Germanic peoples

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Map of Germania tribes
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Germanic peoples were historical groups of people that once occupied Central Europe and Scandinavia during antiquity and into the early Middle Ages.


Various definitions

Since the 19th century, they have traditionally been defined by the use of ancient and early medieval Germanic languages and are thus equated at least approximately with Germanic-speaking peoples, although different academic disciplines have their own definitions of what makes someone or something "Germanic".[1]

The Romans named the area in which Germanic peoples lived Germania, stretching East to West between the Vistula and Rhine rivers and north to south from Southern Scandinavia to the upper Danube.[2]In discussions of the Roman period, the Germanic peoples are sometimes referred to as Germani or ancient Germans, although many scholars consider the second term problematic, since it suggests identity with present-day Germans.

Most scholars view the Jastorf Culture (6th century BCE to 1st century CE) in what is now Denmark and northeastern Germany as the earliest material evidence for the Germanic peoples' existence. Roman authors first described Germanic peoples near the Rhine in the 1st century BCE, while the Roman Empire was establishing its dominance in that region. Under Emperor Augustus (63 BCE–14CE), the Romans attempted to conquer a large area of Germania, but they withdrew after a major Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE. The Romans continued to control the Germanic frontier closely by meddling in its politics, and they constructed a long fortified border, the Limes Germanicus. From 166 to 180 CE, Rome was embroiled in a conflict against the Germanic Marcomanni, Quadi, and many other peoples known as the Marcomannic Wars. The wars reordered the Germanic frontier, and afterwards, new Germanic peoples are heard of such as the Franks, Goths, Saxons, and Alemanni. During the Migration Period (375–568), various Germanic peoples entered the Roman Empire and eventually took control of parts of it and established their own independent kingdoms after the collapse of Western Roman rule. The most powerful of them were the Franks, who conquered many of the others. Eventually, the Frankish king Charlemagne claimed the title of Holy Roman Emperor for himself in 800.

Archaeological finds suggest that Roman-era sources portrayed the Germanic way of life as more primitive than it actually was. Instead, archaeologists have unveiled evidence of a complex society and economy throughout Germania. Germanic-speaking peoples originally shared similar religious practices. Denoted by the term Germanic paganism, they varied widely throughout the territory occupied by Germanic-speaking peoples. Over the course of Late Antiquity, most continental Germanic peoples and the Anglo-Saxons of Britain converted to Christianity, but the Saxons and Scandinavians converted only much later. Traditionally, the Germanic peoples have been seen as possessing a law dominated by the concepts of feuding and blood compensation. The precise details, nature and origin of what is still normally called "Germanic law" are now controversial. Roman sources state that the Germanic peoples made decisions in a popular assembly (the thing) but that they also had kings and war-leaders. The ancient Germanic-speaking peoples probably shared a common poetic tradition, alliterative verse, and later Germanic peoples also shared legends originating in the Migration Period.

The publishing of Tacitus's Germania by humanist scholars in the 1400s greatly influenced the emerging idea of "Germanic peoples". Later scholars of the Romantic period, such as Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, developed several theories about the nature of the Germanic peoples that were highly influenced by romantic nationalism. For those scholars, the "Germanic" and modern "German" were identical. Ideas about the early Germans were also highly influential among and were influenced and co-opted by the Nazis, which led in the second half of the 20th century to a backlash against many aspects of earlier scholarship.


The etymology of the Latin word Germani, from which Latin Germania and English Germanic are derived, is unknown, although several different proposals have been made for the origin of the name. Even the language from which it derives is a subject of dispute, with proposals of Germanic, Celtic, and Latin, and Illyrian origins.[3] Herwig Wolfram, for example, thinks Germani must be Gaulish.[4] Historian Wolfgang Pfeifer more or less concurs with Wolfram and surmises that the name Germani is likely of Celtic etymology, related in this case to the Old Irish word gair ('neighbors') or could be tied to the Celtic word for their war cries, gairm, which simplifies into 'the neighbors' or 'the screamers'.[5] Regardless of its language of origin, the name was transmitted to the Romans via Celtic speakers.[6]

It is unclear that any people group ever referred to themselves as Germani.[7] By late antiquity, only peoples near the Rhine, especially the Franks, and sometimes the Alemanni, were called Germani by Latin or Greek writers.[8] Germani subsequently ceased to be used as a name for any group of people, and was only revived as such by the humanists in the 16th century.[9] Previously, scholars during the Carolingian period (8th–11th century) had already begun using Germania and Germanicus in a territorial sense to refer to East Francia.[10]

In modern English, the adjective Germanic is distinct from German: while German is generally used when referring to modern Germans only, Germanic relates to the ancient Germani or the broader Germanic group.[11] In modern German, the ancient Germani are referred to as Germanen and Germania as Germanien, as distinct from modern Germans (Deutsche) and modern Germany (Deutschland). The direct equivalents in English are, however, Germans for Germani and Germany for Germania,[12] although the Latin Germania is also used. To avoid ambiguity, the Germani may instead be called "ancient Germans" or Germani, using the Latin term in English.[13]

Classical terminology

The first author to describe the Germani as a large category of peoples distinct from the Gauls and Scythians was Julius Caesar, writing around 55 BCE during his governorship of Gaul.[14] In Caesar's account, the clearest defining characteristic of the Germani people was that they lived east of the Rhine,[15] opposite Gaul on the west side. Caesar sought to explain both why his legions stopped at the Rhine and also why the Germani were more dangerous than the Gauls and a constant threat to the empire.[16] He also classified the Cimbri and Teutons, peoples who had previously invaded Italy, as Germani, and examples of this threat to Rome.[17][18] Although Caesar described the Rhine as the border between Germani and Celts, he also describes a group of people he identifies as Germani who live on the west bank of the Rhine in the northeast of Gall, the Germani cisrhenani.[19] It is unclear if these Germani spoke a Germanic language.[20] According to the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania (c. 98 CE), it was among this group, specifically the Tungri, that the name Germani first arose, and was spread to further groups.[21] Tacitus continues to mention Germanic tribes on the west bank of the Rhine in the period of the early Empire.[22]Caesar's division of the Germani from the Celts was not taken up by most writers in Greek.[23]

