History and study of the Jats/Chapter 6

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History and study of the Jats

Prof. B.S. Dhillon

ISBN-10: 1895603021 or ISBN-13: 978-1895603026

Chapter 6:History of the Alans, Sarmatians, Scythians, Goths and Jutes

History of the Alans, Sarmatians, Scythians, Goths and Jutes

Many people find it quite strange concerning the identical or some very similar family names of South Asian Jats and Westerners: Gill, Mann, Bains, Dhillon, Virk or Birk, Lalli, Bhullar or Bullar, Maur or Mor, Her, etc. When many Western and other people come across this situation, the various instant school of thoughts may go through their minds and some of them at occasions are expressed quite openly.

For example, it must have been the South Asian Jats who adopted the Western family names because of British rule in India or through intermarriages.

These logical thoughts are probably the result of the domination of Western influences throughout the world over the couple of past centuries. These conclusions may be true for certain people in certain parts of the world but in the case of the South Asian Jats, these thoughts are simply putting the cart before the horse because the lack of knowledge of the ancient European historical events.

One logical question that may come to mind is that how come one of the greatest warriors of the World (South Asian Jats - for more information on this issue the reader should consult Chapters 4 and 5 containing remarks of various western authors concerning the Jats from the eighteenth century onward) simply adopted the western family names? Furthermore; as per Captain Cunningham [1], several of Nepoleon's former military officers and of others such as Allard, Court, and Ventura took employment in Jat kingdoms as well as most of the Jats of South Asia were ruled by the British for less than one hundred years.

Since the eighteenth century, most of the historical events concerning Jats were recorded by the westerner authors themselves and it is nowhere to be found in these records, if any Jat took the British family names. In fact, it was these authors who began documenting the clan names of the Jats, e.g. Gill, Mann, Bains, Dhillon, etc, from the nineteenth century onward [2-4]. Furthermore, many of the British and other eminent writers and/or military officers made remarks concerning the Jats such as follows:

Colonel Sleeman: General Sir MacMunn [5] wrote in his book, "To him (Dalip Singh a Jat and the last king of the Sikh kingdom) his friend Colonel Sleeman, the famous Indian political officer, wrote, " I see you are going to live in Kent (a district in South-East England). You will be among your own people there, for you are a Jat and the men of Kent are Jats from Jutland", and no doubt he (Col. Sleeman) was speaking ethnological truth".

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General Sir MacMunn [5] wrote about the arrival of Indian troops in France during the World War I, "The Jat Sikhs mighty and curled of beard, kin perhaps to the men of Kent, the Jutes from Jutland ".

Professor Owen, F., (A Canadian Professor) [6] wrote, "In the shape of face, stature and general physical build the Sikhs approximates the Nordic type". Over seventy per cent of the Sikhs belong to the Jat background.

Colonel Tod. J. [7] said, "At this time (A.D. 449) the Jut brothers, Hengist and Horsa, led a colony from Jutland and founded the kingdom of Kent (Cant'hi, a coast in Sanskrit, as in Gothic Konta7). The laws they there introduced, more especially the still prevailing one of a gavelkind, where all the sons share equally, except the youngest who has a double portion, are purely Scythian, and brought by the original Goth from the Jaxartes (in Central Asia, the birthplace of the South Asian Jats). Asi was the term applied to the Getes, Yeuts, or Juts, when they invaded Scandinavia and founded Jutland. Now the Su, Yuchi, or Yuti, are Getes according to De Guignes.

Marco Polo calls Cashgar (in North-West China) where he was the birthplace of the Swedes. De. La Croix adds, that in 1691 Sparvenfeidt, the Swedish ambassador at Paris, told him he has read in Swedish chronicles that Cash gar was their country. In Transoxiana (Central Asia) they (Huns or Mongol people) mixed with the Su, the Yuti or Getes (Jats), who were particularly powerful and extended into Europe".

Other obvious factors that counter the Jats adopting Western clan names are that the clan names in question only relate to Jats and no other South Asian people. The probability appears to be much higher for non-Jat south Asians to have western sounding names than the Jats because of the much longer British rule than a mere ninety eight years In the case of most Jats. If It was a pure chance to have Identical or similar sounding names, then how come It Is not applicable to other south Asian people7 (A very large number of the Jat clan names are either Identical or similar).

The ancient European historical records and the archeological findings support that the Central Asian people (Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alans) the forefathers of the modern Jats also Invaded Europe In ancient times. Before, we embark upon the historical accounts of the Alans or Alani, Sarmatians, and Scythians In Europe, let us define the meanings of the these three very words using the Canadian edition of the Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary [8J: .Alans or Alani [8]: These people are described as, "a barbarian people (Alani) of Persian origin (Western authors categorize all Scythians as Iranian people), living between the sea of Azov and the Caucasus (Central Asia). Driven by the Huns (Mongol People), they penetrated into the Roman Empire then Invaded Gaul (A.D. 406), where one group settled in the region of the Loire. A second group entered Spain and was wiped out (7) by the Visigoths (some of the Goths are also said to be of the Central Asian Origin)". The same dictionary defines Gaul as two regions: Cisalpine (north Italy) and Transalpine (France, Switzerland, Belgium, and the Netherlands).

