Yugandhara

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Yugandhara (युगंधर) was name of a country mentioned by Panini and a City in Mahabharata.

Variants of name

Identification

Yugandhara has been identified as modern Jagadhari in Haryana. [1][2]

Mention by Panini

Yugandhara (युगन्धर) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [3]


Yaugandhari (यौगंधरि) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [4]

History

V. S. Agrawala[5] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Sālva (शाल्व) (IV.2.135). It was confined to limited geographical horizon in the central and north eastern Punjab. Shalva may coincide with the territory extending from Alwar to north Bikaner. Salvas were ancient people who migrated from west through Baluchistan and Sindh where they left traces in the form of Śālvakāgiri, the present Hala mountain, and then advancing towards north Sauvira and along the Saraswati and finally settled in north Rajasthan.


V. S. Agrawala[6] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Sālvāvayava (साल्वावयन) - Several members were grouped in this confederacy which include, 1. Udumbara, 2. Tilakhala, 3. Madrakāra, 4. Yugandhara, 5. Bhūliṅga, 6. Śaradaṇḍa


V. S. Agrawala[7] writes that the Madrakāra (मद्रकार) - Madrakāra signifies the warrior troops of Madras (kāra in old Parsian means army). Madra princess Savitri married with Salva prince Satyavan (Vanaparva, 279.15). Consequent to this marriage three new small kingdoms came into existence. 1. Sāvitrīputrakāḥ, 2. Madrakāraḥ and 3. Śālvasenyaḥ. Sāvitrīputrakāḥ represents hundred sons of Savitri and Satyavan. Putra denoted a clan such as Shakyaputras. Senā in Sanskrit denotes kāra in Iranian.


V. S. Agrawala[8] writes that the Yugandhara (युगंधर) should be somewhere in the region of Yamuna. It may be located in Ambala district between the Saraswati and upper Yamuna, where Jagadhari probably is a relic of old home.


Tej Ram Sharma[9] writes that The Candravrtti on Candra [10] informs us that Udumbara, Tilakhala, Madrakara, Yugandhara, Bhulinga and Saradanda, are the divisions of Shalva (or Salva).


The Mahabharata mentions the Janapadas in Himachal Pradesh such as Kuluta (Kullu), Trigarta (Kangra), Kulinda (Shimla hills and Sirmaur), Yugandhara (Bilaspur and Nalagarh), Gabdika (Chamba) and Audumbara (Pathankot).

In Mahabharata

Yugandhara (युगन्धर) city is mentioned in Mahabharata (IV.1.9),(VI.10.40), (VII.15.30),(VIII.30.40,42),


Virata Parva, Mahabharata/ Book IV Chapter 1 mentions countries surrounding the kingdom of the Kurus. Yugandhara (युगन्धर) city is mentioned in Mahabharata verse (IV.1.9). [11].... The city suggested to spend the thirteenth year, which are beautiful and abounding in corn, such as Panchala, Chedi, Matsya, Surasena, Pattachchara, Dasarna, Navarashtra, Malla, Shalva, Yugandhara, Saurashtra, Avanti, and the spacious Kuntirashtra.


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Yugandhara (युगन्धर) city is mentioned in Mahabharata verse (VI.10.40).[12]...the Panchalas, the Kausikas, the Ekaprishthas, Yugandharas; the Saudhas, the Madra, Bhujingas, the Kashyas, and the further-Kashyas;


Yugandhara (युगन्धर) city is mentioned in Mahabharata verse (VII.15.30)....?


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 30 gives description blaming the Vahikas and Madrakas. ...Yugandhara (युगन्धर) city is mentioned in Mahabharata verse (VIII.30.40).[13]....The Aratta-Vahikas that are steeped in ignorance, should be avoided. Verse (VIII.30.40).[14] ....'How can one go to heaven, having drunk milk in the town called Yugandhara, and resided in the place called Achyutasthala, and bathed in the spot called Bhutilaya?

References

  1. Buddha Prakash, Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab, p. 110.
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.57
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.57
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.57
  5. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.55
  6. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.56
  7. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.57
  8. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.57
  9. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Tribes,p.143
  10. चंद्रव्याकरण 11,4,103: उदुम्बरास्तिलखला मद्रकारा युगन्धरा । भूलिंगा शरदण्डाश्च साल्वावयव संज्ञिता: ।। Buddha Prakash connects Yugandhara with modern Jagadhari in Punjab: Buddha Prakash, Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab, p. 110.
  11. सन्ति रम्या जनपथा बह्व अन्नाः परितः कुरून, पाञ्चालाश चेथिमत्स्याश च शूरसेनाः पटच्चराः, दशार्णा नव राष्ट्रं च मल्लाः शाल्व युगंधराः (IV.1.9)
  12. पाञ्चालाः कौशिकाश चैव एकपृष्ठा युगंधराः, सौधा मद्रा भुजिङ्गाश च काशयॊ ऽपरकाशयः (VI.10.40)
  13. पुत्र संकरिणॊ जाल्माः सर्वान नक्षीर भॊजनाः, आरट्टा नाम बाह्लीका वर्जनीया विपश्चिता (VIII.30.40)
  14. युगं धरे पयः पीत्वा परॊष्य चाप्य अच्युतस्थले, तथ्वथ भूतिलये सनात्वा कदं सवर्गं गमिष्यति (VIII.30.40)

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