Caesar and authors following him regarded Germania as stretching east of the Rhine for an indeterminate distance, bounded by the Baltic Sea and the Hercynian Forest.[24] Pliny the Elder and Tacitus placed the eastern border at the Vistula.[25] The Upper Danube served as a southern border. Between there and the Vistula Tacitus sketched an unclear boundary, describing Germania as separated in the south and east from the Dacians and the Sarmatians by mutual fear or mountains.[26] This undefined eastern border is related to a lack of stable frontiers in this area such as were maintained by Roman armies along the Rhine and Danube.[27]The geographer Ptolemy (2nd century CE) applied the name Germania magna ("Greater Germania", Greek: Γερμανία Μεγάλη) to this area, contrasting it with the Roman provinces of Germania Prima and Germania Secunda (on the west bank of the Rhine).[28] In modern scholarship, Germania magna is sometimes also called Germania libera ("free Germania"), a name that became popular among German nationalists in the 19th century.[29]

Caesar and, following him, Tacitus, depicted the Germani as sharing elements of a common culture.[30] A small number of passages by Tacitus and other Roman authors (Caesar, Suetonius) mention Germanic tribes or individuals speaking a language distinct from Gaulish. For Tacitus (Germania 43, 45, 46), language was a characteristic, but not defining feature of the Germanic peoples.[31] Many of the ascribed ethnic characteristics of the Germani represented them as typically "barbarian", including the possession of stereotypical vices such as "wildness" and of virtues such as chastity.[32] Tacitus was at times unsure whether a people were Germanic or not, expressing his uncertainty about the Bastarnae, who he says looked like Sarmatians but spoke like the Germani, about the Osi and the Cotini, and about the Aesti, who were like Suebi but spoke a different language.[33] When defining the Germani ancient authors did not differentiate consistently between a territorial definition ("those living in Germania") and an ethnic definition ("having Germanic ethnic characteristics"), although the two definitions did not always align.[34]

The Romans did not regard the eastern Germanic-speakers such as Goths, Gepids, and Vandals as Germani, but rather connected them with other non-Germanic-speaking peoples such as the Huns, Sarmatians, and Alans.[35] Romans described these peoples, including those who did not speak a Germanic language, as "Gothic people" (gentes Gothicae) and most often classified them as "Scythians".[36] The writer Procopius, describing the Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals, Alans, and Gepids, derived the Gothic peoples from the ancient Getae and described them as sharing similar customs, beliefs, and a common language.[37]


Several ancient sources list subdivisions of the Germanic tribes. Writing in the first century CE, Pliny the Elder lists five Germanic subgroups: the Vandili, the Inguaeones, the Istuaeones (living near the Rhine), the Hermiones (in the Germanic interior), and the Peucini Basternae (living on the lower Danube near the Dacians).[38] In chapter 2 of the Germania, written about a half-century later, Tacitus lists only three subgroups: the Ingvaeones (near the sea), the Hermiones (in the interior of Germania), and the Istvaeones (the remainder of the tribes),[39] whom he says claimed descent from the god Mannus, son of Tuisto.[40] Tacitus also mentions a second tradition that there were four sons of either Mannus or Tuisto from whom the groups of the Marsi, Gambrivi, Suebi, and Vandili claim descent.[41][42]

There are a number of inconsistencies in the listing of Germanic subgroups by Tacitus and Pliny. While both Tacitus and Pliny mention some Scandinavian tribes, they are not integrated into the subdivisions.[43] While Pliny lists the Suebi as part of the Hermiones, Tacitus treats them as a separate group.[44] Additionally, Tacitus's description of a group of tribes as united by the cult of Nerthus (Germania 40) as well as the cult of the Alcis controlled by the Nahanarvali (Germania 43) and the Tacitus's account of the origin myth of the Semnones (Germania 39) all suggest different subdivisions than the three mentioned in Germania chapter 2.[45] The Hermiones are also mentioned by Pomponius Mela, but otherwise these divisions do not appear in other ancient works on the Germani.[46]

The divisions in Pliny and Tacitus have been very influential for scholarship on Germanic history and language up until recent times.[47] However, outside of Tacitus and Pliny there are no other textual indications that these groups were important. The divisions mentioned by Tacitus are not used by him elsewhere in his work, contradict other parts of his work, and cannot be reconciled with Pliny, who is equally inconsistent.[48] Additionally, there is no linguistic or archaeological evidence for these subgroups.[49] New archaeological finds have tended to show that the boundaries between Germanic peoples were very permeable, and scholars now assume that migration and the collapse and formation of cultural units were constant occurrences within Germania.[50]Nevertheless, various aspects such as the alliteration of many of the tribal names and the name of Mannus himself suggest that the descent from Mannus was an authentic Germanic tradition.[51]

List of Germanic tribes

Here is the list of ancient Germanic peoples, an inventory of ancient Germanic cultures, tribal groupings and other alliances of Germanic tribes and civilisations in ancient times. The information comes from various ancient historical documents, beginning in the 2nd century BC and extending into late antiquity. By the Early Middle Ages, early forms of kingship began to have an historical impact across Europe, with the exception of Northern Europe, where the Vendel Period from AD 550 to 800 and the subsequent Viking Age until AD 1050 are still seen in the Germanic context.

See List of Germanic tribes


The use of genetic studies to investigate the Germanic past is controversial, with scholars such as Guy Halsall suggesting it could represent a hearkening back to 19th-century ideas of race.[52] Sebastian Brather, Wilhelm Heizmann, and Steffen Patzold write that genetics studies are of great use for demographic history, but cannot give us any information about cultural history.[53] In a 2013 book which reviewed studies made up until then, scholars noted that most Germanic speakers today have a Y-DNA that is a mixture haplogroup I1, R1a1a, R1b-P312 and R1b-U106; however, the authors also note that these groups are older than Germanic languages and found among speakers of other languages.[54]


Prehistory : The Germanic-speaking peoples speak an Indo-European language. The leading theory for the origin of Germanic languages, suggested by archaeological and genetic evidence,[55] postulates a diffusion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic–Caspian steppe towards Northern Europe during the third millennium BCE, via linguistic contacts and migrations from the Corded Ware culture towards modern-day Denmark, resulting in cultural mixing with the earlier Funnelbeaker culture.[56] The subsequent culture of the Nordic Bronze Age (c. 1700-c. 600 BCE) shows definite cultural and population continuities with later Germanic peoples,[57] and is often supposed to have been the culture in which the Germanic Parent Language, the predecessor of the Proto-Germanic language, developed.[58]