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Sarmatian [9]: This Is described as, "a member of the nomadic Indo-European people (Cousins of the Scythians) who displaced the Scythians (third century B.C.) on the lower Don (river now in Russia). First the enemies and then the allies of Rome, they were displaced by the Goths (also partly Central Asian People) In third century A.D."Scythian [10]: This Is described as, "a member of a nomadic Indo-European people who settled in Scythia before the seventh century B.C. and were displaced by the Sarmatians. They were specially noted in warfare for their mounted archers and In art for their rich gold ornaments. They spoke Iranian language (Central Asian)”. Scythia is also described in the very same dictionary on the same page as "an ancient region of South-East Europe and Asia".

All of these people (Alans, Sarmatians, and Scythians) were Central Asian or Iranian language speakers. Mallory [.11J has said it very well, " Iranian speakers the major Iron Age Nomads of the Pontic-Caspian steppe such as the Kimmerians (7), Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alans (Alan!). The Incredible mobility of these horse-mounted nomads becomes all the more Impressive when we recall their westward expansions through Europe. Sarmatians conscripted to defend the borders of Roman Britain (second century A.D.). The Alans as far west as France and forced their way through Spain ". In western literature, all these people are sometimes simply referred to as Scythians.

This may be due to the factors stated by Professor Sulimirski [12], "As per ancient authors, the Sarmatians were not much different from the Scythians in their dress and customs; they also wore trousers, soft leather boots and soft round or pointed caps, though some also went bare headed like many Scythians. (It appears that the Scythian people probably have introduced the wearing of trousers and coats in the West). Both the Scythians and Sarmatians were the western most people of the large complex of Iranian speaking nomads who lived in Central Asia (5th and 6th centuries B.C.)".

Professor Sulimirski [12] goes on to say, "Massagetae ("great" Jats) subdued (3rd and 4th centuries B.C.) almost all the nomad tribes of Central Asia north of the Macedonian frontier ". Also, according to the encyclopedia Britannica [13], "Massagetae (also a Scythian people), conquered area north of the Oxus river (modern Amu river in Central Asia) and then assaulted their immediate neighbours, the Scythians, in turn a wide-scale nomadic migration was set in motion". The Massagetae appear to have owed their success mostly to the use of armoured cavalry against weaker adversaries.

It may be said that the movement of these nomadic people, especially westward, began as the result of a Chinese ruler's action in the 8th and 9th centuries B.C. against the Massagetae and the Massagetae In turn assaulted their cousins and neighbors, the Scythians.

Eventually the Scythians succeeded In defeating the Cimmerians in the area presently called Ukraine. In later times, the Sarmatians (probably part of Massagetae) from the east pushed toward west and defeated Scythians. After the Sarmatians, the Alans made their way to the West. According to Ammianus Marcellinus (a fourth century A.D. Roman writer) [14], " Halani (Alani or Alans), once were known as the Massagetae. The

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Halani mount to the eastward, divided Into populous and extensive nations; these reach as far as Asia, and, as I have heard, stretch all the way to the river Ganges, which flows through the territories of India" .

Professor Thompson [15] supported the accuracy of the Ammianus Marcellinus's accounts of Halanl. Furthermore, Professor Tarn [16] of the Cambridge University and Sir Marshall [17] said It was the Massagetae who established the Scythian rule in Punjab and other parts of India before the birth of Christ which lasted for many centuries. Their descendents continued to rule India, off and on, ever since those times and as late as the nineteenth century they were still ruling in North-West India (Jat and Sikh kingdoms). Today, there are at least 30 million people in South Asia who are still known as Jats. More than seventy per cent of Sikhs belong to the Jat background.

One of the most likely reasons for some South Asian Jats to have Identical or similar clan or family names to Western ones is the arrival of the Alans as far as France and Spain and their ultimate Integration Into the local population. It is Interesting to note that the Alans reached Gaul In A.D. 408 and the White Huns invaded North-West India in the early part of the sixth century. Historical records indicate that both Alans and White Huns originated from the same area of the Central Asia and also belonged to the Massagetae ("great" Jats) group of the Scythians. Both these people appear to have been more assertive than the other Scythian people. Many historians say the devastation of India by the White Huns' Invasion paved the way for the colonization of India by the Arabs and other Middle Eastern people, for many centuries to come.

Also, the historical and other evidence indicates the assertiveness of the Alans in the West. For example, Professor Bachrach [18] of the University of Minnesota In his book on the history of the Alans In the west, wrote, "an anti-Alan prejudice which survives In what today Is Normandy (France): cet homme est violent et allain (simple translation: you are a violent man and Alan)". It appears from the historical records and the current data that the majority of the Alans, White Huns, or Massagetae went to Punjab than came to the west. This is probably one of the reasons for a very large number of people (over 30 million) In North-West South Asia who still call themselves Jats.

However, the Jat population is still less than 3 per cent of the total population in South Asia, Alans, Sarmatians, Scythians, Goths and Jutes are discussed below, separately.

6.1 Alans or Alani

According to Ammianus Marcellinus [14], Alans were once called Massagetae and they took their separate name after a mountain range called Alanos In Central Asia. In fact, Dr. Kephart [19] said, the Alani were also known as Thyssa-getae ("small" Jats).

According to Professor Sullmlrskl [12] the Alani movement towards the westward direction from Central Asia started around second century B.C. Some of thel other points noted by Ammlanus Marcellinus [14] regarding Alans are as follows:

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"Almost all the Alani are tall, handsome, their hair inclines to fair, by the ferocity of their glance they Inspire dread, subdued through it is". Jat Sikhs appear to satisfy almost all of these characteristics, even in the case of hair some Jat Sikhs' hair still Incline to be fair. However, factors such as colour of hair and skin are the result of these people being In the sun-belt area for over a thousand centuries rather than their hereditary characteristics.

