lo-ni-se, or Varanasi." But this is a mistake of the translator, as pointed out by Dr. Fitzedward Hall. The true name of the river is Po-lo-nie, or Varana.
  16. ' Ayin Akbari,' ii. 28.
  17. 'Journal,' i. 397-399.
  18. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The Scythic origin of the Jats, p.194
  19. "The Triple System of Orography in Ptolemy’s Xinjiang." Étienne de la Vaissière. Exegisti monumenta : Festschrift in Honour of Nicholas Sims-Williams. Edited by Werner Sundermann, Almut Hintze and François de Blois, p. 530. Harrowitz Verlag. Wiesbaden.
  20. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.607
  21. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.844
  22. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.53
  23. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Pancham Parichhed,p.100-101