Generally, scholars agree that it is possible to speak of Germanic-speaking peoples after 500 BCE, although the first attestation of the name Germani is not until much later.[59] Between around 500 BCE and the beginning of the Common Era, archeological and linguistic evidence suggest that the Urheimat ('original homeland') of the Proto-Germanic language, the ancestral idiom of all attested Germanic dialects, was primarily situated in the southern Jutland peninsula, from which Proto-Germanic speakers migrated towards bordering parts of Germany and along the sea-shores of the Baltic and the North Sea, an area corresponding to the extent of the late Jastorf culture.[60][61][62] If the Jastorf Culture is the origin of the Germanic peoples, then the Scandinavian peninsula would have become Germanic either via migration or assimilation over the course of the same period.[63]Alternatively, Hermann Ament [de] has stressed that two other archaeological groups must have belonged to the Germani, one on either side of the Lower Rhine and reaching to the Weser, and another in Jutland and southern Scandinavia. These groups would thus show a "polycentric origin" for the Germanic peoples.[64] The neighboring Przeworsk culture in modern Poland is also taken to be Germanic.[65] The identification of the Jastorf culture with the Germani has been criticized by Sebastian Brather, who notes that it seems to be missing areas such as southern Scandinavia and the Rhine-Weser area, which linguists argue to have been Germanic, while also not according with the Roman era definition of Germani, which included Celtic-speaking peoples further south and west.[66]

One piece of evidence for the proto-Germanic homeland is the presence of early Germanic loanwords in the Finnic and Sámi languages (e.g. Finnic kuningas, from Proto-Germanic *kuningaz 'king'; rengas, from *hringaz 'ring'; etc.),[67] with the older loan layers possibly dating back to an earlier period of intense contacts between pre-Germanic and Finno-Permic (i.e. Finno-Samic) speakers.[68] Celtic influence on Germanic vocabulary indicates intensive contacts between the Germani and Celtic peoples, usually identified with the archaeological La Tène culture, found in southern Germany and the modern Czech Republic.[69][70] The Celts appear to have had a large amount of influence on Germanic culture from up until the first century CE, and there was a high degree of Celtic-Germanic shared material culture and social organization.[71]

Earliest recorded history: According to some authors the Bastarnae or Peucini were the first Germani to be encountered by the Greco-Roman world and thus to be mentioned in historical records.[72] They appear in historical sources going back as far as the 3rd century BCE through the 4th century CE.[73] Another eastern people known from about 200 BCE, and sometimes believed to be Germanic-speaking, are the Sciri (Greek: Skiroi), who are recorded threatening the city of Olbia on the Black Sea.[74] Late in the 2nd century BCE, Roman and Greek sources recount the migrations of the Cimbri, Teutones and Ambrones whom Caesar later classified as Germanic.[75]The movements of these groups through parts of Gaul, Italy and Hispania resulted in the Cimbrian War (113–101 BCE) against the Romans, in which the Teutons and Cimbri were victorious over several Roman armies but were ultimately defeated.[76][77][78]

The first century BCE was a time of the expansion of Germanic-speaking peoples at the expense of Celtic-speaking polities in modern southern Germany and the Czech Republic.[79][80] In 63 BCE, Ariovistus, king of the Suevi and a host of other peoples,[81]led a force across the Rhine into Gaul to aid the Sequani against their enemies the Aedui.[82]The Suevi were victorious at the Battle of Magetobriga, and initially were considered an ally of Rome.[83] The Aedui were Roman allies and Julius Caesar, the governor of the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul in 58 BCE, went to war with them,[84]defeating Ariovistus at the Battle of Vosges.[85] In 55 BCE, Caesar crossed the Rhine into Germania, massacring a large migrating group of Tencteri and Usipetes who had crossed the Rhine from the east.[86]

Early Roman Imperial period (27 BCE–166 CE): Throughout the reign of Augustus—from 27 BCE until 14 CE—the Roman empire expanded into Gaul, with the Rhine as a border. Starting in 13 BCE, there were Roman campaigns across the Rhine for a 28-year period.[87] First came the pacification of the Usipetes, Sicambri, and Frisians near the Rhine, then attacks increased further from the Rhine, on the Chauci, Cherusci, Chatti and Suevi (including the Marcomanni).[88] These campaigns eventually reached and even crossed the Elbe, and in 5 CE Tiberius was able to show strength by having a Roman fleet enter the Elbe and meet the legions in the heart of Germania.[89] Once Tiberius subdued the Germanic people between the Rhine and the Elbe, the region at least up to Weser—and possibly up to the Elbe—was made the Roman province Germania and provided soldiers to the Roman army.[90][91]

However, within this period two Germanic kings formed larger alliances. Both of them had spent some of their youth in Rome; the first of them was Maroboduus of the Marcomanni,[e] who had led his people away from the Roman activities into Bohemia, which was defended by forests and mountains, and had formed alliances with other peoples. In 6 CE, Rome planned an attack against him but the campaign was cut short when forces were needed for the Illyrian revolt in the Balkans.[92][93] Just three years later (9 CE), the second of these Germanic figures, Arminius of the Cherusci—initially an ally of Rome—drew a large Roman force into an ambush in northern Germany, and destroyed the three legions of Publius Quinctilius Varus at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.[94] Marboduus and Arminius went to war with each other in 17 CE; Arminius was victorious and Marboduus was forced to flee to the Romans.[95]

Following the Roman defeat at the Teutoburg Forest, Rome gave up on the possibility of fully integrating this region into the empire.[96]Rome launched successful campaigns across the Rhine between 14 and 16 CE under Tiberius and Germanicus, but the effort of integrating Germania now seemed to outweigh its benefits.[97] In the reign of Augustus's successor, Tiberius, it became state policy to expand the empire no further than the frontier based roughly upon the Rhine and Danube, recommendations that were specified in the will of Augustus and read aloud by Tiberius himself.[98] Roman intervention in Germania led to a shifting and unstable political situation, in which pro- and anti-Roman parties vied for power. Arminius was murdered in 21 CE by his fellow Germanic tribesmen, due in part to these tensions and for his attempt to claim supreme kingly power for himself.[99]