The writings of Major Barstow [20] provide ample proofs of the similarity of the above characteristics.

"The Sikh Jat is generally tall and muscular, with well shaped limbs, erect carriage, and strongly marked and handsome features. They have always been famous for their fine physique and are surpassed by no race in India for highbred looks, smartness, and soldiery bearing. The Jat Sikhs are manly without false pride, undemonstrative, independent without Insolence, reserved in manner, but good natured and industrious. No one could be associated with them for any time without conceiving both respect and liking for them".

In all respects they (Alani) are somewhat like the Huns (Mongol People), but in their manner of life and their habits they are less savage. In the sixth century A.D. In India, the invading Alani were called "White Huns" because of their Indo-European features- most likely the forefathers of the Jat Sikhs.

"Alani delight in danger and warfare. There the man is judged happy who has sacrificed his life in battle". (modern Sikhs!)

No temple or sacred place is to be seen in their (Alani) country. Strangely, hundreds of years later General Sir Sleeman [21] wrote concerning the South Asian Jats, "There are few temples anywhere to be seen In the territories of these Jat chiefs.

“A naked sword is fixed in the ground and they reverently worship it as their god of war. During the baptizing Sikh ceremony, a double-edge sword is used to stir sweetened holy water, which is later on, drank by the new converts.”

"All are born of noble blood, and moreover they (Alani) choose chiefs those men who are conspicuous for long experience as warriors".

Major Barstow [20J writes, "From the earliest times Jats have been remarkable for their rejection of the monarchical principle, and their strong partiality for self-governing commonwealths. One of the names by which they were known to the ancients was Kingless ".

As glorious spoils of the slain they tear off their (enemy) heads". It appears Alani's cousins the Jats in Punjab kept up this tradition, hundreds of years later. For example, Lane-Poole [21J wrote, "To restore order " Mas'ud (l11e Invaded India In 1033 A.D.) appointed Tilak the Hindu to take over the command In the Punjab. This Hindu paragoll

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set out to chastise Nlyatagin (11'111s person had been Mahmud's -another Invader of India-treasurer). At last the news came that the barber's son (Tilak) had routed Niyaltagln, and that 'the Jats had caught the fugitive viceroy (Niyaltagin) and cut off his head, which they sold to Tilak for a hundred thousand pieces of silver" .

The writings on the cover of Professor Bachrach's [18J book stated that he has demonstrated In his book, "they (Alani) contributed much to the military repertolrf:1 of the West, especially the feigned retreat tactic and the role of the cavalry as the primary part of the army".

The additional factors, cited on the cover are Alans were assimilated by peoples In Gaul and Italy; during the fourth and fifth centuries A.D., they served the Roman Empire in a military capacity, In addition their military and political impact In several areas; and they Influenced early medieval artistic styles, literary developments, place names, and personal names.

Another noticeable point concerning Alans is, as per Professor Bachrach [18], "they worshipped or perhaps more exactly, venerated their ancestors. According to Major Barstow [20] Jats worship" Jathera" , or a common ancestor of the clan, to whom a large shrine Is erected In the neighborhood of their village.

According to various ancient writers such as Josephus, Lucan, Lucian, Dlonyslus and Ammianus Marcellinus Alans were a Scythian people and particularly as per Ptolemy (an ancient Greek Geographer) and Dlonysius, they were living in Asia and Europe [18].

Furthermore, another ancient Roman writer Pliny said both Sarmatians and Alans were Scythians, and Lucian remarked the only important different characteristic between Scythians and Alans Is the way they wear their hair: Scythian (longer), Alans (shorter) [18].

In 370s A.D. Huns (Mongol people) Invaded South Russia and at that time the first people they encountered there were the Alans. As a result of this invasion, some of the Alans moved westward. In later times Alans joined their forces with Goths (partly Scythian people) and Huns and then started to plunder Roman territory In Thrace north of Greece, and In 378 A.D. they met the forces of the Eastern Roman Emperor Valens near Adrlanople, which resulted in the death of the Emperor and a disaster for his army.

Ultimately, some of the Alans joined the Roman forces during the period of the Western Roman Emperor Gratian (367/375-383 A.D.). As the result of this, the Alans settled in northern Italy, an Alan regiment continued to serve until at least 487 A.D. and by the year 421 A.D. at least one Alan (Ardaburlus) became a general In the East Roman Army [18]. In fact, Maximinus belonging to the Alan background became the Roman Emperor: his mother was an Alan and father, a Goth [18]. Furthermore, Professor Backrach [18] wrote, "Alans may have forayed Into Greece early In the 240s A.D. They are said to have defeated the Roman Emperor Gordian III (238-244 A.D.) on the plains of Philippi”.

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Alan generals such as Ardaburlus and his son Aspar settled a substantial number of Alans around the Black Sea so they can count on their support at the moment of need. For example, In the eastern Crimea and along, the western shore of the Black Sea In lower Moesla some of the Alans allied with the Vandals and opposed Roman domination. After their defeat by Stilicho, the Roman commander In the West, both Alans and Vandals moved northward and east Into Germany beyond the Rhine frontier and outside the Roman territory. It is to be noted that some Alans were also under the command of Stlllcho at that time.

A group of Alans and Vandals entered Spain in the early 5th century A.D. and continued their raiding and plundering practices to Gaul.