In the wake of Arminius's death, Roman diplomats sought to keep the Germanic peoples divided and fractious.[100] Rome established relationships with individual Germanic kings that are often discussed as being similar to client states; however, the situation on the border was always unstable, with rebellions by the Frisians in 28 CE, and attacks by the Chauci and Chatti in the 60s CE.[101] The most serious threat to the Roman order was the Revolt of the Batavi in 69 CE, during the civil wars following the death of Nero known as the Year of the Four Emperors.[102]The Batavi had long served as auxiliary troops in the Roman army as well as in the imperial bodyguard as the so-called Numerus Batavorum, often called the Germanic bodyguard.[103]The uprising was led by Gaius Julius Civilis, a member of the Batavian royal family and Roman military officer, and attracted a large coalition of peoples both inside and outside of Roman territory. The revolt ended following several defeats, with Civilis claiming to have only supported the imperial claims of Vespasian, who was victorious in the civil war.[104]

The century after the Batavian Revolt saw mostly peace between the Germanic peoples and Rome. In 83 CE, Emperor Domitian of the Flavian dynasty attacked the Chatti north of Mainz (Mogontiacum).[105] This war would last until 85 CE. Following the end of the war with the Chatti, Domitian reduced the number of Roman soldiers on the upper Rhine and shifted the Roman military to guarding the Danube frontier, beginning the construction of the limes, the longest fortified border in the empire.[106] The period afterwards was peaceful enough that the emperor Trajan reduced the number of soldiers on the frontier.[107] According to Edward James, the Romans appear to have reserved the right to choose rulers among the barbarians on the frontier.[108]

Marcomannic Wars to 375 CE: Following sixty years of quiet on the frontier, 166 CE saw a major incursion of peoples from north of the Danube during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, beginning the Marcomannic Wars.[109] By 168 (during the Antonine plague), barbarian hosts consisting of Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatian Iazyges, attacked and pushed their way to Italy.[110] They advanced as far as Upper Italy, destroyed Opitergium/Oderzo and besieged Aquileia.[111]The Romans had finished the war by 180, through a combination of Roman military victories, the resettling of some peoples on Roman territory, and by making alliances with others.[112] Marcus Aurelius's successor Commodus chose not to permanently occupy any territory conquered north of the Danube, and the following decades saw an increase in the defenses at the limes.[113] The Romans renewed their right to choose the kings of the Marcomanni and Quadi, and Commodus forbid them to hold assemblies unless a Roman centurion was present.[114]

The period after the Marconmannic Wars saw the emergence of peoples with new names along the Roman frontiers, which probably formed by the merger of smaller groups.[115]These new confederacies or peoples tended to border the Roman imperial frontier.[116] Many ethnic names from earlier periods disappear.[117] The Alamanni emerged along the upper Rhine and are mentioned in Roman sources from the 3rd century onward.[118]The Goths begin to be mentioned along the lower Danube, where they attacked the city of Histria in 238.[119]The Franks are first mentioned occupying territory between the Rhine and Weser.[120] The Lombards seem to have moved their center of power to the central Elbe.[121] Groups such as the Alamanni, Goths, and Franks were not unified polities; they formed multiple, loosely associated groups, who often fought each other and some of whom sought Roman friendship.[122]The Romans also begin to mention seaborne attacks by the Saxons, a term used generically in Latin for Germanic-speaking pirates. A system of defenses on both sides of the English Channel, the Saxon Shore, was established to deal with their raids.[123][124]

From 250 onward, the Gothic peoples formed the "single most potent threat to the northern frontier of Rome".[125] In 250 CE a Gothic king Cniva led Goths with Bastarnae, Carpi, Vandals, and Taifali into the empire, laying siege to Philippopolis. He followed his victory there with another on the marshy terrain at Abrittus, a battle which cost the life of Roman emperor Decius.[126] In 253/254, further attacks occurred reaching Thessalonica and possibly Thrace.[127] In 267/268 there were large raids led by the Herules in 267/268, and a mixed group of Goths and Herules in 269/270. Gothic attacks were abruptly ended in the years after 270, after a Roman victory in which the Gothic king Cannabaudes was killed.[128]

The Roman limes largely collapsed in 259/260,[129]during the Crisis of the Third Century (235–284),[130] and Germanic raids penetrated as far as northern Italy.[131] The limes on the Rhine and upper Danube was brought under control again in 270s, and by 300 the Romans had reestablished control over areas they had abandoned during the crisis.[132]From the later third century onward, the Roman army relied increasingly on troops of Barbarian origin, often recruited from Germanic peoples, with some functioning as senior commanders in the Roman army.[133] In the 4th century, warfare along the Rhine frontier between the Romans and Franks and Alemanni seems to have mostly consisted of campaigns of plunder, during which major battles were avoided.[134] The Romans generally followed a policy of trying to prevent strong leaders from emerging among the barbarians, using treachery, kidnapping, and assassination, paying off rival tribes to attack them, or by supporting internal rivals.[135]

Migration Period (ca. 375–568): The Migration Period is traditionally cited by historian as beginning in 375 CE, under the assumption that the appearance of the Huns prompted the Visigoths to seek shelter within the Roman Empire in 376.[136] The end of the migration period is usually set at 586, when the Lombards invaded Italy. During this time period, numerous barbarian groups invaded the Roman Empire and established new kingdoms within its boundaries.[137] These Germanic migrations traditionally mark the transition between antiquity and the beginning of the early Middle Ages.[138]The reasons for the migrations of the period are unclear, but scholars have proposed overpopulation, climate change, bad harvests, famines, and adventurousness as possible reasons.[139] Migrations were probably carried out by relatively small groups rather than entire peoples.[140]

Early Migration Period (before 375–420): The Greuthungi, a Gothic group in modern Ukraine under the rule of Ermanaric, were among the first peoples attacked by the Huns, apparently facing Hunnic pressure for some years.[141] Following Ermanaric's death, the Greuthungi's resistance broke and they moved toward the Dniester river.[142] A second Gothic group, the Tervingi under King Athanaric, constructed a defensive earthwork against the Huns near the Dniester.[143] However, these measures did not stop the Huns and the majority of the Tervingi abandoned Athanaric; they subsequently fled—accompanied by a contingent of Greuthungi—to the Danube in 376, seeking asylum in the Roman Empire.[144] The emperor Valens chose only to admit the Tervingi, who were settled in the Roman provinces of Thrace and Moesia.[145][146]

Due to mistreatment by the Romans, the Tervingi revolted in 377, starting the Gothic War, joined by the Greuthungi.[147] The Goths and their allies defeated the Romans first at Marcianople, then defeated and killed emperor Valens in the Battle of Adrianople in 378, destroying two-thirds of Valens' army.[148][149]Following further fighting, peace was negotiated in 382, granting the Goths considerable autonomy within the Roman Empire.[150] However, these Goths—who would be known as the Visigoths—revolted several more times,[151] finally coming to be ruled by Alaric.[152] In 397, the disunited eastern Empire submitted to some of his demands, possibly giving him control over Epirus.[153] In the aftermath of the large-scale Gothic entries into the empire, the Franks and Alemanni became more secure in their positions in 395, when Stilicho, the barbarian generalissimo who held power in the western Empire, made agreements with them.[154] A replica of an ivory diptych probably depicting Stilicho (on the right), the son of a Vandal father and a Roman mother, who became the most powerful man in the Western Roman Empire from 395 to 408 CE.[155][156]

In 401, Alaric invaded Italy, coming to an understanding with Stilicho in 404/5.[157] This agreement allowed Stilicho to fight against the force of Radagaisus, who had crossed the Middle Danube in 405/6 and invaded Italy, only to be defeated outside Florence.[158] That same year, a large force of Vandals, Suevi, Alans, and Burgundians crossed the Rhine, fighting the Franks, but facing no Roman resistance.[159] In 409, the Suevi, Vandals, and Alans crossing the Pyrenees into Spain, where they took possession of the northern part of the peninsula.[160] The Burgundians seized the land around modern Speyer, Worms, and Strasbourg, territory that was recognized by the Roman Emperor Honorius.[161]When Stilicho fell from power in 408, Alaric invaded Italy again and eventually sacked Rome in 410; Alaric died shortly thereafter.[162] The Visigoths withdrew into Gaul where they faced a power struggle until the succession of Wallia in 415 and his son Theodoric I in 417/18.[163] Following successful campaigns against them by the Roman emperor Flavius Constantius, the Visigoths were settled as Roman allies in Gaul between modern Toulouse and Bourdeaux.[164][165]

Other Goths, including those of Athanaric, continued to live outside the empire, with three groups crossing into Roman territory after the Tervingi.[166] The Huns gradually conquered Gothic groups north of the Danube, of which at least six are known, from 376 to 400. Those in Crimea may never have been conquered.[167]The Gepids also formed an important Germanic people under Hunnic rule; the Huns had largely conquered them by 406.[168] One Gothic group under Hunnic domination was ruled by the Amal dynasty, who would form the core of the Ostrogoths.[169] The situation outside the Roman empire in 410s and 420s is poorly attested, but it is clear that the Huns continued to spread their influence onto the middle Danube.[170]

The Hunnic Empire (c. 420–453): In 428, the Vandal leader Geiseric moved his forces across the strait of Gibraltar into north Africa. Within two years, they had conquered most of north Africa.[171] By 434, following a renewed political crisis in Rome, the Rhine frontier had collapsed, and in order to restore it, the Roman magister militum Flavius Aetius engineered the destruction of the Burgundian kingdom in 435/436, possibly with Hunnic mercenaries, and launched several successful campaigns against the Visigoths.[172] In 439, the Vandals conquered Carthage, which served as an excellent base for further raids throughout the Mediterranean and became the basis for the Vandal Kingdom.[173] The loss of Carthage forced Aetius to make peace with the Visigoths in 442, effectively recognizing their independence within the boundaries of the empire.[174] During the resulting peace, Aetius resettled the Burgundians in Sapaudia in southern Gaul.[175] In 430s, Aetius negotiated peace with the Suevi in Spain, leading to a practical loss of Roman control in the province.[176] Despite the peace, the Suevi expanded their territory by conquering Mérida in 439 and Seville in 441.[177]

By 440, Attila and the Huns had come to rule a multi-ethnic empire north of the Danube; two of the most important peoples within this empire were the Gepids and the Goths.[178] The Gepid king Ardaric came to power around 440 and participated in various Hunnic campaigns.[179] In 450, the Huns interfered in a Frankish succession dispute, leading in 451 to an invasion of Gaul. Aetius, by uniting a coalition of Visigoths, part of the Franks, and others, was able to defeat the Hunnic army at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains.[180] In 453, Attila died unexpectedly, and an alliance led by Ardaric's Gepids rebelled against the rule of his sons, defeating them in the Battle of Nedao.[181] Either before or after Attila's death, Valamer, a Gothic ruler of the Amal dynasty, seems to have consolidated power over a large part of the Goths in the Hunnic domain.[182] For the next 20 years, the former subject peoples of the Huns would fight among each other for preeminence.[183]

The arrival of the Saxons in Britain is traditionally dated to 449, however archaeology indicates they had begun arriving in Britain earlier.[184] Latin sources used Saxon generically for seaborne raiders, meaning that not all of the invaders belonged to the continental Saxons.[185] According to the British monk Gildas (c. 500 – c. 570), this group had been recruited to protect the Romano-British from the Picts, but had revolted.[186] They quickly established themselves as rulers on the eastern part of the island.[187]

After the death of Attila (453–568): In 455, in the aftermath of the death of Aetius in 453 and the murder of emperor Valentinian III in 455,[188] the Vandals invaded Italy and sacked Rome in 455.[189]In 456, the Romans persuaded the Visigoths to fight the Suevi, who had broken their treaty with Rome. The Visigoths and a force of Burgundians and Franks defeated the Suevi at the Battle of Campus Paramus, reducing Suevi control to northwestern Spain.[190] The Visigoths went on to conquer all of the Iberian Peninsula by 484 except a small part that remained under Suevian control.[191]

The Ostrogoths, led by Valamer's brother Thiudimer, invaded the Balkans in 473. Thiudimer's son Theodoric succeeded him in 476.[192] In that same year, a barbarian commander in the Roman Italian army, Odoacer, mutinied and removed the final western Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus.[193] Odoacer ruled Italy for himself, largely continuing the policies of Roman imperial rule.[194] He destroyed the Kingdom of the Rugians, in modern Austria, in 487/488.[195] Theodoric, meanwhile, successfully extorted the Eastern Empire through a series of campaigns in the Balkans. The eastern emperor Zeno agreed to send Theodoric to Italy in 487/8.[196] After a successful invasion, Theodoric killed and replaced Odoacer in 493, founding a new Ostrogothic kingdom.[197]Theodoric died in 526, amid increasing tensions with the eastern empire.[198]