Eventually, some of the Alans crossed Into north Africa. Goar the Alan leader who supported the Roman empire settled his Alan followers around Orleanals and shifted his capital to the city of Orleans (France) [18J. In Professor Backrach's [18J words. "a substantial number of Alan place names surviving in this area may perhaps be indicating that many of the Gallo-Roman magnates were driven out by the Alans and the toponymical evidence aid us to Identify locations where the Alana may have settled: Les Allains, Allalnvllle, Alalncourt, Alalns, Allalnes and etc." Some of the concluding remarks concerning Alans by Professor Backrach [18J are as follows:

• “Alans became very powerful at Constantipole (modern Istanbul Turkey) and their leaders for a while ruled even though did not reign over the eastern Roman Empire.” • “Alans became Christians, however, up to 450 A.D they were still pagans In the Gaul area.” • “Under the Roman hospitality system the nomadic warrior elites became a settled landholding warrior class (Even today Jats In South Asia are classified as a landholding warrior class).” • “Among the crumbling ruin of Roman Institutions, particularly in Gaul, they (Alans) were in as ideal position which allowed them to become a part of a new medieval aristocracy.”

6.2 The Assimilation of the Alans into the Western Society

Alans living In Gaul and other areas did not simply pack up and go back to their homeland In Central Asia but obviously were assimilated Into the local population and therefore ceased to exist as an Identifiable tribal entity. However, their Influence can be felt even today in various areas. For example, the word Alan and its variants such Alain, Allain and Allan are derived from the Latin word "Alanus", which is still popularly used as a first and last name In the West [18J. (The word Alan or Alani does not appear In any Western sources prior to the first century A.D. [18]).

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Furthermore, the name Goar appeared to be still often used in the surrounding areas of Loire, France. Strangely, it appears that even after their assimilation. Alans and other Scythian groups must have continued to use their clan names, that is probably why the South-Asian Jat clan names. In particularly the Jat Sikh Mann, Gill, Bains, Virk, Dhillon and etc are identical or very similar to the western family names. As per the research of Professor Backrach [18J. the Alans living in Orleanais area started to move westward Into Breton-dominated parts of Armorica by the end of the fifth century A.D. During the early middle ages, half~ a dozen counts and dukes In Brittany were names Alanus, according to the records concerning the life of St. Paul of Leon In Conomor's Armorican lands people spoke four different languages indicating that the descendents of the Alans were still speaking their Central Asian mother tongue [18].

Many medieval stories explaining the origin of the people of Europe give special prominence to the Alans. For example, according to some researchers, Nennlus In his works, entitled Historla Brittonum, (explaining the origin of English people) appeared to have incorporated the works of a priest of Alan descent, around 550 A.D., residing in Armorica.

As per Professor Bachrach [18] the story reported in Hlstoria Brittonum accords to Alan people, "a position of primacy vis-a-vis the other peoples of Europe". The story's basis is the biblical tradition i.e., Noah's son Japhet repopulated Europe after the flood and his heir called Alanus was the first man to dwell in Europe. Furthermore, various peoples of Europe are descended from Alanus's three sons called Neugio, Hlscon, and Armenon [22,23]. Strangely, Mujmalu-T-Tawarikh [24] written in the ~elveth century A.D. by an Arab or a Persian author also said, "The Jats and Meds (Mands, also a Jat clan) are, it is said, descendants of Ham (the son of Noah)" .

In any case, with respect to Alans, In Professor Bachrach's [18] words, "the acceptance of the story by a ninth century A.D. British historian with a strong Interest In Armorica only suggests that Alan Influence In Brittany was still live and well". Furthermore, In the Celtic-dominated culture of Armorica the Alan assimilation followed a reciprocal process. For example, In the area of military tactics, Alans exerted profound Influence on Roman and Armorican cavalry developments.

It appears from historical and circumstantial evidence that the descendents of the Alans or of other Scythians also went to the British Isles and Ireland. Examples of historical and circumstantial evidences are as follows:

As per Refs [18,25,26], "St. Alan of Corlai is said to have visited the British Isles and Celtic tradition attributes him several successful sons”.

In Dr. Kephart's [19] words, "Not only does the array of historical facts but also repeated allusion In Irish history to Scythia as the place of origin". On page 426 of his book Dr. Kephart [19] wrote, "Saint Patrick, in his confession, refers to the Scotti the conquerors, masters, military men as the nobility or gentry but St. Patrick nowhere mention them as

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the native Irish other than "Hlberlonae" and he says that their place of origin was Scythia".

In a book by Coghlan, R., Grehan, I. and Joyce, P.W. [27], they said the forefathers of Irish people with family the name "Dillon" arrived in Ireland from Brittany, France 800 years ago and ever since then they have merged with the local Irish population.

In Brittany, they were called "de Leon". Brittany is the very place where Professor Barhrach's research indicates that the Central Asian Alans also settled. "Dhillon" Is also a prominent family name of the Jat Sikhs, the cousins of the Alans. Also, Ref. [28] indicated that the Dillons were warriors, "During the French Revolution Theobald, Count Dillon, a Field Marshal of France who had fought In the American War of Independence, was its colonel". Another point to note Is Dillon's Cout of Arms contains a picture of a lion. Lions are only to be found In Central Asia and South Asia. Factors such as these raises a strong possibility that the Irish Dillons also belonged to the Alan ancestry.

With respect to the Alans In Central Asia and surrounding areas, according to Refs. [12, 19,28] some descendants of the Alans known as Ossetes still live in the Terek region of the north Caucasus numbering about one million. According to Dr. Kephart [19], the former Soviet Leader Josef Stalin (parental surname Dzugashvilll" was of Ossetes ancestry on one side".