Toward the end of the migration period, in the early 500s, Roman sources portray a completely changed ethnic landscape outside of the empire: the Marcomanni and Quadi disappeared, as had the Vandals. Instead the Thuringians, Rugians, Sciri, Herules, Goths, and Gepids are mentioned as occupying the Danube frontier.[199] From the mid-5th century onward, the Alamanni had greatly expanded their territory in all directions and launched numerous raids into Gaul.[200] The territory under Frankish influence had grown to encompass northern Gaul and Germania to the Elbe.[201] The Frankish king Clovis I united the various Frankish groups in 490s,[202] and conquered the Alamanni by 506.[203] From the 490s onward, Clovis waged wars against the Visigoths, defeating them in 507 and taking control of most of Gaul.[204] Clovis's heirs conquered the Thuringians by 530 and the Burgundians by 532.[205] The continental Saxons, composed of many subgroups, were made tributary to the Franks, as were the Frisians, who faced an attack by the Danes under Hygelac in 533.[206]

The Vandal and Ostrogothic kingdoms were destroyed in 534 and 555 respectively by the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) empire under Justinian.[207] Around 500, a new ethnic identity appears in modern southern Germany, the Baiuvarii (Bavarians), under the patronage of Theodoric's Ostrogothic kingdom and then of the Franks.[208]The Lombards, moving out of Bohemia, destroyed the kingdom of the Heruli in Pannonia in 510. In 568, after destroying the Gepid kingdom, the last Germanic kingdom in the Carpathian basin,[209] the Lombards under Alboin invaded northern Italy, eventually conquering most of it.[210] This invasion has traditionally been regarded as the end of the migration period.[211] The eastern part of Germania, formerly inhabited by the Goths, Gepids, Vandals, and Rugians, was gradually Slavicized, a process enabled by the invasion of the nomadic Avars.[212]

Early Middle Ages to c. 800: Merovingian Frankia became divided into three subkingdoms: Austrasia in the east around the Rhine and Meuse, Neustria in the west around Paris, and Burgundy in the southeast around Chalon-sur-Saône.[213] The Franks ruled a multilingual and multi-ethnic kingdom, divided between a mostly Romance-speaking West and a mostly Germanic-speaking east, that integrated former Roman elites but remained centered on a Frankish ethnic identity.[214] In 687, the Pippinids came to control the Merovingian rulers as mayors of the palace in Neustria. Under their direction, the subkingdoms of Frankia were reunited.[215]Following the mayoralty of Charles Martel, the Pippinids replaced the Merovingians as kings in 751, when Charles's son Pepin the Short became king and founded the Carolingian dynasty. His son, Charlemagne, would go on to conquer the Lombards, Saxons, and Bavarians.[216] Charlemagne was crowned Roman emperor in 800 and regarded his residence of Aachen as the new Rome.[217]

Following their invasion in 568, the Lombards quickly conquered larger parts of the Italian peninsula.[218] From 574 to 584, a period without a single Lombard ruler, the Lombards nearly collapsed,[219] until a more centralized Lombard polity emerged under King Agilulf in 590.[220] The invading Lombards only ever made up a very small percentage of the Italian population, however Lombard ethnic identity expanded to include people of both Roman and barbarian descent. [221] Lombard power reached its peak during the reign of King Liutprand (712–744).[245] After Liutprand's death, the Frankish King Pippin the Short invaded in 755, greatly weakening the kingdom.[222]The Lombard kingdom was finally annexed by Charlemagne in 773.[223]

After a period of weak central authority, the Visigothic kingdom came under the rule of Liuvigild, who conquered the Kingdom of the Suebi in 585.[224] A Visigothic identity that was distinct from the Romance-speaking population they ruled had disappeared by 700, with the removal of all legal differences between the two groups. [225] In 711, a Muslim army landed at Grenada; the entire Visigothic kingdom would be conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate by 725.[226]

In what would become England, the Anglo-Saxons were divided into several competing kingdoms, the most important of which were Northumbria, Mercia, and Wessex. [227] In the 7th century, Northumbria established overlordship over the other Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, until Mercia revolted under Wulfhere in 658. Subsequently, Mercia would establish dominance until 825 with the death of King Cenwulf.[228] Few written sources report on Vendel period Scandinavia from 400 to 700, however this period saw profound societal changes and the formation of early states with connections to the Anglo-Saxon and Frankish kingdoms.[229] In 793, the first recorded Viking raid occurred at Lindisfarne, ushering in the Viking Age. [230]

जाट इतिहास और जर्मन जातियां

ठाकुर देशराज[231] के अनुसार हेरोडोटस ने लिखा है कि - मध्य एशिया की बड़ी जेटी जाति में अश्वमेध का रिवाज था और संक्रांति के शुभ अवसर पर यह महोत्सव उनके यहां होता था (पारसी लोगों में तो अश्वमेध नहीं होता फिर हेरोडोटस किस आधार पर उन्हें शाक ही पुकारता है। - ले.) । मध्य ऐशिया में एक अश्व जाति भी जाटों के पड़ोस में रहती थी, वह वाजस्व की संतान के लोग कहे जाते थे। लेकिन पिंकर्टन ने यूरोप में जाटों के साथ सुएवी, कट्टी, केम्ब्री और हेमेन्द्री आदि 6 जातियां बताई हैं। ये सब एल्प और वेजर नदी के किनारे तक फैल गई थीं। वहां उन्होंने युद्ध के देवता महादेवजी के नाम पर एक विशाल स्तंभ खड़ा किया था। अनेक इतिहास लेखकों ने अपनी-अपनी मति से उसे मंगल अथवा बुद्ध का स्तंभ बताया है। ये छः जातियां भारत में क्रम से जाट, अहीर, काछी, कुर्मी, हेमेन्द्री कहलाती हैं। वास्तव में जाटों का और अहीर काछियों आदि का प्रारम्भ से निकट रहना और निकटतम सम्बन्ध पाया जाता है। ये सभी एक ही स्टाक की जगजार्टिस के किनारे की रहने वाली जातियां थीं। जाटों ने यूनान में कर्जसीज को और अर्बेला में दारा को रथों की सेना की सहायता दी थी। इस सेना में 15 हाथी और 200 रथ थे। कर्नल टाड ने हेरोडोटस के आधार पर लिखा है कि इन लोगों से युद्ध करने के लिए सिकन्दर ने स्वयं कमान की थी। वे अपनी भुजाओं के बल से यूनानियों को प्रत्येक आचरण में विफल कर देते थे। उन्होंने सिकन्दर की पर्शिनियो की कमान वाली सेना को अस्तव्यस्त कर दिया था, जिससे उसे दूसरी सेना उनसे भिड़ने के लिए भेजनी पड़ी थी। प्रत्येक जाट ने वह पराक्रम दिखाया कि मानो वह जीत की पक्की अभिलाषा रखता है, किन्तु अर्बोला के युद्ध में दारा की पराजय बदी थी। काछी लोग भी इस युद्ध में बड़ी बहादुरी से लड़े थे।

जर्मनी में जाट: ठाकुर देशराज[232] लिखते हैं.... जर्मनी में जो जाट पहुंचे उनका रास्ता या तो कास्पियन के दक्षिणी तटों से हो सकता है अथवा यूराल पहाड़ को पार करके हो सकता है। यह तो निश्चय है कि जर्मनी में जाटों का वह समूह गया जो पर्शिया के उत्तर में आबाद था अथवा जो जेहून नदी के किनारे बसता था। और यह दल उस समय से कुछ पहले ही जर्मनी पहुंच गया होगा जबकि स्कंधनाभ में पहुंचा था। श्री मैक्समूलर भी जर्मनी में आर्य रक्त स्वीकार करते हैं। कर्नल टाड कहते हैं -

‘‘घोड़े की पूजा जर्मनी में सू, कट्टी, सुजोम्बी और जेटी (जाट) नाम की जातियों ने फैलाई है, जिस भांति कि स्कंधनाभ में असि जाटों ने फैलाई।’’

टसीटस ने लिखा है कि - जर्मन लोग घोड़े की आकृति बनी हुई देखकर ही सिक्के का व्यवहार करते थे अन्यथा नहीं। यूरोप के असी जेटी लोग और भारत के अट्टी तक्षक जटी बुध को अपना पूर्वज मानकर पूजते थे। कर्नल टाड ने भारत के जाट और राजपूत तथा जर्मन लोगों की समानता के लिए निम्न दलीलें पेश की हैं -

चढ़ाई करने वालों और इन सब हिन्दू-सैनिक लोगों का धर्म बौद्ध-धर्म था। इसी से स्केण्डनेविया और जर्मन जातियों और राजपूतों की आचार, विचार, और देवता सम्बन्धी कथाओं की सदृश्यता और उनके वीररसात्मक काव्यों का मिलान करने से यह बात अधिक प्रमाणित हो जाती है।

जातीय स्वभाव और पहनावा टसीटस के लेखानुसार प्रत्येक जर्मन का बिस्तरे पर से उठकर स्नान करने का स्वभाव जर्मनी के शीतप्रधान देश का नहीं हो सकता, किन्तु यह पूर्वी देश का है और दूसरी रीति-नीति जातीय स्वभाव सीथियन, सुर्पवी, जरकटी, किम्प्री जाति के मिथ्या विश्वासों का हुआ होगा जो उसी नाम की जेटी जातियों के सदृश ही है जिनका वर्णन, हेरोडोटस, जस्टिन और स्ट्राबो ने किया है और जो व्यवहार राजपूत शाखा में अब तक विद्यमान है ।

अब हमें वह समानता मिलानी उचित है जो इतिहास से धर्म और आचार के विषय में पाई जाती है। सबसे प्रथम धर्म-विषयक समानता की आलोचना करते हैं। देववंश अथवा देवोत्पति - जर्मनियों के आदि देवता टुइसटों, मरक्यूरी (बुध) और आर्था (पृथ्वी) थे।

सुयोगी सुएवी (शैवी) जो स्कंधनाभ की जेटी जातियों मे सबसे अधिक बलिष्ठ जाति थी वह बहुत से सम्प्रदाय व जातियों में विभक्त हो गई

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-187

जिनमें सेसू (यूचीजिट) अपनी बगीचियों में आर्था को बलि देते थे और आर्था का रथ एक गाय खींचती थी।

प्रसिद्ध इतिहास लेखक टसीटस कहता है कि पहले जर्मनी के लोग लंबे और ढीले कपड़े पहना करते थे। सवेरे बिस्तरे पर से उठते ही हाथ मुंह धो डालते थे। दाढ़ी-मूंछों के बाल कभी नहीं मुंडाते थे और सिर के बालों की एक वेणी बनाकर गुच्छे के समान मस्तक के ऊपर गांठ भी बांध लेते थे।

इसके अतिरिक्त इनके नित्य नैमित्यक कार्यों का जो वृत्तान्त पाया जाता है उससे विदित होता है कि कदाचित ये लोग शाक द्वीप के जिट, कठी, किम्बरी और शेवी एक ही वंश के हैं। यद्यपि टसीटस ने यह स्पष्ट नहीं लिखा कि जर्मनी की आदि निवास भूमि भारतवर्ष में थी परन्तु वह कहता है कि जिस जर्मनी में रहने से शरीर के प्रत्येक अंग विकल हो जाते हैं उस जर्मनी में बसने को ऐशिया के एक गर्म देश को छोड़ना क्या बुद्धिमानी का काम है? इससे यही निश्चय पूर्वक कहा जा सकता है कि एशिया का कोई देश उनका आदि स्थान था। और टसीटस को उसका वृतान्त विदित था। आर्य वीर राजपूत गण अपनी गृह-लक्ष्मियों के साथ जैसा श्रेष्ठ व्यवहार करते हैं प्राचीन जर्मनी वाले तथा स्कंधनाभ वाले और जाट लोग भी अपनी नारियों के साथ ठीक वैसा ही व्यवहार करते थे। जर्मनी और स्कंधनाभ, असी लोगों के वीरों का जट-कुल से उत्पन्न होने के प्रमाण उनकी सुरा-प्रियता का विचार करने से ही हो जाता है। (भारतीय जाट तो सुरा नहीं पीते थे। - ले.)