Arrian, the legate of Cappadocia (also an ancient eminent historian) under the Roman Emperor Hadrian (117-138 A.D.), in 134 A.D. conducted a military campaign against the Alans. He documented historical events concerning Alans In his works called Alanlca (History of the Alans). Unfortunately, only a fragment (Acies contra Alanos) of his works has survived and its English translation is available In Ref. [18]. In this document Arrian refers to Alans as Scythians.

It may be said, leaving beside the fact that both French and Punjabi languages belong to the Indo-European or Indo-Aryan group, there are several words in Punjabi, which are almost identical to French, for example, Roti (Bread) (French:"Roti"), Kameez (Shirt) (French:"Chemlse"), das (ten) (French: dix), and Tun (you-in casual conversation) (French "tu" means causal you). This could be the direct result of the Alan influence In France. Furthermore, we echo Professor McGovern's [29] words "The Sakas (Scythians or Massagetae) like their neighbors, the Alani, were destined to play ~n Important role in later history. But whereas the Alans spread westwards into Europe, the Sakas chose the lands to the South at one time were lords of much of Eastern Iran and Northern India (Punjab, etc.)".

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6.3 Alan Place Names

Alans came to Italy, France, Spain, etc and surviving places in these countries witness the lasting Alan Influence. There are still several Alan place names In Spain, which Indicate that the Alan Influence there was not totally eradicated by the Visigoth domination [18].

According to Professor Sulimlrskl [12] some Alans settled In Lusitanla, modern Portugal and Spain west of Madrid. The modern city of Milan in Italy Is In midst of various Alan settlements dating back to fifth century A.D. [18].

Some of the existing Alan place names In the Western countries are Alllanvllle (Haute- Marne, France), Alagna (Com. Pie monte, Italy), Alain (Loire-Inferieure, France), Alalncourt (Eure, France), Alan (Haute-Garonne, France), Alancon (Drome, France), Landrlano (Pavia, Italy) formerly Alan d'Rlano In twelfth century, Lanet (Aude, France), In 1320 A.D. was called Alanetum, and Breche d'Allanz (Hautes-Pyrenees, France). For more Information on the above names and more of such names see Ref. [18] page 137. In fact as per Ref. [12] there are over thirty French place names connected with Alans or Sarmatians.

6.4 Sarmatians

These people were the eastern neighbour of the Scythians around 300 B.C. or earlier As per Professor Rostovtzeff [30J of the Yale University and other historical sources [12] there Is absolutely no doubt that the Sarmatians were the Central Asians belonging to the Indo-Iranians (Indo-European) group and near relations of the Scythians. Furthermore, the descriptions of the Sarmatian army provided by the ancient writers such as Arrian, Tacitus, Josephus, Strabo, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Pausanias were very similar to that of the Parthlans (another Scythian people) [30]. It was the Sarmatians who uprooted the Scythians rule in Southern Russia and Ukraine in the second century B.C.

In fact, Professor McGovern [29] of the North Western University has said it very well, "The decay and eventual downfall of the Scythians was due almost entirely to Invasion by their distant kinsmen, the Sarmatians. It is to be noted here that even If we only consider the location of the Sarmatians in Central Asia, they were the next door neighbours of the Massagetae ("great" Jats) and thus, they were more likely a branch of them". Another Important fact is the evidence of researchers such as Professors Sullmlrskl [12J and Mongait [31J. The Alans were a group of Sarmatians and, In fact, Mongalt said, "In the second century B.C. one of the Sarmatian tribes, the Alans, began to play an important role in history and gradually their name replaced that of the Sarmatians". According to the works of Hippocrates, an ancient Greek Doctor and writer, the Sarmatian women served as warriors and priestesses [12J. In partial support of this assertion as per Herodotus [32J, the forces of Tomyris, the queen of Massagetae, defeated and killed the Persian Emperor Cyrus the Great.

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In their dress and customs, the Sarmatians did not differ much from the Alans and Scythians, they too wore'soft leather boots, trousers, and pointed caps. Historical records also show some Sarmatians also served in the Roman army and others were settled by the Romans along the Rhine frontier. According to Ref. [18] these Sarmatian military colonists (laetl) established, "colonies from Amiens in the north through Sermaise (Oise), Sermoise (Aisne), Rheims, Sermiers (Marne), Sermaizeles Bains (Marne), and langres in the South".

In 169 A.D. the Sarmatians crossed river Danube and invaded Pannonia, but at a later stage were defeated by the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180 A.D.) and after his victories over the Sarmatians he took the title "Sarmatlcus". As a result of their defeat, the Sarmatians were forced to reside at distance from the Danube and to contribute 8,000 cavalrymen to the Roman forces. Out of these 8,000 cavalrymen, Rome sent 5,500 to Britain to safeguard their interests. In a unit of 500, these cavalrymen were stationed on the northern border. So far, archeologists have uncovered at least four such sites in Great Britain [12, 33-34]. In Professor Sulimirskl's words, "The descendants of those (Sarmatians) who came to England In 175 A.D. probably still live somewhere in the country".

In the early centuries of the Christian era Poland was known as Sarmatia [19J and a vague tradition of Samartian origin still lingers among sections of the Polish nobility as well as an Increasing discovery of Sarmatian objects in that country is other evidence of the Sarmatian Influence [12J. As a concluding remark Professor Sullmlrskl [12] said, "Sarmatians were dispersed all over Europe and ultimately absorbed by the local population thus loosing their identity".

6.5 Scythians

Herodotus [32] In the fifth century B.C., was the first historian to give detail accounts of Scythians occupying the area north of the Black Sea, modern Ukraine. As per Herodotus [32] and other authors [13, 35-37], the Scythians of Asia were defeated by their powerful cousins Massagetae, as a result, they (Scythians) moved westward and attacked and subdued Cimmerians residing in the area north of the Black Sea. The Scythians' supremacy lasted in this area over 600 years until their brethren, the Samartians, uprooted them. During their rule Scythians occupied much of Persia and forced the Egyptian ruler to purchase peace on their terms. Scythians were tall people [28] and spoke one of the Iranian group of languages [31]. As per the findings in their graves, Scythian males were warriors and mounted archers. They carried short iron swords (daggers), and six-foot lances with large iron points [31].

Scythians were mare-milkers and milk-drinkers [36] as well as like their other brethren Alans, Sarmatians, Massagetae, and Sakas, they were also accomplished horse riders. Furthermore, the Scythian soldiers were not paid but were entitled to a share of the day's loot.

History and study of the Jats: End of p.95

This loot was divided by their chief according to their performance in the battle. Scythians were heavy drinkers of wine, kept beards and long hair, carried small combs as per the discovery of objects [38] similar to the one carried by the modern baptized Sikh. Also, as per the uncovered "Oxus treasure" [35], earrings (one for men and two for women) are found on most of the bodies. In addition, they were fond of wearing finger- rings, sometimes on each finger of both hands. Furthermore, they used their horses only for riding and employed oxen for domestic purposes and heavy work [35]. This was also the case at least among the Jat Sikhs even in the early part of this century. More Information on Scythians may be found in Refs. [28,31,32,35,36, 37, 38-41].

6.6 Goths

The Sarmartians In Southern Russia were replaced by the Goths. There is still controversy regarding the origin of the Goths. Some people say they originated in Scandinavia, while others say they came from Central Asia. Professor Wolfram's [42] explanation appears to be somewhat acceptable, "Does this mean, after all, that the Goths originated in Scandinavia 7 Reinhard Wenskus has already given an answer, which ought to be slightly changed: not entire peoples but small successful clans, the bearers of prestigious traditions, emigrated and became founders of new Gentes". Even If we accept the origin of the Goths in Scandinavia, as per Col. Tod [7], the Swedish Chronicles points, the origin of the Swedes in Central Asia. Furthermore, Dr. Kephart [19] wrote, " the origin of the Goths to be Western Turkistan (Central Asia) and not Scandinavian as was once generally supposed”.

Two ancient writers: Isidore of Seville (born around 560 A.D.) and Jordanes (himself a Goth and compiled his works around 551 A.D.) say the Goths were a Scythian people. Isidore of Seville in his book [43] entitled, "History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevl", wrote, " Goths are a very old nation and the Goths are descended from Magog, the son of Japhet, and are shown to have spring from the same origin as the Scythians, from whom they do not differ greatly in name. Formerly, however, the learned were accustomed to call them Getae (Jats) rather than Gog and Magog".

Jordanes [44] wrote In his book entitled, "Getica", "Then Cyrus, King of the Persians waged an unsuccessful war against Tomyris, queen of the Getae (Jats) the Getae and their queen defeated, conquered and overwhelmed the Parthian (probably mean Persians) and took rich plunder from them. Therefore; for the first time the race of the Goths saw silken tents". It is Interesting to note that Jordanes has the word Getae for Goths and vice-versa. Furthermore, according to Herodotus [32], Cyrus, the Persian King was defeated by Massagetae ("great" Jats), a Scythian people. It means, as per Jordanes' statements, Goths were a Scythian people.

On the Issue of the word "Goth" Professor Waddell [45] of the University of London remarked, " the First Dynasty of Egypt repeatedly call themselves in their official documents and seals "Gut" And early Sumerian Dynasties in Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) called themselves Guti or Goti; and "Goti" was the regular title of the Goths in Europe the aspirated form Goth having coined by the Romans and never used by Goths themselves”.

History and study of the Jats: End of p.96

6.7 Jutes

As per Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary [46], the word "Jute" is defined as "a member of a Germanic (7) tribe, probably from the mouth of the Rhine, who settled (5th century A.D.) In England In Kent, Hampshire, and the Isle of Wight". Professor Wilson [47] said Jutish warriors under their leaders, Henglst and Horsa, arrived In Kent around 450 A.D. at the Invitation of a British ruler in Kent known as Vortlgern to defend him from the Scots and Plcts.

After a number of years of service to Vortlgern, they (Jutes) turned against him and killed many Britons and then took possession of Kent. This opened the door for the arrival of more Jutes from the Continental Europe. Many historians believe that Jutes came to Kent from the lower Rhine area and their agriculture system resembled the one used In Gaul [47]. This judgment appears to be correct and we must also remember that the Alans, a branch of Massagetae ("great Jats") were also well settled by 450 A.D in Gaul. Furthermore, as per Professor Bachrach [18], "After their defeat Alans and Vandals apparently moved northward and east Into Germany beyond the Rhine frontier and outside the Roman Empire. The Rhine frontier was largely undefended; both (for Romans) the Franks, who dwelt along the river, and the second-line defenders, the Sarmatians military colonists (known as laetl), who had been settled further to the west during the fourth century ".

Other factors pointing to the Scythian origin of the Jutes are as follows:

  • In the early records relating to Germany and the North, Jutes have been called by different names [48]: Gothi, Gutae, Gaeta, Jutae, Gothini and etc.