इतने प्रमाणों के बाद यह तो साबित हो ही जाता है कि जर्मनी में जाट पहुंचे और उन्होंने अपना उपनिवेश स्थापित किया। लेकिन कर्नल टाड ने यह साबित करने की चेष्ठा की है कि जाट इण्डो-सीथियन हैं और राजपूत उनका रूपान्तर हैं। इसमें हेराडोटस जैसे लेखकों ने जो कि भारत की अपेक्षा शाकद्वीप के जाटों से अधिक परिचित तथा सहमत हो कर यह भूल अवश्य की है कि जाट और राजपूतों की जन्म-भूमि भारत के बजाय ईरान अथवा आल्पस के किनारे को माना। इन बातों का हम पीछे वर्णन कर चुके हैं कि जाट चाहे संसार में कहीं भी मिलता हो, उसकी जड़ भारतवर्ष में है।

जर्मनी मे ये जाट समुदाय अपने अन्य समकक्ष क्षत्रिय दलों के साथ जैसा कि हम पहले लिख चुके हैं, ईसा के लगभग 500 वर्ष पहले पहुंचा था और यूरोप के अन्य देशों इटली, यूनान आदि पर जो उनके आक्रमणों का वर्णन यूरोपीय इतिहास में मिलता है उनमें पूर्वी-पश्चिमी दो नामों से प्रसिद्ध होने वाले जाट-दलों में अधिकांश स्कन्धनाभ और जर्मनी वाले ही शामिल थे। इसमें भी सन्देह नहीं कि जाट जिस किसी भी देश में गए, वहां पर उन्होंने उस देश की सभ्यता को नष्ट न किया, किन्तु जो अच्छी बातें थी, उनको उन्होंने ग्रहण कर लिया।

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-188

वह अधिक झगड़ालू नहीं थे, किन्तु वे सीमा स्थापित करने और अपना स्वतंत्र राज्य बनाने के इच्छुक अवश्य थे। कहीं भी इन्होंने आलस्य का प्रचार नहीं किया। युद्ध के समय में वे सैनिक और शान्ति के समय में सुयोग्य शासक साबित होते थे। उन्होंने जितना हो सका, अपनी सभ्यता का भी यूरोप में प्रचार किया। कहा जाता है कि यूरोप वालों को भैसों से काम लेना जाटों ने ही सिखाया था। इसके अलावा तलवार की पूजा और सरदार के निर्वाचन की प्रथा एवं मुर्दो को जलाने की रिवाज का भी प्रचार किया। शैलश के किनारे जो स्तूप उन्होंने खड़ा किया था, वह इनकी कीर्ति का तो द्योतक है ही, साथ ही यह भी बताता है कि वे अपनी सभ्यता के प्रचारक और प्रेमी थे। ऐसा कहीं यूरोप के युद्धों में वर्णन नहीं मिलता कि जाटों ने पराजित देश के स्त्री, बच्चों तथा पुरूषों को दास बनाया हो अथवा उन्हें कत्ल किया हो। ईसाई धर्म के प्रबल अंधड़ में वह अवश्य ही भारत से बहुत दूर रहने के कारण देश-काल की परिस्थिति के अनुसार अपने पुराने वैदिक व बौद्ध-धर्म को ईसवी चौथी, पांचवी शताब्दी में छोड़ बैठे, किन्तु इसमें सन्देह नहीं कि उन्होंने भारत के सिर को इस बात के लिए ऊंचा कर दिया कि उसके पुत्रों ने जर्मनी जैसे प्रबल राष्ट्र पर बसन्ती झण्डा फहराया था और आज भी जर्मन नागरिकों के रूप में अपने देश का माथा ऊंचा कर रहे हैं।

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[233] लिखते हैं कि विजेता जाट अत्तीला का साम्राज्य कैस्पियन सागर से लेकर राइन नदी (पश्चिमी जर्मनी में) तक फैला हुआ था। तात्पर्य है कि जाटों का निवास व शासन जर्मनी में भी रहा है। ये लोग ईसा से लगभग 500 वर्ष पूर्व जर्मनी में पहुंचे। यूरोप के अन्य देशों इटली, गॉल, स्पेन, पुर्तगाल, इंगलैण्ड और यूनान आदि पर जो जाटों ने आक्रमण किये उनका वर्णन यूरोपीय इतिहास में यही मिलता है कि उसमें अधिकांश जाट लोग जर्मनी और स्कन्धनाभ (स्केण्डेनेविया) के निवासी थे।

श्री मैक्समूलर ने भी जर्मनी में आर्य रक्त स्वीकार किया है। टसीटस ने लिखा है कि :“जर्मन लोगों के रहन-सहन, आकृति, रस्म व रिवाज तथा नित्य कार्यों का जो वृत्तान्त पाया जाता है उससे विदित होता है कि कदाचित् ये लोग और शाक द्वीप (ईरान) के जिट, कठी, किम्बरी (कृमि) और शिवि (चारों जाट) एक ही वंश के हैं।”

आगे यही लिखते हैं कि “जर्मन लोग घोड़े की आकृति बनी हुई देखकर ही सिक्के का व्यवहार करते थे, अन्यथा नहीं। यूरोप के असि जेटी लोग और भारत के अट्टी तक्षक जटी, बुध को अपना पूर्वज मानकर पूजते थे। प्रत्येक जर्मन का बिस्तर पर से उठकर स्नान करने का स्वभाव जर्मनी के शीतप्रधान देश का नहीं हो सकता, किन्तु यह पूर्वी देश का है।”

कर्नल टॉड ने लिखा है कि “घोड़े की पूजा जर्मनी में सू, कट्टी, सुजोम्बी और जेटी (जाट) नाम की जातियों ने फैलाई है, जिस भांति कि स्कन्धनाभ में असि जाटों ने फैलाई।” कर्नल टॉड ने भारत के जाट और राजपूत तथा जर्मन लोगों की समानता के लिए लिखा है कि “चढ़ाई करने वालों और इन सब हिन्दू सैनिकों का धर्म बौद्ध-धर्म था। इसी से स्केण्डेनेविया वालों और जर्मन जातियों और राजपूतों के आचार, विचार और देवता सम्बन्धी कथाओं की सदृश्यता और उनके वीररसात्मक काव्यों का मिलान करने से यह बात अधिकतर प्रमाणित हो जाती है।”

प्रसिद्ध इतिहासज्ञ टसीटस ने लिखा है कि “जर्मनी और स्कन्धनाभ के असि लोग जाटवीर ही थे[234]। जाट इतिहास अंग्रेजी पृ० 36 पर लेफ्टिनेन्ट रामस्वरूप ने लिखा है कि “प्राचीनकाल में जर्मनी पर शिवि गोत्र के जाटों का राज्य व निवास था।”

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