In the sixth century A.D., Byzantine (Roman) Emperor was aware that the Goths were well settled In England [48].

  • Evidences of the runic Inscriptions found in Kent were either Anglian or Gothic [48].
  • "King Alfred on his mother's side was descended from the Goths and Jutes of the Isle of Wight" [48].
  • The Kentish man's 'liberty was his very important characteristic in the Middle Ages

[48] (This characteristic is very dear to Jat Sikhs as per Major Barstow [20]).

  • Kentish ceorl was a freeman and it was proudest privilege of birth in Kent during the middle ages, as per Ammlanus Marcellinus [14] all Alans were equal.
  • As per Kentish custom [48]: "that of being marshaled in the van of the national army when being led to war, this claim was one of the warlike privileges of the men of Kent".

History and study of the Jats: End of p.97

Scythian people were well known warriors. Jutes used oxen to plough their fields [49]. Scythians also used oxen for domestic purposes and for heavy work [35].

A Kentish custom [49] in the Middle Ages practiced "extreme individualism and the division of the tenement into separate holdings among each generation of heirs". Furthermore, in the division of father's property [48], the youngest son, appear to have been entitled to the family hearth or homestead on making compensation to his brothers". Similar customs are also practiced even today among South Asian Jats.

The actual word used in Punjab for Jats is "Juts" are almost identical. Furthermore, some English family names such as Gill, Bain, and Mann are identical to the family names of the Jat Sikhs in particular.

British elites such as Gen. Sir MacMunn [50], Col. Sleeman [50], and Col. Tod [51] must have had some reasons to believe that the" Jats" and Jutes were the identical people.

Scythians, Sarmatians, and Alans who traveled thousands of miles from their homeland in Central Asia to settle in Europe make it quite impossible to believe if their descendants did not venture into British Isles, without even taking Into consideration any historical record; especially in the case of the Alans who not only went as far as Spain and Portugal but also crossed Into north Africa and then attacked Rome. As per Professor Bachrach [18] some Alans also settled in Brittany (nineteen miles from the English coast!).

Even if we overlook all the above overwhelming evidence and still conclude that the Jutes originated from Scandinavia, a Scandinavian chronicler [52], stated, regarding the Scythian origin of the Scandinavian people, "certain tribes when they had migrated from Scythia Into this region, called It Scythia, as If it were worthy of the name of their first country. Moreover, those tribes I don't know why for some reason they were called "Getae" were also called "Massagetae" ("great" Getae or Jats) after they entered this region. Then, as is usual, when the name had been changed, those who were formerly called "Getae" and afterwards "Gothi".

In conclusion, it appears the Jets or the Scything people entered British Isles in ancient times at least at three different occasions: Jutes, Samartian cavalrymen to serve Roman Interests [12] and the Alan of Corlai [18]. Even after hundreds of years of their assimilation into the local population, strangely, some of the British family names are Identical or very similar to that of the South Asian Jats. Today, there are at least half million Jat Sikhs (some of them fourth generation) who reside in Great Britain and the native British people find It quite strange to have similar or identical family names with some of them.

History and study of the Jats: End of p.98

6.8 References:

Chapter 6 -History of the Alans, Sarmatians, Scythians, Goths and Jutes

[1]. Cunningham. J.D. (Captain). History of the Sikhs. reprinted by S. Chand & Company Ltd. (In arrangement with Oxford University Press). New Delhi. India. 1985. First published in 1849.

[2]. Falcon. R. W. (Captain). Handbook on Sikhs: for the use of Regimental Officers. Printed at the Pioneer Press. Allahabad. India. 1896.

[3]. Griffin. L.H. (Sir). The Punjab Chiefs. Vol. I and II. Civil and Military Gazette Press. Lahore. Pakistan. 1890.

[4]. Bingley. A.H. (Captain). Handbook for the Indian Army: Sikhs. Compiled under the orders of the Government of India. Printed at the Government Central Printing Office. Simla. India. 1899.

[5]. MacMunn. G. (Lt. Gen. and Sir). The Martial Races of India. reprinted by Mittal Publications. Deihl. India. 1979. pp. 123. 126. first published in 1932.

[6]. Owen. F.. Germanic People: Their Origin. Expansion and Culture. Dorset Press. New York, 1960. pp. 50-51.

[7]. Tod. J. (Lt. Col.). Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.. London. 1972. pp. 51. 89. first published in 1829.

[8]. Alans or Alani. In Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary. Canadian Edition. lexicon Publications. Inc.. New York. 1988. pp. 19.

[9]. Sarmatian. In Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary. Canadian Edition. lexicon Publications, Inc.. New York. 1988. pp. 887.

[10]. Scythian. In Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary. Canadian Edition. lexicon Publications. Inc.. New York. 1988. pp. 900.

[11]. Mallory. J.P., Indo-Europeans. Thames and Hudson Ltd.. London. 1989. pp. 48 49.

[12]. Sullmirski. T.. The Sarmatlans. Praeger Publishers New York. 1970~ pp. 27.81. 197, 187.34. 175-176.202-203. 19.

[13]. Scythians. in the New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Inc.. Chicago, 1984. pp. 438 442.

[14]. Ammianus. Marcellinus (born around A.D. 330). Translated by J.C. Rolfe. Vol. 3. Harvard University Press. Cambridge. Massachusetts, 1956. pp. 387-395.

History and study of the Jats: End of p.99

[15]. Thompson. E.A. (Professor). The Historical Work of Ammianus Marcellinus. Bouma's Boekhuls N.V. Publishers. Groningen. 1969. pp. 119.

[16]. Tarn. W.W.. The Greeks in Bactria and India. Cambridge University Press. London. 1966. pp. 306-307.

[17]. Marshall. J. (Sir and formerly Director-General of Archaeology In India). A Guide to Taxila. Cambridge University Press. London. 1960. pp. 24.

[18]. Bachrach, B.S., A History of the ~ns in the West, Univeristy of Minnes()ta Press, Minneapolis, 1973, pp. 90, 1-25,59,52.

[19]. Kephart, C., Races of Mankind, Peter Owen Limited, London, 1960, pp. 463, 493,354,426, 512, 502.

[20]. Barstow, A.E. (Major), The Sikhs: An Ethnology, reprinted by B.R. Publishing Corporation, Deihl, India, 1985, pp. 152-155, 66, 89, first published In 1928.

[21]. Lane-Poole, S., Mediaevallndia~ reprinted by Haskell House Publishers, Ltd., New York, 1970, pp. 40-43.

[22]. Nennius, Chapter 17, F. Lot, Nenninus et I'Historla Brittonum, I, Paris, 1934, pp.50.

[23]. Hanning, R., The VISions of History in Early Britain, New York, 1966, pp. 106.

[24]. Mujmalu-T-Tawarikh, In the History of India: As Told by Its Own Historians,edited by Sir Elliot, H.M., and Professor Dowson, J., Vol. I, reprinted by AMS Press, Inc., New York, 1966, pp. 103-104, first published in 1867.

[25]. Loblneau, G., Les vies de Saints de Bretagne, I, Paris, 1886.

[26]. Loth, J., Los noms des Saints Bretons, Paris, 1910, pp. 8.

[27]. Coghlan, R., Grehan, I., Joyce, P.W., Irish Names: First, Family and Place Names, Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1989, pp. 50-~1.

[28]. Rolle, R., The World of the Scythians, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1989, pp. 55-57.

[29]. McGovern, W.M., The Early Empires of Central Asia, The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1939, pp. 38,41.

[30]. Rostovtzeff, M. (Professor), The Sarmatae and Parthialls, in the Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. XI, edited by Cook, S.A., Adcock, F .E., and Charlesworth, M.P., The Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, 1954, pp. 97-98.

History and study of the Jats: End of p.100

[31]. Mongait, A.L., Archaeology in the USSR, Penguin Books, London, 1961, pp. 165, 157, 160.

[32]. Herodotus. The Histories, Penguin Books, Inc., London, 1988. pp. 272-273, 122-128.

[33]. Richmond, I.A., Thompson, E.A., Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. XXXIV, 1944.

[34]. Richmond, I.A., Thompson, E.A., Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. XLVI, 1956.

[35]. Talbot-Rice, T., The Scythians, F.A. Praeger, New York, 1961, pp. 43-44,145, 70.

[36]. Williams. H.S., Chapter II: Scythians and Cimmerians, in the Historians' History of the World, The Outlook Company, New York, 1905, pp. 400-410.

[37]. Minns, E.H., The Scythians and Northern Nomads, in the Cambridge Ancient History, edited by Bury, J.B., Cook, S.A., Adcock, F.E., Vol. III, The Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1954, pp. 179-203.

[38]. Trippett, F., The First Horsemen, Time Life Books, New York, 1974.

[39]. Minns, E.H., Scythlans and Greeks, Biblo and Tannen, New York, 1965. (Two Vols.) .

[40]. Scythians. in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Inc.. Chicago. 1984. pp. 438-442.

[41]. Rostovtzeff. M.. Iranians (Scythians) And Greeks in South Russia. Russell and Russell. A Division of Atheneum Publishers. Inc., New York, 1922, reprinted in 1969.

[42]. Wolfram. H., History of the Goths, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1988, pp. 39-40.

[43]. Isidore of Seville, History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevl, translated by Donlnl, G., and Ford, G.B., E.J. Brill, Lelden, 1970, pp. 3,30.

[44]. Jordanes. The Gothic History (Getica), translated by Mierow, C.C, Barnes and Noble, Inc.. New York, 1966. pp. 67-68. .

[45]. Waddell. L.A.. The Makers of Civilization in Race and History. reprinted by S. Chand & Co.. New Deihl. India, 1968, first published in 1929, (See Preface).

[46]. Jute. In Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary, Canadian Edition, Lexicon Publications. Inc.. New York. 1988, pp. 532.

History and study of the Jats: End of p.101

[47]. Wilson, D.H. (Professor), A History of England. The Dryden Press. Inc., Hinsdale. Illinois. 1972, pp. 15.

[48]. Shore. T.W.. The Jutes, Goths, and Northmen (Chapter IV) and the Jutish Settlers In Kent (Chapter XI). In Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race, Kennlkat Press, London. 1971, pp. 49-65. 181-195.

[49]. Jolliffee. J.E.A.. Pre-Feudal England: The Jutes, Oxford University Press. London. 1962. pp. 19-20. 104.

[50]. MacMunn (Lt. Gen. and Sir). The Martial Races of India. reprinted by Mittal Publications. Deihl. India. 1979. pp. 123. 126. first published in 1932.

[51]. Tod. J. (Lt. Col.). Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.. London, 1972. (reprint & Vol. 1), first published in 1829.

[52]. Leake. J.A.. The Geats of Beowulf. The University of Wisconsin Press. Madison. Wisconsin. 1967, pp. 93-94.

History and study of the Jats: End of p.102

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